Page images
PDF
EPUB

to

p. lxviii.

thought to surpass his other works in elegance of diction ; but that alone will hardly be a sufficient reason to pronounce it spurious, though it may justify a suspicion and an hesitation about it. The Benedictin editor, p. 604, says, “ Cum scriberet Cohortationem ad Græcos Justinus, credebat Septuaginta illos Viros, dum pro se quisque separatim inclusi laborabant, magno miraculo in omnibus verbis et sententiis inter se consensisse. Sed hanc fabulam, nec

Sed hanc fabulam, nec in prima Apologia, ubi agit de Septuaginta Interpretibus, commemorat, nec in Dialogo illius credendæ onus imponit Judæis : in quo quidem non levis conjectura est eam Justinum aut missam fecisse, aut saltem suspectam habere cæpisse. Some will rather conjecture from this, that Justin was not the author of the Cohortatio; and I could name a friend, well known to the learned world, and a very good judge, who thinks that nothing of Justin is certainly genuine, besides the Dialogue and the Apologies. The Benedictin endeavours

prove that the Cohortatio is to be ascribed to him, and contends with Casimire Oudin, who held the contrary opi. nion. Præf. The Sibyl in the Proæm says,

Τις γαρ σαρξ δύναται τον επουράνιον και αληθή
Οφθαλμοίσιν ιδείν Θεόν άμβροτον, ός πόλον οικεί;
'Αλλ' ουδ' ακτίνων κατεναντίον. ηελίσια
* "Ανθρωποι στηναι δυνατοί, θνητοί γίγαντες. .
· Corporeis oculis etenim quis cernere verum

Æternumque Deum possit, cælumque colentem?
Cum neque splendentis radiantia lumina solis

Sustineant homines mortales cernere contra.' Socrates in Xenophon has the same sentiment, and say that the Deity is inconspicuous, and that a man cannot look upon the sun without being dazzled. Memor. iv. 3. Theophilus, Minucius Felix, Theodoret, and others have said the same thing. Clemens Alexandrinus fancied that Xenophon borrowed it from the Sibyl, Cohort. p. 61. and Strom. v.714, But even admitting the antiquity of these verses, and supposing that they were written in Noah's ark, it will not fol. low from the parity of thought, that Socrates or Xenophon had seen them, since all men, except those who are blind, know, without an instructor, that it is impossible to look

upon the sun when he shines out in full strength. One thing is very plain, that the two first verses, and the word σαρξ, for mortal man, are taken from the scriptures.

Justin Cohort. 18. has cited a very singular passage from Sophocles;

Είς ταϊς αληθείαισιν, εις έστιν Θεός,
"Ος ουρανον τέτευχε, και γαίαν μακραν,
Πόντου τε χαροπον οίδμα, κανέμων βίας.
Θνητοί δε πολλοί καρδία πλανώμενοι,
Ιδρυσάμεσθα πημάτων παραψυχήν
Θεών αγάλματεκ λίθων τε και ξύλων,
"Η χρυσoτευκτων ή ελεφαντίνων τύπους
Θυσίας τε τούτοις και καλας πανηγύρεις
Τεύχοντες, ούτως ευσεβείν νομίζομεν.

• Bentley, in his Epistle to Mill, corrects these verses ascribed to Sephocles, and rejects them as spurious. He says :

Efficiam ut posthac hi versiculi sano saltem pede possint incedero. Sic igitur emendo: :

'Εν ταϊς αληθείαισιν είς έστιν θεός,
ος ουρανόν τ' έτευξε και γαίαν μακράν,
Πόντου τε χαροπον οίδμα, κανέμων βίας:
Θνητοί τε πολλών καρδία πλανώμενοι
Ιδρυσάμεσθα πημάτων παραψυχήν,
Θεων αγάλματεκ λίθων ή χαλκέων
"Η χρυσoτευκτων ή 'λεφαντίνων τύπους.
Θυσίας τε τούτοις και κενας πανηγύρεις

Τεύχοντες ούτως ευσεβείν νομίζομεν. Ita fere leguntur apud Justinum, Clementem, Eusebium, Theodoritum, et partim Athenagoram; adeo ut demirer interpretem (Malalæ) Chilmeadum, hominein sane pereruditum, in luce tam clara minus solito perspexisse. Sed non te celabo, quod pace sanctorum virorum dictum velim, vehementer me suspicari non esse hæc a Sophocle. Id adeo cur in animum inducam, si me interroges ; dico, permirum mihi præter alia videri, tam illustrem locum Ecclesiasticis solis incurrisse in oculos, aliorum omnium aciem effugisse. Qui factum, uti dormitaret hic Plutarchi diligentia ? Qui Porphyrium preterire potuit περί αποχής εμψύχων tam insigne testimonium adversus των θυσιων τας παρανόμους σφαyàs, ut ad hunc locum ait Theodoritus ? Ubi tu, Stobæe, cessasti ? tu, qui tot forulos bibliothecarum excussisti, Sophoclis autem et Euripidis monumenta studiose præter cætera lectitasti Adeone paucos è patribus, quid patres autem dico ? unumne aliquem tenebrionem, qui supposita persona librum ediderit (ut et olim et hodie nonnullorum opinio est

