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did not survive the destruction of Jerusalem, or that he was then very old, and emeritus,' and not likely to write a long and laboured epistle.
It has been said that Barnabas and Clemens Romanus speak not of miracles as being performed in the church in their time. Suppose it to be true, the same thing might be observed of some epistles in the New Testament, particularly of the epistle to the Hebrews, which were written before the destruction of Jerusalem, when St. Paul and some other apostles were living, and preaching the gospel in various places, “the Lord working with them, and, as we may justly suppose, 'confirming the word with signs follows ing.'
Barnabas, ch. xii. says, εποιησε γαρ πάντα άφιν δάκνειν αυτούς. that is: “God cused all sorts of serpents to bite the people of Israel in the wilderness. I have sometimes thought that it should be πιρόεντα άφιν. Νum. Xxi 6. • Misit Dominus in populum serpentes urentes, Seraphim; ignitos, as Jerom renders it. The LXX indeed has Javce τούντας. We translate it fery serpents.) Πυρόεντα όξιν, in the singular, for ' fiery serpents,' would be an Hebraism, as ver. 7. Ora ut tollat a nobis serpentem: but the emendation is uncertain. Justin Martyr, speaking of the same thing, says --απήντησαν αυτοίς ιοβόλα θηρία, έχιδναίτε και ασπίδες, και οξέων παν γίνος, ο βανάτου τον λαόν. Αpol. i. 60. which favours the received reading in Barnabas. One would almost think that Justin took his παν γένος from Barnabas. Le Clerc thinks that he has found a remark in Justin's Apology borrowed from Barnabas. Bibl. Chois. iii. 391. The Benedictin editor of Justin is of the same opinion, Addend. p. 603.
Valentinus, who made bis appearance as a teacher, perhaps about A. D. 140,1 says; Είς δε έστιν αγαθός" ού παρρησία ή δια του υιού φανέρωσης και δι' αυτου μόνου δύναιτο αν η καρδία καθαρά γενέσθαι, παντος πονηρου πνεύματος εξωθουμένου της καρδίας πολλά γαρ ενοικουντα αυτή πνεί. ματα ουκ έα καθαρεύειν' έκαστον δε αυτών, τα ίδια εκτελεί έργα, πολλαχώς ενυβριζόντων επιθυμίαις ου προσηκούσαις και
μοι δοκεί όμοιόν τι πάσχειν τω πανδοχείω η καρδία και d But see Massuet's Dissertation concerning him in Irenæus, in which he places him somewhat earlier.
γαρ εκείνο κατατιτραταί τε και ορύττεται, και πολλάκις κόπρου πίμπλαται, ανθρώπων ασελγως έμμειόντων, και μηδεμίαν πρόνοιαν ποιουμένων του χωρίου, καθάπερ αλλοτρίου καθεστώτος. τον τρόπον τούτον και η καρδία, μέχρι μη προνοίας τυγχάνει, ακάθαρτος ούσα, πολλων ούσα δαιμόνιον οικητήριον επειδαν δε επισκέψηται αυτήν ο μόνος άγαθος Πατήρ, ήγίασται, και φωτί διαλάμπει και ούτω μακαρίζεται και έχων την τοιαύτην καρδίαν, ότι όψεται τον Θεόν. «Εst autem unus Bonus, cujus fiduciâ est ea quæ fit per Filium manifestatio, et per eum solum potest cor fieri mundum, ejecto ex corde omni maligno spiritu. Multi enim in co habitantes spiritus, id mundum esse non sinunt. Unusquisque autem eorum propria efficit opera, sæpe non convenientibus insultans cupiditatibus. Ac mihi quidem videtur cor non esse absimile diversorio : illud enim perforatur et effoditur, et stercore sape repletur, cum homines se petulanter gerant, et locum nihil omnino curent, ut qui sit alienus. Eodem modo cor quoque : cum, quamdiu nulla ejus providentia geritur, sit iminundum et multorum dæmonum habitaculum: postquam autem id inviserit, qui solus est bonus Pater, sanctificatum est, et luce resplendet, et sic qui tali est corde præditus, beatur, quoniam Deun videbit.'
