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not think it at all probable that our Lord would use Gehenna in such a different sense, or make it an emblem of such a very different thing from that of the Old Testament writers, if Dr. Campbell himself may be believed in the following quotations. In his fifth Dissertation, part ii. sect. 13. he says,-"Our Lord, we find from the evangelists, spoke to his countrymen in the dialect of their own Scriptures, and used those names to which the reading of the law and the proph-ets, either in the original, or in the versions then used, had familiarized them. Our translators, and indeed most European translators, represent him as using words, which, even in their own translations of the Old Testament, never occur, and to which, in fact, there is nothing there that corresponds in meaning." In his first preliminary Dissertation, part i. sect. 1.and 2. he further says,-"if the words and phrases employed by the apostles and evangelists, in delivering the revelation committed to them by the Holy Spirit, had not been agreeable to the received usage of the people to whom they spoke, their discourses, being unintelligible, could have conveyed no information, and consequently would have been no revelation to the hearers. Our Lord and his apostles, in pubHishing the gospel, first addressed themselves to their countrymen the Jews; a people who had, many ages before, at different periods, been favoured with other revelations.
"As the writings of the Old Testament are of a much earlier date, and contain an account of the rise and first establishment, together with a portion of the history of the nation to whom the gospel was first promulgated, and of whom were all its first missionaries and teachers, it is thence unquestionably that we must learn, both what the principal fucts, customs, doctrines, and precepts are, that are alluded to in the apostolical writ ings, and what is the proper signification and extent of
the expressions used." No man could have written a refutation of what Dr. Campbell has said about Gehenna, so complete, as what he has here furnished himself. It needs no comment nor observation from me.
What we have here to inquire into then, are principally the two following things:-In what sense is Gehenna or tophet used in the Old Testament; and what do the writers make it an emblem of, when they use it in this way?
1st, Then, let us inquire in what sense Gehenna or tophet is used in the Old Testament. Doubting the correctness of Dr. Campbell's statement, that Gehenna did not occur in the Old Testament in the sense of a place of eternal punishment, we have examined all the places in which it occurs. The result of this examination of the texts in the Old Testament, has giv en us very different views of the places where it is used in the New. The substance of this examination I shall now briefly state.
Gehenna of the New Testament, is, according to Dr. Campbell and others, "a compound of the two Hebrew words ' ge hinnom, the valley of Hinnom, a place near Jerusalem." I find upon examination of all the passages, that this valley of Hinnom formed one of the boundaries in the division of the land among the tribes of Israel, Josh. xv. 8. and xviii. 16. This valley was in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem, Jer. xix. 2. It was in this valley the cruel and abominable sacrifices of children were made by fire to Moloch, 2 Kings xxiii. 10. It was here Ahaz, Manasses, and others, made their children pass through the fire to this idol god, 2 Chron. xxviii. 3. and xxxvi. 6. Jer. xxxii. 35. and vii. 31, 32. In Isai. xxx. 31. tophet is not only mentioned, but allusion is made to the fire kept up there.* The Jews were expressly forbidden
This last text is often quoted to prove that tophet is a place of eternal misery for the wicked. But how it does so, it is difficult to per
to let their children pass through the fire to Moloch,. Levit. xviii. 21. It was commanded by God, that such as did so should be punished with death, Levit. xx. 1-6. Notwithstanding this, the law of the Lord was disregarded, and kings and subjects were guilty of such unnatural crimes. The following texts may also be consulted, which have some relation to such horrid abominations. Amos v. 26. comp. Acts vii. 43. 1 Kings xi. 4-8. Ezek. xvi. 20, 21, and xxiii. 37-39. and xx. 26-31.
I have not quoted any of these texts at length, nor was this necessary, for the following things will not be disputed. It is evident that Gehenna, or the valley of Hinnom, was in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem. It was in this valley the children of Israel sinned greatly in their cruel and abominable sacrifices offered to the idol god Moloch. A constant fire was kept up in this place, and it was a place of wretched-ness and abomination. Indeed, no place to a Jew, could convey such a lively view of misery and wretchedness as the valley of Hinnom.