, neque adeo injuria) cæteris omnibus perspicaciorem et diligentiorem fuisse ? Clemens enim aperte et ingenue fatetur Hecatæi se fidem secu

• Unus profecto est, unus est tantum Deus,

Cæli solique machinam qui condidit,
Vadumque ponti cærulum, et vim spiritus.

tum, apud ipsum Sophoclem omnino non legisse. Ο μεν Σοφοκλής, ait Strom. v. ώς φησιν Εκαταίος και τας ιστορίας συνταξάμενος εν τω κατ' " Αζραμον και τους Αίγυπτίους. Ιllud autem exploratum habeo tam a Justino et Clemente patres alios accepisse, quam Justinum et Clementem commentitii ejus Hecatæi autoritate tradidisse. Quem ad hominem demum, et quam nulla fide res redierit vides. Ille ne ut Sophocli versiculos aliquot vereretur affingere, qui illum ipsum, quo eos adduxit, li. brum ediderit simulata persona Hecatæi ? Ipsa præterea oratio de se facit indicium. Non agnosco illud χαλκέων, et πολλών sumtum, ut aiunt, adverbialiter, esse hominis Attici, aut in tragedia ferri posse. Qualis enim hæc foret confusio dialectorum, et, ut ait ille, sartago loquendi ? Oportuit enim πολύ et χαλκών. Χαλκέων φuidem a χαλκευς Attice dixeris και minime gentium a χαλκούς, non magis mehercule quam αγαπάει vel 'Αριστοτέλεος. χρύσεα, ait Phrynichus, αργύρεα, κυάνεα, χάλκεα, ταύτα Ιακα διαιρούμενα χρή ούν λέγειν, χρυσά, αργυρά, κυανά, τον 'Αττικίζοντα. Χρυσούς λέγε, το γαρ χρύσεος Ιακών, ωσαύτως και αργυρούς, χαλκούς, κυανούς, και τα όμοια. Rogo denique cui persone hæc oratio conveniat ? Quave Sophocles fiducia die festo Ludorum (non alias enim in scena quam Panathenæis ac trinis Liberalibus tragediæ docebantur) illos ipsos dies festos et ludos solennes in contemptionem adduceret ? Istuccine se impune laturum speraret? Nonne Æschyli periculum cautiorem eum faceret, qui, quod in Sisypho opinor πετροκυλιστη ad Cereris mysteria curiosius videretur alludere, nisi ad aram Bacchi confugisset, illico trucidatus esset in scena : postea etiam in Areopago de capite suo caussam dixit ?

Auget vehementer suspicionem nostram ipse Clemens in Protreptico, qui posteaquam versus eos tanquam Sophocleos protulit, Ουτοσί μεν, ait, ήδη και παρακεκινδυνευμένος επί της σκηνής την αλήθειαν τοϊς θεαταίς παρεισήγαγεν. Εrgo et Clementis judicio in capitis venisset discrimen, quicunque eos olim in scenam detulisset. Ii alibi citantur hoc exemplo:

Θνητοί δε πουλυκερδεία πλανώμενοι
Ιδρυσάμεσθα πημάτων παραψυχήν,
Θεών αγάλματεκ λίθων τε και ξύλων,

χρυσοτεύκτων ή 'λεφαντίνων τύπους. Quamobrem, quia nullus jam-locus est censuræ nostræ in modoy et χαλκέων, alia efferam argumenta oportet, cur subdititii sint. Multis sane nominibus non placet illud πουλυκερδεία. . Nam quid, obsecro, facit Touau in tragædiæ diverbio ? est enim ex dialecto Ionica. Neque vero dela spondæus in sede quarta ferri potest contra morem consuetudinemque Tragicorum. Theocritus:

Και φιλοκερδείη βεβλαμμένον άνδρα παρελθείν. Νeque porro πουλυκερδεία de avaritia possis accipere cum interprete Clementis : verum ea sententia nimium quidem inepta et inficeta, quasi

At ducta cæco errore gens mortalium
Commenta cladis in suæ solatium est
· Formas Deorum saxeas aut æreas,

ista-

si prudentia sive astutia homines in errorem inciderint. Πολυκέρδεια enian est πολυίδρεια. Ut Ulysses Homericus :

Ουκ έα ειπέμεναι, πολυϊδρείησι νόοιο,

'Αλλ' ο μεν ήν άλοχον πολυκερδείησιν άναγε. Sed et alia fertur scriptura nihilo melior :

Θνητοί δε πολλοί καρδια πλανώμενοι. Mihi quidem, salvo aliorum judicio, ‘nos multi mortales' parum ornate dici videtur pro elegantia Αττικής μελίττης. Sed utcunque de ea fe visum fuerit eruditis, rogatos eos velim, qui luculenter Græce sciunt