This fragment is preserved by Clemens Alexandrinus Strom. ii. p. 489. where he stands up for human liberty against the Valentinians, who were a sort of Fatalists, or Predestinarians, and thought themselves to be the only elect. Observe that Valentinus bears witness to the autho. rity of the New Testament, for he takes passages or expressions from it to insinuate and recommend his own doctrines, as υιού φανέρωσις-δαιμόνων οικητήριον - επισκόψηται-μόνος αγαθός Πατήρ-φωτί διαλάμπει-μακαρίζε
&c. -- όψεται Θεόν. See 1 Τim. iii. 16. Rev. xviii. 2. Luke vij. 16. Mat. xix. 17. Luke xi, 36. Mat. v. 8.
He also seems upon the whole to imitate Barnabas, who says, Προ του ημας πιστεύσαι τω Θεώ, ήν ημών το οίκητήριον της καρδίας φθαρτον και ασθενές-ότι η πλήρης μεν ειδυλολατρείας, και ήν οίκος δαιμόνων - Διό εν τη κατοικι της ρίου ημών αλήθως ο Θεός κατοικεί εν ημίν πως και ο λόγος αυτου της πιστέως - Antequam nos Deo crederemus, erat nostrum cordis habitaculum interitui obnoxium et imbecillum--quia erat quidem plenum cultu idolorum, et erat
domus dæmonum,-Quare in domicilio nostro vere Deus existit: habitat in nobis. Quomodo ? Verbum ejus fidei-'
CLEMENS ROMANUS is an author on whom I made some remarks, Disc. VI. p. 121. I have only this to add : Clemens Epist. i. 4. says, Δια ζήλον ο πατήρ ΗΜΩΝ Ιαuwa anéda - Propter æmulationem pater noster Jacobus aufugit' - whence, I find, some persons have lately discovered and concluded that Clemens was a Jew. I think the passage will not prove it. Theophilus ad Autol. j. 23.τα γράμματα του θείου νόμου, του δια Μωσέως ημίν δε. douévov. The law was given to us, says Theophilus; and yet he had been converted from Paganism to Christianity. Therefore when any antient Christian writers use such expressions, it is not to be inferred thence, with
thence, with any kind of certainty, that they were of Jewish extraction, or even that they had been proselytes to Judaism. Indeed nothing is more natural than for Christians to speak as if they were Abraham's children; as if the law, and the prophets, and the patriarchs belonged to them as well as to the Jews. In the same book, $ 24. Theophilus says, 'A padus Ó TEATPLάρχης ημων. 94. Δαυίδ και πρόγονος ημων.
27. 'Apaau του προπάτορος ημων.
Hermas is cited by Irenæus, who was born about A. D, 120. He is also observed to have made no mention of mira, cles; but he had nothing to lead him to it, and his book is taken up with visions and revelations. I offered a conjecture concerning it, that it was a parable. Disc. VI. on the Christ. Rel.
He mentions a vision of a formidable beast threatening to devour him, from which he was preserved ; and he interprets this of a great tribulation which was to come upon the Christians, and which some have applied to Domitian's persecution. L. i. Vis. ii. S 2, 3. p. 77. Vis. iv. p. 82. .
POLYCARP, of whose epistle I have taken notice, p. 47. suffered martyrdom under Marcus Aurelius with exemplary courage and constancy. His death is said to have been honoured with some miracles, which are of such a kind, and attended with such circumstances, that there is some
reason to pause, and to doubt of them. But this shall perhaps be considered in its proper place.
The Recognitions and the Homilies of Clemens, written, as it is thought, in the second century, contain as much truth as Lucian's True History, Aristeas, Gulliver's Travels, the Lives of several Monks, of Lazarillo, of David Simple, and of Gil Blas. It would not be a reasonable request to desire any man to confute this work. It is sufficient to refer the reader to the judgment of Cotelerius, p. 607.
I shall only produce one passage, and none of the worst, for a specimen. Peter is introduced saying, ' Quod cum vidisset Gamaliel princeps populi, qui latenter frater noster erat in fide, sed consilio nostro inter eos erat'-i. 65.
