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Mr. JAVITS. And section 501 be simply headed "India and Pakistan.”

Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. CRAWFORD. I will start to read again on page 7, line 16. [Mr. Crawford read chapter V.]

Chairman CHIPERFIELD. If there is no objection, we will continue to read.

Mr. RICHARDS. I am entranced by this bill. We have kind of a "WPA" [Works Progress Administration] bill here, and a Marshall plan. I am wondering what you fellows will say on the floor.

Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Mr. Richards, you were late. I agree with you thoroughly. I talked to Mr. Javits about the economic aid, raised cain about it, and referred to your wonderful speech yesterday about where we are getting away from the scientific and technical advice we are supposed to give and going into a worldwide WPA. I covered that a little earlier.


Mrs. CHURCH. Is there any reason for lumping together two things like this, "Multilateral Technical Cooperation and Children's Welfare"? Could we break it down? It seems to me there is no real grouping there. You could put "Children's Welfare" separately.

Mr. VORYS. Your point is that this will be 602 and 603?

Mrs. CHURCH. I think it makes a better-looking bill. I make that motion.

Mr. VORYS. I have no objection to the proposal.

Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mrs. KELLY. Could we have an explanation why the Senate left that section out?


Mr. RICHARDS. Mr. Chairman, I happened to talk to one or two of those fellows. They seem to think this thing was going down to Syngman Rhee, and it might be helpful to sort of put his feet to the fire a little bit.

Mrs. CHURCH. I think there is another reason for it. I think this is the section of the bill on which certain members of the Appropriations Committee of the House think they absolutely have us. They had a team over there. I guess the facts stand up very badly as regards the work that UNKRA [United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency] has been doing there. I have an amendment which is certainly going to cut it. I would like your help in suggesting how it be cut.

[General discussion off the record.]

The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was established in President Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term with his strong urging and support. The WPA was a large Federal agency designed to plan and administer programs to assist economic recovery from the Great Depression of the 1930's through the employment of large numbers of persons in federally assisted public works projects.

For information on the Marshall plan, see footnote 4 of the Mar. 19, 1953 session of the Subcommittee on National Security in this volume.

Syngman Rhee was a leader of the Korean independence movement and served as President of the Republic of Korea (i.e., South Korea) from 1948 until his overthrow in April 1960.


Mr. FULTON. This is my first increase amendment on this section. It should go in there, or over under the migrant section. If you will notice, section 501, the migrant section, is limited to European migration. We have another problem given to us under the truce, and that is what to do with the prisoner-of-war people who are now in South Korea.

[General discussion off the record.]

Mr. FULTON. I would put an amendment in for the resettlement and migration of Korean prisoners-of-war in the sum of $5 million. You have $10 million for Europe. The main point is to show them we are not just going to abandon them or force them to go back into Communist hands when they are trained fighting men.

Mr. HARRISON. I wanted, at the proper time, to add a section to this chapter. I was not here yesterday afternoon. I do not know whether it should be announced now or later.

Chairman CHIPERFIELD. We are just announcing our intentions, and as soon as we go through the bill, we will do that. What is your amendment?


Mr. HARRISON. I want to offer an amendment to repeal section 516 of the Mutual Security Act of 1951, the so-called Benton-Moody amendment.

Mr. VORYS. While this is once-over-lightly, we do not want to go too hurriedly on these sections because some of them are quite technical in fact. I want to comment on 546. Will you read it?

Mr. CRAWFORD. I will read the chapter numbers as they are now. [Mr. Crawford read chapter VI, "Further Change in Existing Mutual Security Legislation."]

[There was then general discussion on the transferrability provisions between members and staff.]

Mr. JAVITS. I would suggest these be redrafted between military and defense support, and then deal separately with the question as to whether we want to continue previous authority, because previous authority may either have been used or not used. They have committed most of the money. So what we are letting them do, if we continue previous authority, is to change their contracts and commitments. We may want to cut down on that. We may want to prohibit it entirely.

[General discussion off the record.]

Mr. VORYS. Could we have 547 read?

Mr. CRAWFORD. Section 547.

[Mr. Crawford read section 547. There was then general discussion off the record.]

The Benton-Moody amendment. named for its Senate sponsors. Senator William Benton of Connecticut and Senator Blair Moody of Michigan, provided funds to stimulate "free enterprise and the expansion of the economies" of European countries "with equitable sharing of the benefits of increased production and productivity between consumers, workers and owners."

Mr. VORYS. If Mr. Burleson's proposal were adopted, you could simply pass a law saying it was 547, and that will be the whole thing. This tail is bigger than the whole dog that we are working on.

Mr. RICHARDS. Mr. Burleson was on a radio program this morning, and he asked me to state he would possibly have an amendment on that and service commodities.

Mr. VORYS. The specific amendment is to strike out the word "general." What difference would that make?

Mr. SKINNER [George Skinner, Office of Legislative Counsel, House of Representatives]. In the prior law, it has always been the same. Mr. VORYS. We should find out the pattern of the way we have been doing it. I do not think we want to give authority for switching it.

Mrs. CHURCH. I would move that the word "general" be stricken. Mr. JAVITS. Would you consider leaving the word the same? It is a pretty tough word for lawyers.

