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and in his own Epistles', as the best commentators agree; and so does St. James, and St. Paul", and the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
Papias conversed with the disciples of the apostles about the beginning of the second century. He speaks of the gospels of Matthew and Mark as extant, and written by them.
Justin Martyr, A. D. 150, mentions the Gospels as universally received and read in the congregations in his time. He must have conversed with Christians who were old men, and from them have learned that the Gospels were extant when they were young. Οι Απόστολοι (says he) εν τοις γενομένοις υπ' αυτων απομνημονεύμασιν, ά καλείται Ευαγγέλια, έτως παρέδωκαν.-Aid again, Τα απομνημονεύματα των 'Αποςόλων αναγινώσκεται. Αpol. 1. And his citations from the four Gospels, from the Epistles of St. Paul, and from the Revelation, show to a demonstration that he had them as we now have them, in the main.
In the interval between A. D. 70 and Justin, .are the authors called apostolical, as Clemens, Hermas, Barnabas, Ignatius. These authors make use of some of the Gospels and Epistles, and allude to them ; which makes them highly valuable, and serviceable to the Christian cause.
We cannot suppose that they had the inclination : we may positively affirm that they had not the capacity to forge them, Their own writings prove it.
I'But the end of all things is at hand.--The time is come, that judgment must begin at the house of God. And if it first begin with us, what will be the end of them that obey not the gospel of God? And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?' 1 Pet. iv. 7.
. Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for the miseries that shall come upon you.-Be patient, therefore, brethren, unto the coming of our Lord. For the coming of the Lord draweth nigh.-The Judge standeth before the door. James v. l.
n The Lord is at hand. Phil. iv. 5. • To fill up their sins always ; for wrath is come upon them to the uttermost.' i Thes. xi. 16. · The day of the Lord cometh as a thief in the night,' &c. 1 Thes. v. 2. The same event is also perhaps alluded to, 2 Thes. i. 6, &c. and 2 Thes, ii. 2, &c.
9. Ye have need of patience that-ye might receive the promise. For yet a little while, and he that shall come, will come,' &c. Heb. x. 36.
p Euseb. Eccl. Hist. iii. 39, sub finem.
Barnabas, in his Epistle, makes use of Matthew, Luke, John, and the Epistle to the Romans.
Clemens, in his first Epistle, makes mention of St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians, and takes passages from Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, Romans, 1 and 2 Cor. Philip. 1 Thes. Ephes. 1 and 2 of Peter, 1 Tim. 1 and 3 of John, Revel. and particularly from the Epistle to the Hebrews. He also speaks of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul.
In his second Epistle, if it be his, there are passages from Matthew, Luke, 1 Cor. and Hebr. Hermas says, i. 2.
i. 2. Juravit Dominus per Filium suum : Qui denegaverit filium et se--et ipsi denegaturi sunt illum' from Matt. x. 33.
1. 6. Cum ergo venerit tribulatio, propter divitias suas et negationes, abnegant Dominum'-from Matt. xiii. 21.
I. 9. Videte ergo vos qui gloriamini in divitiis, ne forte ingemiscant ii qui egent, et gemitus eorum ascendat ad Dominum'- from James v. 4. Ib. Qui amatis primos consessus ;' from Matt. xxiii
. 6. Melius erat illis non nasci'—from Matt. xxvi. 24,
II. Mand. v. “Spiritus sanctus, qui in te est, angustiabitur'- from Ephes. iv. 30.
Si resistis Diabolo, fugiet a te'--from James iv. 7. II. Mand. vi. Φοβήθητι τον Κύριον τον δυνάμενον σώσαι και atrodérar from James iv. 12.
Such references should have been marked in the editions of the Apostolical Fathers.
In the Apostolical Constitutions also, and in the Recognitions and the Homilies of Pseudo-Clemens there are many passages taken from the New Testament; but as these books are not so antient as they pretend to be, I pass them by for the present, and shall pay my respects to them in another place.
The numerous and large citations from the Lxx, and the New Testament, in the Constitutions, are however so far useful, that they help to show how those places stood in the copies of the fourth century, and perhaps somewhat earlier.
Ignatius, who, in his old age, suffered under Trajan, about A. D. 107, and who was contemporary with the apostles, in his genuine Epistles alludes to the Gospels of
Matthew, of Luke, and of John, Paul's first Epistle to the Corinthians, those to the Colossians, Galatians, Philippians, and Ephesians, the first Epistle of Peter, &c.
Besides the places which are referred to in the margin of the Patres Apostolici, I have observed several upon a cursory perusal, to which I am sensible more might be added.
Ignatius ad Ephes. μιμηται όντες Θε8-- front Ephes. V. 1. Ib. εν αίματι Θεέ-perhaps from Acts XX. 28.
Ib. τα υπέρ ημών εαυτόν ανενεγκόντος Θεώ προσφοραν και θυσίαν-from Ephes. V. 2.
Ib. ii. oναίμην υμων-from Philem. 20.
Ib. ν. ει γαρ ενος και δευτέρα προσευχή τουαύτην ισχύν έχει - perhaps from James v. 16, or Matt. xviii. 19, 20.
ib. ix. -λίθοι να& Πατρος –εις οικοδομών-from Ephes. Ib. xiii. τέλος δε αγάπη- from 1 Τim. 1. 5.
Ib. xiv. άμεινον έσιν σιωπάν και είναι, ή λαλέντα μη είναι καλον το διδάσκειν, εαν ο λέγων ποιη– from Matt. ν. 19. vii. 21.
Ib. XV. δεν λανθάνει τον Κύριον-perhaps from Ηeb. 1ν. 12, 13. or Revel. ii. 23. or some other places.
