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And if this come to the Governor's ears, we will per- Jerusalem. suade him, and secure you.
So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day.
The second party of Women from Galilee, who had bought
LUKE XXIV. 1—3.
Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre ", bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.
And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre. sleep had seized them when they had been placed here for one night only, for the special purpose of securing the very tomb which was thus profaned! But it was in this instance, as it is in the general conduct of men. Reasoning, which would disgrace an idiot, or an infant, in the common occurrences of life, is amply sufficient to excuse us to ourselves, for denying or disbelieving the solemn truths of Christianity.
23 The reasons which have induced West, Townson, Cranfield, Doddridge, Horsley, Newcome, Gleig, Pilkington, and I believe every writer since the time of West, to conclude that two parties of women came to the sepulchre at different times, have been already noticed. At present let us inquire, according to this hypothesis, when the second company arrived at the tomb; whether between the two visits of Mary Magdalene to it, or after the second. For the following reasons, their arrival seems rightly placed after she left the sepulchre the second time: It is certain that no one was there earlier than she was, and therefore they who did accompany her, but made a distinct visit thither, and, as the case requires, neither saw her nor her friends, nor was seen by them, must have come during her absence. Her first absence was when she ran to tell Peter and John but then she left the other Mary and Salome behind; who went into the sepulchre, and saw and heard the angel. When they were fled away, came the two apostles; and these were followed by Mary Magdalene returning. The time, therefore, between the departure of the other Mary and Salome from the sepulchre, and the coming of John and Peter to it, seems too short an interval for the arrival and departure of the other women in such manner, that both parties might keep clear of all sight of each other. And the more we prolong this interval, the less probable we make it that Mary Magdalenc, after she had seen the Lord, should have rejoined her two friends, when he showed himself to them also. And yet it appears so much the sense of St. Matthew, and I think of St. John, that she was with them, that it is a point by which we ought to abide, unless there are cogent reasons to the contrary. As I am not aware of any such, I espouse the opinion which seems the most likely, that Mary was gone the second time from the sepulchre, before Joanna and her company got to it.
La. xxiv. 3.
And they entered in, and found not the body of the Jerusalem Lord Jesus.
Two Angels appear to them also, assuring them that Christ
And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed
And, as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?
He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee,
Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.
And they remembered his words,
And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest ".
24 A great difficulty has been found in this passage of St. Luke xxiv. 9, 10. by those commentators who consider the 10th verse to be explanatory of the preceding verse. The five verses preceding the ninth give an account of the appearance and speech of the angels to the women of whom St. Luke bas been speaking. The ninth informs us that these women came and reported all "these things" to the apostles, and all the disciples. The tenth is supposed to be explanatory of the ninth; and therefore that the women named in it had been at the sepulchre together, had there seen the vision of the angels, and then had come as one company to the apostles and all the disciples.
On a larger view however of this history, another construction may be judged necessary.
Gerhard (a), Benson (b), Macknight (c), Lardner (d), Pilkington (e), and Doddridge (f), have all concluded that "these things are to be taken distributively; that Mary Magdalene reported some things, and the other women reported the rest. They believe that though St. Luke has, in the tenth verse, put the whole account of what the women related together, that the Evangelist refers to that which was related by Mary Magdalene, as well as by the second party of women.
The evidences of the resurrection, then, which the women could produce, were these:
1. The appearance of the angel to Mary the mother of Josesof two to Mary Magdalene-of Christ to Mary Magdalene-bis second appearance to the women-the two angels who stood by the women, when they had been in the tomb, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.
It will be observed, from this statement, that each of the women had something different to relate. The expression of St. Luke, "these things," must be referred to the various collected reports they had all brought. The expression therefore in the ninth verse, ἀπήγγειλαν ταῦτα πάντα, must refer tu
Mary Magdalene unites her testimony to that of the Gali-
It was Mary Magdalene,
And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept.
Lu. xxiv.10. and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and other women that were with him, which told these things unto the apostles.
The Apostles are still incredulous.
And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and
And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not.
Peter goes again to the Sepulchre.
LUKE XXIV. 12.
Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre, and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves.
the report of Joanna, whose account he had been immediately
(a) Harmon. Histor. Evangel. de Resurrectione Christi, cap. i. p.
25 I have not discussed the question whether the 16th of Mark, after ver. 9, is genuine. It is certainly omitted in many manuscripts of great authority, or it is marked with an asterisk, or separated from the preceding part of the Gospel. It relates nothing inconsistent with the accounts of the other Evangelists, and appears to have been drawn up as an epitome of the various appearances of our Lord.