2d, Let us now inquire what the Old Testament writers make Gehenna, or tophet, an emblem of. Dr. Campbell avers, that in process of time, it was made an emblem of hell, or the place of torment reserved for the punishment of the wicked in a future state. He denies, however, as we have seen, that it is used. in this manner in the Old Testament. The question then is, do the Old Testament writers use Gehenna or tophet as an emblem of any thing, and what is that
ceive. If it does, it also proves, that "the pile thereof is fire and much wood." But is this true of hell, or the place of endless misery? Parkhurst, on the word pete, gives us the following translation of this passage. "For the furnace is already set in order for the king (of Assyria, namely) it is prepared," &c. Was hell or eternal misery set in order and prepared for the king of Assyria? This follows from what Mr. Parkhurst says, who was not a Universalist.
thing, concerning which they use it as an emblem? Permit me then to quote the two following passages, which show this clearly, and at great length. The first I quote is the whole of Jer. chap. xix. I also quote chap. vii. 29. to the end.
"Thus saith the Lord, Go and get a potter's earthen bottle, and take of the ancients of the people, and of the ancients of the priests; and go forth unto the valley of the son of Hinnom, which is by the entry of the east gate, and proclaim there the words that I shall tell thee; and say, Hear ye the word of the Lord, O kings of Judah, and inhabitants of Jerusalem; thus saith the Lord of hosts; the God of Israel; Behold, I will bring evil upon this place, the which, whosoever heareth, his ears shall tingle. Because they have forsaken me, and have estranged this place, and have burned incense in it unto other gods, whom neither they nor their fathers have known, nor the kings of Judah, and have filled this place with the blood of innocents; they have built also the high places of Baal, to burn their sons with fire for burnt offerings, unto Baal, which I commanded not, nor spake it, neither came it into my mind: therefore, behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that this place shall no more be called tophet, nor the valley of the son of Hinnom, but the valley of slaughter. And I will make void the counsel of Judah and Jerusalem in this place; and I will cause them to fall by the sword before their enemies, and by the hands of them that seek their lives; and their carcases will I give to be meat for the fowls of the heaven, and for the beasts of the earth. And I will make this city desolate, and an hissing; every one that passeth thereby shall be astonished, and hiss because of all the plagues thereof. And I will cause them to eat the flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters, and they shall eat every one the flesh of his friend in the siege and straitness,
wherewith their enemies, and they that seek their lives, shall straiten them. Then shalt thou break the bottle in the sight of the men that go with thec, and shalt say unto them, Thus saith the Lord of hosts; Even so will I break this people and this city, as one breaketh a potter's vessel, that cannot be made whole again and they shall bury them in tophet, till there be no place to bury. Thus will I do unto this place, saith the Lord, and to the inhabitants thereof, and even make this city as tophet: and the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, shall be defiled as the place of tophet, because of all the houses upon whose roofs they have burned incense unto all the host of heaven, and have poured out drink offerings unto other gods. Then came Jeremiah from tophet, whither the Lord had sent him to prophesy; and he stood in the court of the Lord's house; and said to all the people, thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will bring upon this city and upon all her towns all the evil that I have prcnounced against it, because they have hardened their necks, that they might not hear my words." Chap. vii. ver. 29-34.- Cut off thine hair, O Jerusalem, and cast it away, and take up a lamentation on high places; for the Lord hath rejected and forsaken the generation of his wrath. For the children of Judah have done evil in my sight, saith the Lord: they have set their abominations in the house which is called by my name, to pollute it. And they have built the high places of tophet, which is in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire; which I commanded them not, neither came it into my heart. Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that it shall no more be called tophet, nor the valley of the son of Hinnom, but the valley of slaughter; for they shall bury in tophet till there be no place. And the carcases of this people