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Lokeis. 4. And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, that The Wil

man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of derness.

Matt. iv. 4. that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.

5. Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and Jerusalem.

setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple,
6. And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast

thyself down Luke iv. 9. from hence :

For it is written, He shall give his angels charge over

thee, to keep thee:
11. And in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any

time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

And Jesus answering said unto him,
Matt. iv.7. It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy

8. Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high Quaran-

mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the tania.

world, and the glory of them; Lekein, 5. in a moment of time $.

ותתאה האחרון ,superior est Deus primus עילאה ה רשון .David inferior

braicæ, vol. ii. p. 271. (f) In vol. i. p. 670, of the Horæ Hebraicæ-
Nomina illa duo Jndæis sunt familiaria. Nam Adamus primns semper

ubique , . .
fol. 14. col. 53. Quum nondum consummati essent septem ordines
diernm superiorum, nondum absolutus erat xboys 7x Adam supernus.
Cum absolveretur xbeyb superius, dictus est axby OTR Adam superior:
cum absolveretur inferius, dictus est axon D7X. Et quem admodum,
postquam omnia absoluta sunt, Adamus inferior dominator omnibus
quæcunque in Mundo creata sunt, sic Adam superior *ba sy oow,
omnibus omnino rebus dominatur. Schoetgen. Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 672.
Jalhut Rubeni, fol. 147. 3. nann 7777 Xboy 777 David superior et

. ,
et inferior est Dens postremas. Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 673. In another
passage of one of the Talmudical writings wc read that since the first Adam
was in the transgression, the Messiah will be the last Adam to take
away sin. Neve Schalom, fol. 160. 2. citante Edzardo ad Berachoth,
c. 1. p. 176 apad Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 671. In the commentary on Pro-
verbs xxx. 4. we read- What is his name—the Heavenly Adam, or the
Adam from above-and what is his Son's name, the earthly Adam, the
Adam from below. Zobar ad Genes. xxxix. 2. In the hour in which Adam
received the celestial image, all creatures came to him, and acknow-
ledged him king of the earth. Jalbut. Rubeni, fol. 21. i. Schoetgen.
vol. i. p. 673.1xby napr72 7x ringt 'nYV:—He was with the wild
beasts. There is much curious matter also of a similar nature on those
words of St. Paul, 1 Cor. xv. 49. εικόνα τη χοϊκά, Εικόνα το επερανία
-As we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the
image of the heavenly. Schoetgen. Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 653.

52 Those who reject the literal interpretation of the account
of our Lord's temptation, have laid great weight on this phrase,
“in a moment of time," tv suyun xpóve, as demonstrating the
whole scene to be a vision. The real state of the case seems,
however, to be, that the tempter conveyed, or took, or accom-
panied, our Lord to the mountain, and showing him in a mo-
ment of time the kingdoms of Judea, which were then before
him, suggested to him at the same moment the superior glory of all
the other governments and dominions of the earth, the greatest


Luke iv. 6. And the devil said unto him,

QuaranMatt. iv.9. And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee,

tania. Lake iv.6. All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them :

for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will

I give it.

7. If thou therefore wilt worship me, Matt. iv. 9. if thou wilt fall down and worship me, Lake iv. 7. all shall be thine.

8. And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee

behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship

the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. Matt, iv.11.

Then the devil leaveth him,
Luke iv. 13. And when the devil * had ended all the temptation, he

departed from him for a season.
of which_(the Roman empire,) was then at the height of its
power. Bishop Porteus remarks on this passage, that Abbe
Mariti describing this mountain, speaks of it as extremely high,
and commanding the most beautiful prospect imaginable. It
overlooks the mountains of Arabia, the country of Gilead, the
country of the Ammonites, the plains of Moab, the plain of Je-
richo, the river Jordan, and the whole extent of the Dead Sea.
These various domains the Tempter might sbew to our Lord
distinctly, and might also at the same time point out, (for so the
original word sometimes signifies,) and direct our Lord's eye
towards several other regions that lay beyond them, which
might comprehend all the principal kingdoms of the eastern
world. According to tradition, the mountain on which our
Saviour was tempted is called Quarantania.-Maundrell de-
scribes it as exceedingly high, and difficult of ascent, having a
small chapel at the top, and another about half way up, on a
prominent part of a rock. Near this latter are several caves
and boles, originally used by hermits, and by some even of this
day, during the period of Lent, in imitation of the example of
our blessed Saviour. The words of the Evangelists are so
clear and distinct, in their account of this transaction, and it
was so evidently a premeditated scheme on the part of Satan,
availing himself of the first symptom of human weakness, be-
ginning his attack at the moment that our Saviour “was an
hungered;" that, had we no other evidence, there can be no
reasonable grounds for considering the temptation in any other
point of view than as a real contest.