Ib. xvii. τ8 άρχοντος τ8 αιώνος τέτα-.-from John xiv. 30. and Ephes. i. 2.
Ib. μη αιχμαλωτίση υμάς- from Rom. vii. 23.
Ib. xxi. έσχατος ών των εκεί σιφων--.from 1 Cor. XV. 9, or Μatt. Xx. 26, 27.
Ib. xii. Ignatius takes notice of St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, and of his martyrdom: and as he was writing to the same church, he often alludes, as you see, to the apostle's letter.
Ad Magnes. 1. αγάπης, ής έδεν προκέκριται-from 1 Cor. xiii. 13.
Ib. iii. -νεωτερικών τάξιν--perhaps from 1 Τim. iv. 12.
Ib. vii...εί κατά νόμον ζωμεν, ομολογάμεν χάριν μη ειληφέναι--- from Galat. ν. 4.
Ib. Χ. υπέρθεσθε την κακήν ζύμην την παλαιωθείσαν---from 1 Cor. v. 7. - Ib. xiii. κατευοδωθήτε. ευοδέσθαι, a verb used in the New Testament.
Ad Trall. vi. μη φυσιουμένοις---2 word often used by St. Paul.
Ib. vii. μηδείς [τι] κατα τα αλησία εχέτω-.-from Matt.
Ib. X.-ώσπερ τινες-λέγεσι-έγω τί δέδεμαι και τι εύχομαι θηριομαχήσαι ; &c...-from 1 Cor. XV. 15. 32.
Ib. xi. ουκ εισίν φυτεία Πατρός-.-from Matt. Χν. 13. Ib. xii. ίνα μη αδόκιμος ευρεθω-from 1 Cor. ix. 27. Ad Roman. ii.-τε σπονδισθήναι Θεώ-from 2 Τim. iv. 6. Ib. ii. τα γαρ φαινόμενα πρόσκαιρα τα δε μη βλεπόμενα αιώνια-.-from 2 Cor. iv. 18.
Ib. vi. τί γαρ ωφελείται, &c.-.-from Matt. xvi. 26. But perhaps this is an interpolation. It is not in the old version,
Ib. vii. δ έμος έρως έσαύρωται---ύδωρ δε ζων, και λαλών y uoi---from Galat. vi. 14. John iv. 14.
Ib. ix. έκτρωμα-.-from 1 Cor. XV. 8.
δεσμά με---ουκ επαισχύνθητε read επησχύνθητε ...from 2 Τim. i. 16.
Ib. έδε υμάς επαισχυνθήσεται Χρισός-.-from Mark viii. 38. or Luke ix. 26.
The epistle to Polycarp, which is the last, is also inferior to the rest : there is some reason to suspect that it is not genuine. .
Ad Philadelph. V.---προσφυγων τώ ευαγγελία, ως σαρκί Ιησέ, και τους αποστόλοις ως πρεσβυτερία εκκλησίας. “Confugiens ad evangelium tanquam ad carnem Jesu, et ad apostolos velut ad Ecclesiæ Presbyterium,' &c.
Quæ verba videntur de Evangeliis et Apostolicis scriptis intelligenda ; ita ut hoc velit Ignatius, cognoscendæ
divinæ voluntatis causâ, se confugere ad Evangelia, quibus crederet non secus ac lei Christus ipse' in carne,' hoc est, in eo statu quo fuit in terris, conspicuus et etiamnum apud homines vivens, eos sermones, qui in Evangeliis leguntur, ore suo proferret; tum etiam ad scripta apostolorum, quos habebat quasi totius Christianæ Ecclesiæ Presbyterium,' sub Christo omnium episcopo, quod cætus Christianos omnes, quid credendum sit, doceret. Unde quanti fierent libri sacri Novi Testamenti, hisce temporibus, satis liquet.' Addit : Sed et prophetas amamus, quia ipsi nunciarunt, quæ pertinent ad Evangelium, id sperarunt, atque expectarunt. Quæ respiciunt Vetus Testamentum, prout scriptum exstat, nam aliunde prophetæ Ignatio innotescere non potuerant. Nec leviter prætermittendum, ab co, primo quidem loco Novi Testamenti scripta, per quæ Christiani sumus, memorari, quasi perfugium suum; se
, cundo vero Veteris libros, quia ex iis Novum confirmari potest.' Clericus, Hist. Eccl. p. 567. In the same epistle, viii
. Ignatius introduces a Jew, say. ing, εαν μη εν τους αρχαίους ευρω, εν τώ ευαγγελίω ε σισεύω. * Nisi invenero in antiquis (vaticiniis) evangelio non credo.” Where see Le Clerc,
Ad Smyrn. V. ές ουκ έπεισαν αι προφητείαι, εδ' ο νόμος Μωσέως, αλλ' έδε μεχρι νυν το ευαγγέλιον. Quibus nec prophetiæ persuasere, nec Mosis lex, sed nec evangelium.' He speaks of heretics, who denied that Christ had a body, and that he really suffered. How were such people to be converted or confuted ? By the testimony of the apostles, recorded in the New Testament; of men, who, as Ignatius says, did eat and drink with the Lord, both before and after his resurrection : consequently Evanyámcov in this place means the gospels, the books of the New Testament,
Ib. vi. προσέχειν δε τους προφήταις, εξαιρέτως δε τώ ευαγ γελίω, ενώ το πάθος ημίν δεδήλωται, και η ανάτασις τετελείωται. . . Attendere autem prophetis, præcipue autem Evangelio, in quo passio nobis ostensa, et resurrectio pere fecta est.'
Thus the shorter epistles of Ignatius allude to the writings of the apostles; but in the larger epistles, which are gene, rally supposed to be interpolated, the passages of the Old and New Testament are more numerous, and cited more ac