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Mar.xiv.68. I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest.
25. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of
One of the servants of the High Priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did I not see thee in the garden with him?
Peter then denied again.
Mar.xiv.68. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew;
An objection to the words of this passage has been raised,
The Jewish doctors distinguish the cock crowing into the first, second, and third. The first was called, -the second, ww-when he repeats it. The third, www—when he does it the third time, as in Mark xiii. 35–12. Luke xii. 38. This custom was observed also by Heathen nations. According to St. John xiii. 38. St. Luke xxii. 34. and St. Matthew xxvi. 34. Our Saviour predicts the cock shall not crow; that is, shall not have finished his crowing, before thou deny me thrice. Lightfoot (c) reconciles the words of these three evangelists with those of St. Mark, by suggesting, that as the hour approached when the event was to take place, our Saviour specifies more particularly the time, and says, Mark xiv. 72. "Verily I say unto thee, that this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice." Pilkington supposes, that the words, the cock shall not crow before thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me, should be taken literally, signifying that the cock should not crow at all before thou shalt thrice deny me; and he concludes, there is a double signification attached to these separate predictions, and a double accomplishment of them. He argues, according to
MATT. XXVI. part of ver. 69, 70.
69 and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou also wast with Jesus
70 But he denied
St. John's Gospel, that these words were primarily fulfilled by
St. John having thus shewn the accomplishment of these words of our Lord, takes no notice of any other of Peter's denials, but of these three only, which were made at the fire, whereas the other Evangelists take notice of several denials, made after these; and so shew us the propriety of that other expression, "Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice." They consider the several particular denials at the fire made at the same time, and in the same place, only as one general denial: and so St. Mark tells us, that, after Peter had denied at the fire, and was gone out into the porch, the cock crew the first time; and this appears to be the same crowing which St. John speaks of, as immediately succeeding Peter's three several denials of his Master there.
The second general denial was made in the porch. This evidently appears from the accounts both of St. Matthew and St. Mark. And, from what is related, we must conclude, that the denial there was not single, but that many then charged him together (as they had done before, and as we may easily imagine they would do, in such a riotous assembly), and that he again there denied to them all. For St. Luke tells us, that a man charged him, and said, "Thou art one of them;" and he replied, and said, "Man, I am not." St. Mark, that he denied what a maid was insinuating, "that he was one of them:" and St. Matthew, that "he denied with an oath, I do not know the man," upon a maid's affirming that he was with Jesus of Nazareth.
The place of the third general denial is not specified, any farther than that it was in the same room or court where Jesus was, who "turned and looked upon Peter." The time of it is said, by St. Mark, to have been a little after the second (μɛrà μupòv). St. Matthew makes use of the same expression; and St. Luke particularly mentions, that it was "about the space of one hour after." This also appears to have been a general accusation, and so must have been a general denial; for though St. Luke only mentions one man's charging Peter at this time, yet St. Matthew and St. Mark tell us, that they that stood by charged him with being a Galilean, and a disciple of Christ, and that in such a pressing manner, that he began to curse and to swear he did not know the man." And upon this St. Mark tells us, that "the cock crew a second time:" before which Peter had
After Midnight-Peter's second Denial of Christ, at the
MATT. XXVI. 71, 72. MARK xiv. 69. part of ver. 70.
And when he was gone out into the porch,
Lu. xxii.58. after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art
one of them.
Mt. xxvi.71. And another maid saw him,
Mar. xiv.69. and began to say to them that stood by,
Mt. xxvi.71. This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth;
And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the
MATT. XXVI. part of ver. 71.
71 -and said unto them that were there—
MARK XIV. part of ver. 69, 70.
69 And a maid saw him again
70 And he denied it again.
Friday, the Day of the Crucifixion-Time about three in
MATT. XXVI. 73-75.
MARK XIV. 70-72.
And about the space of one hour after, another confidenied" Christ at three several times, and in three several places;" and so had remarkably fulfilled the second signification of the prediction, "Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice."