The temptation of Christ, as well as that of our first parents,
must be considered as a real scene. We are not justified in
making our present experience the criterion of truth, and re-
jecting the positive testimony of Revelation, on account of
theoretical difficulties. The whole question concerning the
origin and continuance of evil is involved in insuperable mys-
tery. But we may with as much propriety deny the origin of
evil, as refuse to believe in its remedy: which it cannot be
irrational to conclude would be, in some manner, correspondent
to the disease. Till the next stage of our being has developed
the unrevealed mysteries of the Deity who made mankind, we
must be contented, like obedient children, to believe much that
we cannot yet understand.

63 The Evil Spirit in this temptation is called by the three names, which unitedly characterise him as the destroyer of man. He is at once their enemy (Saravās), their accuser (o Alafolos), and their tempter (ο πειράζων).

Mark i. 13. And he was with the wild beasts ; and the angels mi- Quaran

tania. nistered unto him. Matt.iv. 11. and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him”.

54 In this bistory of the temptation, St. Matthew's order is, 1. Command that these stones be made bread. 2. Cast thyself down from the temple. 3. I will give thee all thou seest from this bigh mountain, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.-St. Luke's order is, the first temptation the same as St. Matthew; the third temptation is placed by him for the second, and the second for the third. But St. Luke does not affirm this order. He has only.xai ávayaywv, v. 5. and kai nyayev, v. 9. Whereas St. Matthew uses particles, which seem to fix his order; as, Tóte v.5 and #adiv, v. 8. Le Clerc says, Hoc repugnantia haberi non potest, cum neuter evangelistarum profiteatur se 'hâc in se ordinem temporis accurate secutum. Newcome's Notes to his Harmony, p. 6 fol. edit. Dublin. 1778.

Possibly the reason of the difference in the order of the account of the temptations given us in these two Evangelists, may be in some measure ascertained from a consideration of the respective causes for which they originally composed their Gospels. Bt. Matthew wrote for the Jews of Judea. The title of king was the most usual name given to the Messiah by the Jews. Vulgatissimum est hoc nomen Messiæ, quem Judæi ubique vocant, newran 753, says Schoetgenius. Horæ Hebr. vol. i. p. 13. and instances abound through his book. But he was not only considered as king of Israel, but king over all the world. Thus we read (Zohar Genes. fol. 128. col. 509. ad verba, Genes. xlix. 11. ex versione Sommeri, p. 96, apud Schoetgen. vol. ii. p. 688-9.) So the king Messias will shew favour to 13rael, but he will be a terror to all people who profess not the true religion. St. Matthew, therefore, seems to point out to bis Jewish readers, that Jesus, who was the true spiritual Messiah, first conquered all desire for the luxuries of Hfe--He then refused to declare himself by any useless though stupendous miracle, the expected king of Israel, by proving himself, at an unfit time, and in an unsuitable manner, the Messiah they expected: for his course was that of toil and suffering, of neglected and lowly poverty and scorn, till the time came for the establishment of his spiritual kingdom. In repulsing the third temptation, he shewed his contempt of all worldly power, and wisdom, and dis. tinction, till the promised period when the converted Heathen should be given him for his spiritual inheritance, and the utmost parts of the earth for his spiritual possession. The Evangelist thus preserves the climax. Ho ascends from one gradation of virtue to another, and shews how our Lord, by resisting the tempter, attained to that height of excellence which ought to impress the mind with the greatest veneration.

št. Like wrote for the Gentiles of Achaia. He places before them the same triumph of Christ, and teaches the same doctrine; that he conquered the desire of the pleasures of this life, the love of temporal dominion over the world at large, and all the dazzling glories and triumphs to which that dominion led. But he teaches this doctrine in tbe manner the most likely to impress the minds of his Gentile readers; for which purpose he changes the order to preserve the appropriate climax, and the gradation of the power of the temptation. Christ conquered the desires of the appetite: this was the first temptation. In the second he was offered that which the Gențilos esteemed the highest point of human happiness, universal dominion over all

MATT. iv, 1. and part of ver. 4. 6. 7. 10.
I Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness.


the kingdoms of the world. And, lastly, he was invited to throw
himself from the pinnacle of the temple, and to receive at once
all those divine honours which the Heathen paid to their gods,
for such a demonstration of divine power would have been immor.
talized, and would have placed him above all their other deitics.
It is well known in what high estimation temporal ambition
and sovereignty were at that time held by the unconverted Pa.
gans. The well known compliments which Horace, in various
passages, pays to Augustus-

Quos inter Augustus recumbens
Purpurco bibit ore nectar.

Carm, lib, iji. Od. 35.

or the

Præsens divus babebitur
Augustus, &c. &c.

