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Mtxxvii.53. And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and Jerusalem.
went into the holy city, and appeared unto many,
the Sepulchre, and find the Stone rolled away.
ver. 1. Mark xvi. 3. And they said among themselves,
2. at the rising of the sạn
the rich and the poor opened to the gaze of the astonished
The veil which bides the future world from the intrusion of
ja) Grotius apud Bowyer's Critical Conjectures, p. 132. (b) Bresçith Rabba, sect. xcvi, fol. 93, 4, and Schemoth Rabba, sect. xxxii. fol, 131. 2, ap. Schoetgen, Horæ Hebraicæ, vol. i. p. 237. (c) Sohar Cbadasch, fol. 45. 1. ubi de Messia sermo est, quod tempore Jubilæi veas turus sit, quando bucoina clangent: Et a clangore, et sonitu buccinaram evigilabunt Patres nostri in medio speluncæ, *77172 ppbnd" et sur. gent in spiritu, et venient ad eos, ap Schoetgen. (d) In the uppub. lished papers of Lord Barrington, in a letter to Dr. Lardner, I'fiod some very curious and original ideas on this subject.
10 I have adopted the emendation of text in this passage proposed by Mr. Cranfield, after a careful consideration of the reasoning of Archbishop Newcome and Dr. Bensun. The text requires only to be pointed differently, and without any alteration of the Greck Vulgate text, the whole passage is made consistent. The original reads thus; ver. 2. diay apwi ras pias σαββάτων έρχονται επί το μνημείον, ανατείλαντος του ηλίου, νer.
Mark xvi. 3. Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the Jerusalem.
3. και έλεγον προς κ.τ.λ. If we place a period at μνημείον, and
3. And they said to each other,
3. Who shall roll away, &c.
I shall subjoin Mr. Cranfield's remarks on tbo criticisms
Another way proposed to remedy the difficulty is, that epxov-
Mark xvi. 4. And when they looked, they saw that the stone was Jerasalen.
rolled away": for it was very great. John »x. 1. and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.
JOHN XX. 2.
the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them,
Magdalene, enter the Porch of the Sepulchre, and see
MATT. xxvii. 5–8. MARK xvi. 5-8.
a period or full stop immediately after the word pynuciov. This
.-(6) Bishop Newcome's
" Looking up they saw with surprize Dewpãow, that the stone was rolled away, iv ydp péyas opódpa, “ for it was very great." This was the cause of their surprize. --See Bowyer, p. 181.
19 The distance of the holy sepulchre from Jerusalem was not one mile. It is necessary to remember this fact, to account for 'the rapid going and coming of the agitated and anxious followers of Christ.
Mary Magdalene, as soon as she discovers the stone is rolled away, leaves her companions, without approaching to examine the sepulcbre, to inform Peter and St. John of this unexpected occurrence; no doubt hoping to receive some explanation from them, or to have the benefit of their exertions in this unlooked for event.
Other difficulties in the account of the resurrection arise from our not sufliciently understanding the form of the sepulchres whicb were used by the Jews.
The form of the sepulchres among the Jews is thus prescribed by the Rabbis (a)-He that selleth his neighbour a place of burial, and he that takes of bis neighbour a place of burial, let him make the inner parts of the cave four cubits, and six cubits; and let him open within it rana 'n eight sepulcbres. They were accustomed, says the gloss, to bury the same family in the same cave; whence if any one sold his neighbour a place for burial, be sells him room for two caves, and a floor in the middle. fia is the very place where tbe body is laid.
Mark zvi.6. sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; Jerusalem.
and they were affrighted.
It cannot however be supposed, that every person who might wish to purchase a burial place, if he desired it for himself alone, was compelled to conform to this law. It will be observed, that nothing is said of Joseph of Arimathea, requiring this sepulchre for bis family, it seems indeed to have been peculiarly bis own for his own use.
The Rabbins (says Dr. Townson) prescribe that a Hebrew sepulchre should have a court before it, through which you are to pass to the door that leads into the cave or proper place of sepulture. They direct the court to be made six cubits, or nine feet square (b).