If it shall appear that there is nothing forced or misrepre-
(a) Bava Kama, c. vii. Hal. ult. Dwipa bwana pbuɔɔ¬n pbr
E nonnunquam venit tempore gallicinii, vel circa.
Lu. xxii. 60.
dently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was Jerusalem. with him, for he is a Galilean".
And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest.
Mar.xiv.70. And they that stood by, said again to Peter,
Mt.xxvi.73. Surely thou also art one of them,
Mar. xiv.70. for thou art a Galilean: and thy speech agreeth thereto,
74. Then began he to curse and to swear, saying, I know
Mar.xiv.71. I know not this man of whom ye speak.
Lu. xxii. 60. And immediately while he yet spake, the cock crew;
Lu. xxii. 61.
And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter; and
Mar.xiv.72. Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.
Mt.xxvi.75. he went out and wept bitterly.
MATT. XXVI. part of ver. 73, 74, 75.
73 And after a while came unto him they that stood by, and said to Peter
74-And immediately the cock crew
75 And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said unto
70 And a little after-Surely thou art one of them-
72-And Peter called to mind the word which Jesus said
9 Pfeiffer, in the last treatise of his Dubia Vexata, endeavours to prove that the common dialect, both of Galilee and Judea, was not Hebrew, but Syro-Chaldaic, or Aramaic, mixed with Greek, and that they differed only in accent and pronunciation. The learned men, of both countries, understood and conversed in pure Hebrew. The Galilean dialect consisted in a corrupt and confused pronunciation of the common Syro-Chaldaic; and this dialect was the vernacular language of the Apostle.
According to Lightfoot, y for x (which change indeed is frequent in the Aramaic dialect, and by no means peculiar to the Galilean,) for a, n for, and they also frequently changed the gutturals. Among other instances of the effects of these changes, he mentions the following amusing circumstance:-A certain woman intended to say to the judge, My Lord, I had a picture, which they stole, and it was so great, that if you had been placed in it, your feet would not have touched the ground. But her words, from the dialect she used, admitted this interpretation-Sir Slave, I had a beam, and they stole thee away; and it was so great, that if they had hung thee on it, thy feet. would not have touched the ground.
Schoetgen (a), among others, mentions, Brescith Rabba, sect. xxvi. fol. 26. 3. *** pring xbbaa In Galilæa serpentem, qui alias n dicitur, vocant * ut pro пsurpat 8.
Horne and Pfeiffer, as well as the two last mentioned authori ties, have collected similar instances.
(a) Schoetgen, vol. i. p. 235.
Mark xv. 1.
Christ is taken before the Sanhedrim, and condemned.
to the end.
And straightway in the morning,
Lu.xxii. 66, as soon as it was day,
Mark xv. 1. the Chief Priests held a consultation with the elders
Mark xv. 1. and the Scribes, and the whole council,
Mat.xxvii.1. [and] took counsel against Jesus to put him to death.
And he said unto
And if I also ask you, you will not answer me, nor let
Hereafter shall the Son of Man sit on the right hand of
Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God?
And they said, What need we any further witness? for
1 When the morning was come, all the Chief Priests and elders
LUKE Xxii. part of ver. 66.
66 the elders of the people, and the Chief Priests, and the Scribes came together
Judas declares the Innocence of Christ".
MATT. xxvii. 3-10.
Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the Chief Priests and elders,
Saying, I have sinned, in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that.
And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and hanged himself".
10 I am induced to place this section here, because it does not appear that the Sanhedrim returned to their council chamber in the temple after our Lord had been condemned by Pilate, and we must therefore refer the repentance of Judas to his condemnation by the Sanhedrim in the temple.
11 The account of the death of Judas is attended with some difficulty. The manner in which Weston reconciles St. Matthew and St. Luke, seems to be the most preferable. St. Matthew says, άnnycaro, "he hanged himself," and St. Luke that he πρηvǹs yevóμɛvoç, falling headlong, as we have translated it,