Carm. lib. iii. Od. 5.
were not merely expressions of flattery which had only a highly
courtly meaning: but they may be considered as con veying the
real opinion which the Heathen world entertained of those who
obtained universal empire; they esteemed such as gods, and
actually, as all ancient history proves, paid them homage, and
offered sacrifices to them, and to their statues, as to Gods. St.
Luke, therefore, represents our Lord, not only as rejecting the
sovereignty over the world, but as refusing to obtain, by a mere
exertion of his power, all the glittering homage, and flattering
pomp, attendant on such an elevation. This, in the opinion of
a Heathen, would be the highest test of virtue. The inference
in both instances would be the same; he who performed all the
great works recorded in the Evangelists, alike contemned and
declined those objects, which, in the opinion of both Jew or
Gentile, were the most highly to be prized and valued. From
the narrative of the temptation they would learn that Christ
was the Lord and giver of grcater and more estimable blessings
than the luxuries, the honours or the most enviable distinc.
tions and advantages of this life. They would infer that his
kingdom was a spiritual kingdom, and to be obtained at the
sacrifice of all worldly enjoyments. With him tho brightest
jewels of a diadem were repentance and faith-the highest
honours a broken and contrite beart-and his greatest glory
to do the will of his Father who was in heaven, and to re-
ceive the submission, the love, and affection of his subjects.

Thus will the accounts of the two Evangelists be reconciled. Both relate the same facts-both enforce the same doctrinethe order is different, because each considered the opinions and modes of thinking prevalent among those they addressed, and were anxious to impart the greatest weight to their doctrine,

It will be observed, that this interpretation is submitted to the reader, on the supposition that the popular interpretation of the Taoas taç baouleiaç Toũ koopov, (Matt. iv. 8.) be the correct reading; that it is rightly rendered, the kingdoms of this world, and that coosequently the corresponding phrase in St. Luke, ndoas rds baouleias rñs olkovnévns, (Luke iv. 5.) must have the same signification, and are not to be referred principally to the kingdoms into whicb Judea was at that time divided. The reading proposed by Michaelis in this passage appears conjectural, and Archbishop Lawrence has endeavoured to prove it

4 But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live Quaranby bread alone, but by every word

tania. 6 -for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning tbce: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

7 Jesus said unto him

10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan : for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

LUKE iv. part of ver. 2. 3. 5. 9. 2 -and when thoy were ended, he afterward hungered. 3 And the devil said unto him If thou be the Son of God

5 And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world

9 And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down.

unfounded. It is however so curious, that I shall append to this note both the remarks of the learned German, and the objections of his critic. The reader will then be able to decide.

Michaelis is labouring to prove that the Gospel of St. Matthew was composed in Hebrew, and derives one argument in support of his opinion, from Matt. iv. 8. The tempter conducts Christ to the top of a lofty mountain, and shews him ndoaç raç baouleias ToŨ koopov. If we take this in a literal sense, the thing is impossible: if it was a mere illusion, there was no pecessity for ascending a lofty mountain. Here then, it appears, that some word was used in the Hebrew original, which was capable of more than one translation : perhaps 3987, which signifies “ the land,” as well as the earth: or ban, which, as well as olkepévn, may denote the land of Palestine : or, thirdly, which is perhaps the most probable conjecture, it is not improbable that St. Matthew wrote *287 mgbron bo, that is, all the kingdoms of the Holy Land, and that the translator mistook 'ay for xax, which in the Septuagint is sometimes rendered by kóquos. It is even possible, as ay signifies literally beauty; and koguos has likewise this sense, that the translation in question was occasioned by a too literal adher. ence to the original. Now all the kingdoms which existed in Palestine in the time of Christ, could be seen from the top of Mount Nebo. St. Matthew, therefore, meant all the kingdoms of Palestine, which his translator converted into all the kingdoms of the world. Marsh's Michaelis, vol. iii. pt. 1. p. 155.

Archbishop Lawrence contends, however, that there is no adequate proof that the Gospel of St. Matthew was compiled in the Hebrew language, and that no arguments can, or ought to be, founded on conjectures of this nature. In reply to this remark of Michaelis, he observes that ay is only used for Palestine in four instances, three times by Daniel, and once by Jeremiah, and each time metapborically, as the pleasant or agreeable land; and that the seventy do not thus translate it either literally or metaphorically: and it is not likely that an appella. tion of this peculiar description would have been adopted in a plain narrative. Neither could kóduos, in the sense of “ the world," be put for xay, the proper meaning of which is an army, and which is only translated róquos by the LXX, when the host of heaven is mentioned ; or for ay, in its literal signi. fication of beauty, honour, and glory. But it is not necessary to interpret the word coguos, in the sense of “the world.” In Rom. iv. 13. the expression kanpovojov kórus, is interpreted by Beza, of the land of Canaan; and Glass, in his Philologia

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