Here this knave of a forger makes Peter, or Lord Peter, as he commonly calls him, and the rest of the apostles, mere politicians, who persuade Gamaliel to dissemble his religion, and to act the part of a spy and a hypocrite.
In the Recognitions, ii. 13. Simon Magus is introduced speaking thus: Pueri incorrupti et violenter necati animam adjuramentis ineffabilibus evocatam adsistere mihi feci, et per ipsam fit omne quod jubeo.' Dr. Middleton thus translates it: 'Simon Magus confessed to one of his companions, that he wrote all his amazing works by the help of the soul of a healthy young boy, who had been violently put to death for that purpose, and then called up from the dead by ineffable adjurations, and compelled to be his assistant.' Inquiry into the Miraculous Powers, &c. p. 67, Pueri incorrupti animam.' In the Greek it was, I
suppose, Παιδος αδιαφθόρου ψυχήν. Justin Martyr calls such children αδιαφθόρους, and Socrates the historian άφθόρους παϊδας. Justin Apol. 1. p. 27. Νεκυομαντείαι μεν γαρ, και ai diaplópwv naidwr ÉTOT TEÚ0815.—' Necyomantiæ enini, et incorruptorum puerorum inspectiones.'---Socrates iii. 13. Και τελετάς τινας συνίστασαν, ως και σπλαγχνοσκοπούν μενοι παίδας καταβύειν άφθόρους-which Valesius trans. lates, . Quin etiam nefanda quædam mysteria ab illis excogitata sunt; ita ut pueros impuberes immolarent, extaque eorum inspicerent
I once told Dr. Middleton, that I was inclined to think that in this place fincorruptus' meant impubis' rather than
osanus.' PASSF0995, a Sopos, incorruptus,' mcan properly impollutus, expers veneris ;' and they are used for impubis,' because children are usually impolluti.' 7 or répay dra Delpery is stuprare.' "AC69505, impubes, impollutus, incorruptus, imberbis,' say the Lexica. Osopos Txis, puer imberbis,’ Diosc. ii. c. 102. Kai TOMC Tues και πολλοί, εξηκοντευται και εβδομηκοντούται, οι εκ παίδων έμαθητεύγησαν το Χριστό, άφθοροι διαμένουσι. “ Et multi sexus utriusque, et sexaginta et septuaginta nati annos, qui a pueris disciplinam Christi sunt assectati, incorrupti perinanent.' justin Apol, i. 92. ed. Th. &0.0.01, 'impolluti, expertes veneris, etiam legitimæ. Qui inviolati corporis virginitate perpetua fruuntur,' says Minucius, c. xxxi.
Concerning such magical rites, see Broukhusius on Tibullas i. 11. 45. and Fabricius Bibl. Antiqu. p. 417. 419. and llavercampis Tertullian, Apol. 23. 'Si pueros in eloquium oraculi elidunt.' Junius thinks that this relates to the sacii. ficing of children, which kind of divination was called By: Ponantais, pædomantia.
AMONGST the apostolical writers some have placed the author of the Epistle to Diognetus, which has been usually ascribed to Justin Martyr : see Fabric. Bibl. Gr. v. 58. Tillemont (Hist. Eccl. ii. p. 493.) first declared that he was inclined for some reasons to think it more antient, and written before A. D. 70. He says also that a learned man, whom he names not, had been of that opinion. The last editor of Justin thinks that they are mistaken, as to the antiquity of this epistle, and is in doubt whether it should be ascribed to Justin, or not. Praf. p. lxiv. Baratier gives it to Clemens Romanus, and Mr. Whiston to Timothy. In this epistle there are many allusions to the New Testament, which Mr. Whiston has marked in the margin of his translation, and there is nothing said concerning any miraculous powers and gifts amongst Christians. It is opus eximium et præstantissinun,' says the Benedictin editor; and Baratier and Mr. Whiston are of the same opinion. Diognetus, who is called aceri9795, was, we may suppose, if he really existed, a man of some rank. His Honour wanted to be informed of the nature of Christianity; and why this new religion was not made known sooner; and for what reasons the Christians