, utrum x&co. TAAVélargi domesticus sit sincerusque sermo Græcus, an potius peregrinus et πονησου κόμματος ? Νimirum suo se indicio pτού: Judrus iste sorex. Neque enim Hellenismus est, verum Hebraismus purus putus ex S. S. tralatus atque expressus. Psalm. xciv. (et Epist

. ad Hebreos) Αεί πλανώνται τη καρδία και αυτοί ουκ έγνωσαν τας ίδου, μου. Essilis xxi. Η καρδία μου πλανάται. Ιmo enimvero negamus

"Η χρυσoτευκτων ή 'λεφαντίνων τύπους, ab homine Græco, nedum a Sophocle, proficisci posse. Túros hoc in loco est ipsa statia, αυτό το άγαλμα, ουκ είδος του αγάλματος, ut apud Isocratem in fine Evagore: τους μέν τύπους αναγκαίον παρά τούτοις είναι παρ οίς αν σταύωσι. Dicerent vero Græci

*Η χρυσοτεύκτους ή 'λεφαντίνους τύπους Θεών, non χρυσοτευκτων: velut εικόνας dicunt χαλκάς Ολυμπιονικών, το χαλκών. Arteimidlor1s : χάλκεαι γαρ εικόνες των ελευθέρων ανατίθενTal. Ita pa sim et vulgo, ut quidem testimoniis uti putidissimum foret. Neque vero aliter Latini. Lucretius :

Si non aurea sunt juvenum simulacra per ædes :' non ' aureorum.'

Plinius, xxxiv. 7. 'Lignea potius aut fictilia deorum simulacra. Juvenalis :

Esligies sacri nitet aurea cercopitheci.' Horatius :

---Quid referam - quo pacto - in imagine cerea

Largior arserit ignis.' Itaque τύπους ελεφαντίνυν θεών nihil minus est quam Greca oratio : el tanei utitur Sibylla iii. ξυλίνων θεων είδωλα dicens pro ξύλινα.

Οτινες ουκ απάτησι κεναΐς, ουδ' έρα ανθρώπων
Χρύσεα και χάλκεια, και αργύρου ήδ' ελέφαντος,
Και ξυλίνων λιθίνων τε θεών είδωλα καμόντων,
Πήλινα, μίλτόχριστα, ζοωγραφίας τυποειδείς,

Τιμωσιν, όσα κέν τε βροτοί κενεοφρονι βουλή.
Eadem habet Protrepticus Clementis, Quis porro inficiabitur in eodem

:

Aurove ductas fusili, aut eburneas.
His victimarum sanguinem, his festos dies,
Cum dedicamus, esse nos remur pios.'

doctos esse'ludo subjectorem hunc Oraculorum, et commentitium illum Hecatæum ? Quod si vicero de versibus falso Sophocli attributis, etiam illud evidentissime constabit, quod olim Pilo Herennius, et patrum memoria Josephus Scaliger suspicati sunt, nempe librum illum de Julæis qui sub Hecatæi nomine ferebatur, a Judæo quodam Hellen:sta fuisse confictum ; velut Aristeam illum pari facinore, quem supposititium esse convincunt post eundem Scaligerurn alii bene multi, in quibus omnium doctissime et copiosissime Humfredus Hodius.

One who should be disposed to dispute the point with Bentley, might say that, besides the first and the illustrious Sophocles, there was a Sophocles his grandson, and a third in the time of the Ptolemies, and that they were all dramatic poets ; and he might suppose that this fragment, or a part of it, was possibly taken from the second or third Sophocles. See Fabricius B. Gr. i. 623. He might compound the maiter, and conjecture that the three first lines were genuine, and the six following spurious.

If the Cohortatio were not written by Justin, Athenagoras was perhaps the first father who took notice of this passage, and he only cites the two first verses; which gives some reason to suspect that he never saw the rest.

But, upon a review of the whole, I must agree with Bentley, and reject this . pious fragment' as the work of one forger, or perhaps of two. In the first verse,

Είς ταϊς αληθείασιν είς έστιν θεός is preferable to

'Εν ταϊς αληθείαισιν. Bentley objects to

Θνητοί δε πουλυκερδεία πλανώμενοι, that the fourth foot will be a spondee : but may not the diphthongs &:, El, 01, be made short, when a vowel or diphthong follows in the same word ? Sophocles Philoct. 1450.

Τίνα προσωφέλησιν έρξεις ; Βέλεσι τοϊς Ηρακλείοις -
And so in other places, if I remember rightly.
Homer Il. £. 105.

Tοίος έων, οίος όυτις Αχαιών χαλκοχιτώνων. He observes, as I think, rightly, that an Attic writer wouid not use πουλυκερδεία in an Iambic verse; but πουλος for πολυς is ratlier a poetic licence than an Ionic dialect. The best objection to touà une delą is, that it is nonsense.

Attic writers use the words όλοίατο, όψοίατο, τιθέασι, διδόασιν, &c. which seem properly to belong to the Ionic dialect.

« PreviousContinue »