There is an area or portico of the prescribed dimensions before that which is now called the holy sepulcbre, and which seems not ill entitled to the name which it has long borne. For though in the reign of the Emperor Adrian the sepulchre of Christ was buried under a vast mount of earth, and on this mount was set up an object of Pagan worship in despite to the Christians, yet the place was pointed out to them by these very signs of idolatry standing over it; and when this mountain of earth, with all that had been erected over it, was about two centuries after cleared away, by order of Constantine the Great, then, as Eusebius expresses it, “ the cave, the Holy of Holies, obtained a similitude of our Saviour's resurrection;" which words allude not only to the burial and resurrection of the blessed body that had lain in this sepulchre, but also to the form of the Jewish sanctuary. For the title of Holy of Holies given to the cave imports, that it had a boly place before it, and was divided in two, like tbe sanctuary. It is therefore an indi. rect testimony of Eusebius, a native of Palestine, where he lived many years, concerning the platform of our Lord's sepulchre.
Let us now examine the form of it by the Evangelists. St. Matthew tells us that the angel “rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it” (Matt. xxviii. 2.); St. Mark, that the women saw-tbis angel, or“ young man clothed in a long white garment (xvi. 5.) sitting on the right side." But tbey did not perceive bim till they were entered into the sepulchre. He had therefore not rolled the stone out of it, but to one side of it; yet he had rolled it from the door. The door therefore was in a partition that divided the sepulchre in two; and the whole of the inward division was not visible to those who stood in the outer. The angel said to the women, “ Come, see the place where the Lord lay.” (Matt. xxviii. 6.) They were therefore standing where they did not command a sight of that place: yet they were within the sepulchre ; for as soon as he had tinished his speech to them, they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre. Mark xvi. 8. So St. Mark says; and so also St. Matthew rightly understood; for his words are," they departed quickly from the sepulchre.” Matt. xxviii. 8. 'means evidently they departed quickly out of the sepulchre ; as the same mode of expression is translated in other passages. Thus the real, as the reputed sepulchre, consisted of a place of sepulture, and an inclosed court or area, as did ofien the sepulchres of the Greeks. Mvnua, or uvnpelov, is the general name given by the Evangelists to the tomb; but rapos is the word used by St. Matthew. The uvnjegov, or whole of the sepulchre, consisted of the tápoc, or place where the body was deposited, and the océan, or outer court(c).
Mt.xxviii.5._But the angel answered and said unto the women, Jerusalen.
Fear not ye :
near, see the place where the Lord lay, Mark xvi.6. behold the place where they laid him.
7. But go your way,
him, as he said unto you. Mt.xxviii.7. lo, I have told you.
The sepulchre is called in the original Moema, or Moemeion, by all the evangelists : but St. Matthew has besides another word on this occasion in Greek, Taphos; and his use of this word carries such marks of discrimination ; and he is so little apt to deal in a variety of terms, when one will precisely answer his intent, that it may be justly concluded, that St. Mattbew employs two words, because one of them sometimes expresses his meaning more exactly than the other, and that they are distinct in bis acceptation of them, as much as with us a church and its chancel. What was in the Taphos was within the Moemeion ; but what was in the Mnemeion was not therefore within the Taphos. The Jewish rulers, who would take what they judged the most certain measures to retain the body of Christ in their possession, requested a guard for the Taphos. (Matt. xxvü.64.) The Taphos they secured by sealing the stone. (ver. 66.) The two Maries sat over against the Tapbos on Friday evening. (ver, 61.) The women went to visit the Taphos, as the great object of their care, early on Saturday morning. (Matt. xxviji. 1.) In this therefore the body had been laid ; but because they had not been in it, when they saw the angel, and as soon as he had done speaking to them fled away, they are said to have “ departed quickly out of the Mnemeion." (ver. 8.) Now if the two words are of different application in St. Matthew, it is plain there was a difference in the places to which they are applied.
Mr. Cranfield objects to this opinion of Dr. Townson, that the angel appeared to the first party of women, in the outer court, sitting on the stone, on the right side. He endeavours to prove at some length, that the angel was within, in the inner part of the tomb. As this question, however, does not appear of much importance to the history, I shall merely refer to the discussion of the point-it will be found in p. 32, observations on section ii.
(a) Bava Bathra, cap. vi. bal. ult ap Lightfoot, Chorog. Centary, Works, vol. ii. p. 89, 90. Dr. Bright's edition. (6) Nicolai de Sepulchris Hebræorum, lib. iii. cap. ii. p. 178. (c) Potter's Antiqnities, vol. ii. book iv. chap. vii. p. 221, third edition, (d) The inner part of the μνημείον was also called μνημείον, thus και το μνημείον το τα Aúvēså aútóparov ávoixdev *, a phrase which evidently restrains uynpetov to the sigoification of nothing more than the mere tomb, in wbich the body of Augustus was laid.
• Xiphilini Epitome Dionis, p. 323, ap Cranfield.