Mr. Cranfield has laboured much to prove that this verse refers to the first visit of St. Peter mentioned by St. John. Dr. Townson, on the contrary, has defended the present order of St. Luke, and concludes that the Evangelist here relates the second visit of St. Peter to the sepulchre, when our Lord manifested himself to him. It is certain that Christ appeared to Peter about this time; for when the two disciples came from Emmaus to the other disciples, this very circumstance was the subject of their conversation. This fact is further confirmed by St. Paul, 1 Cor. xv. 5. He was afterwards seen by the other apostles.
Christ appears to St. Peter.
LUKE XXIV. 12.
And [Peter] departed, wondering in himself at that Jerusalem. which was come to pass 26
Christ appears to Cleophas, and another Disciple, going
MARK XVI. 12. LUKE XXIV. 13-32.
After that he appeared in another form, unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.
Lu.xxiv.13, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs, And they talked together of all these things which had happened.
And it came to pass, that while they communed and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.
26 I have placed this clause by itself, as it was most pro bably on his return from the sepulchre, after he had received the accounts of the women, that our Lord appeared to St. Peter. His desire to see our Lord, and perhaps to implore his forgiveness, as well as that characteristic eagerness and ardour, by which he was on all occasions distinguished, excited in him the desire to make his second visit to the sepulchre, to examine it, to be again convinced that the body was removed; and in the hopes of meeting our Lord, if Christ would condescend to meet him. Cranfield very beautifully observes, St. Peter had denied his Master, and had his Master shewed himself to any other of the men, before he shewed himself to him, might not he have thought his repentance ineffectual, his reconciliation impossible, and consequently been plunged into despair? Though his fall was attended with inconceivable aggravation, yet the magnanimity and mercy of his Saviour was still greater, and knew no bounds.
These sections are arranged in their present order upon the concurrent testimony of all the harmonizers, as well as the internal evidence. Every thing recorded in them affords a new source of wonder. Christ, in his glorified form, passes through the folded or barred up doors, as if his body were like the light, or the air, and yet he appeals to his disciples to satisfy themselves that he was not a spirit, but possessed of material and solid flesh. We are assured that with this same body he ascended into another state, and that our bodies shall be made like his at the day of the resurrection. (Philip. iv. ad fin (a.)
(a) See Kninoel, where the different opinions concerning the body of Christ, are briefly summed up. See also Bishop Horsley's Sermons on the Resurrection, sermon fourth. I am contented with the facts of Scripture, and dare not indulge in the various conjectures which present themselves on these subjects. The reader who is fond of such speculations on these points, may peruse the works of King, (Morsels of Criticism,) More, Fleming, Flavel (on the Soul,) Thomas Aquinas Prima Pars, Question 50, to the end of Question 65, where he will find the most strange and fantastical reveries that ever entered the imagina tion of a human being.
But their eyes were holden, that they should not know Jerusalem. him.
17. And he said unto them, What manner of communica-
And one of them, whose name was Cleophas; answering, said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Israel, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?
And he said unto them, What things? And they said, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet, mighty in deed and word before God and all the people: And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him.
But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to-day is the third day since these things were done.
Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre ;
And when they found not his body, they came, saying, That they had seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.
And certain of them which were with us went to the
25. Then he said unto them, O fools and slow of heart to
Ought not Christ to have suffered all these things, and to enter into his glory?
And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself 28.
28 This desponding sentiment, "We trusted that it had been he that should have redeemed Israel," &c. &c. must have been the general opinion of our Lord's disciples. All their hopes were buried with him in the sepulchre. They thought it impossible that he whom they had lately seen bleeding, and expiring on the cross, "the very scorn of men, and the outcast of the people," should by his own power break the bands of death, and rise again in greater beauty and perfection, “ For as yet they knew not the Scriptures."
The Scriptures assert, that it behoved Christ to suffer. In the law, by the offering up of Isaac-in the brazen serpent-in the sacrifice of the animals, particularly in the paschal lamb. In the prophets. Isaiah liii. 5. 7, 8.2. Daniel's prophecy; Dan. ix. 25, 26. the Messiah shall be cut off.-3. Zech. xii. 10. they shall look on me whom they have pierced. In the Psalms; Ps. ii. 1-3. xx. 1-18. xvi. 9, 10. thine Holy One to see corruption.
It was intimated that he should rise again the third dayIsaac the third day was released-sacrifices eaten the third day. The resurrection does not seem to be alluded to in the prophets, except in the type of Jonah, and in Isa. liii. and