Mr. VORYS [presiding]. We will ask our legislative counsel to check it. I think all of us will agree with Mrs. Church that we do not want to have any new authority granted here. On the other hand, we do not want to have any stumbling block if they had something under this reorganization business. In any case, the general question requires a technical answer.


If the committee will bear with me, I have received something that I thought we were going to have taken up early this morning. This is a suggested letter from the President to the chairmen of the Foreign Relations and Foreign Affairs Committees of the Congress. I have spoken to Mr. Chiperfield about this. We had some discussion yesterday about the cold-steel plant, and about meetings that members had had with Monnet. You know my feeling, that I would be glad to have something for that in this bill, but Mr. Monnet said we are not that kind of an organization. In any case, I think the briefest way would be to hear a note from Thruston Morton and a suggested letter from the President.

[Mr. Vorys read the letter.]


Mr. VORYS. Here is a note. I have not had a chance to do more than glance at it. Perhaps I should read it.

[Mr. Vorys read the note.]

See pp. 153-154 for the text of the President's letter, the response of the committee chairman and the resolution approved by the committee.]

Mr. VORYS. What has happened is that the President has gone off to Minneapolis. June 15 is coming soon. This fellow [Mr. Monnet], in going to a European legislature, has limited power, but it is the first superauthority we have over there. He would like to have an expression from us. He did not go home with a suitcase full of

Jean Monnet was a French economist and at the time served as Chairman of the European Coal and Steel community which had its headquarters in Luxembourg. The concept of the European Coal and Steel Community was contained in the Schuman plan; see footnote 2 to the introduction to the sessions on the Mutual Security Act of 1952 in vol. IX of this historical series.

Hon. Thruston B. Morton at the time was Assistant Secretary of State for Congressional Relations.

money. He did not come over here for that purpose. He came over here for an expression, and I would like to give it to him. This is the place to talk about the thing that was reflected in the Richards resolution.10

Mr. FULTON. Could we have him before the committee?

Mr. VORYS. I think it would be a bad precedent to set. We have had foreigners before our committee time and again, but we have never had a hearing with a foreigner concerning legislation.

Mr. LANHAM. I move that such a resolution be prepared and adopted by the committee, or a letter be adopted.

Mr. MORANO. I second the motion.

Mr. FULTON. I would like to add one other thing, the ratification of the peace contract.

Mr. VORYS. I certainly would oppose that.

Mr. FULTON. Why?

Mr. VORYS. Let us stick to cold steel, not EDC.

Mr. JAVITS. I am all for it, but don't you think we ought to see the resolution?

Mrs. BOLTON. We can pass it today and get it out this afternoon. Mr. JAVITS. Why doesn't Mr. Lanham make it in principle.

Mr. VORYS. There have been two or three amendments to this rather informally put motion. Does the committee want to vote in favor of bringing in the German contract at this time? Will you raise your hands?

Mr. JAVITS. There is a factual question there. The peace contract has to be ratified by the Germans. The peace contract is offered by the occupying powers. I know of no action pending in the Constituent Assembly.

Mr. VORYS. The motion is that an appropriate resolution or communication be drafted as a reply and a response to the letter from the President if and when such letter comes. Those in favor will say "aye"; opposed. It is unanimous.


Mr. BATTLE. Before we leave section 547-I am sorry Mrs. Church is not here I think there is one important point we ought to keep in mind in thinking about the unexpended balances, in taking a new look at them. I do not object at all. I think we must realize the new program is predicated and based upon what they have on hand and what they plan to do with that money. It is not a matter of overlapping or duplicating.

Mr. VORYS. We have had a hard time trying to convince these characters, when they come up here, that the first thing they do is justify this. You are absolutely right. We finally got them to realize that, I think.

Will you read section 602?

Mr. CRAWFORD. Section 602.

[Mr. Crawford read section 602.]

10 The Richards resolution mentioned here was H. Con. Res. 70 (83d Cong., 1st sess.), introduced on Feb. 18, 1953, by Hon. James P. Richards, a Representative in Congress from the State of South Carolina and a member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs. H. Con. Res. 70 provided for reaffirmation of bipartisan congressional support for the U.S. policy of encouraging European military integration.

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Mr. VORYS. It is proposed we put in the words "and Europe" to make it available to Yugoslav refugees. You remember the Department [of State] said they hoped no change in the law would be made, but they hoped provision could otherwise be made for Yugoslav refugees.

Mrs. KELLY. How much is left in the Kersten amendment? 11
Mr. VORYS. I have forgotten what it is.

[Mr. Sheldon Z. Kaplan, committee staff consultant, explained the Kersten amendment.]

Mr. VORYS. I suggest you read to line 20, page 12. [Mr. Crawford read to line 20, page 12.]

Mr. VORYS. One suggestion has been made that section (b) [on the sale of military equipment] be stricken out entirely, and that in place thereof there be substituted language such as was used for the can Roy read that?



Chairman CHIPERFIELD. May I make a preliminary inquiry? I address myself to Mr. Javits. I am receiving some letters from Jewish organizations. This is the section they are fearful of, of arming areas in the Middle East.

Mr. JAVITS. One is that the area arrangement will result in damage to Israel. Second, this is a dagger at Israel's heart, because Israel is not going to get any arms and the other people are.

Chairman CHIPERFIELD. I was wondering if this was not the section they were worried about.

[General discussion off the record.]

Mr. VORYS. The thought of some has been that we strike out this and instead put in something like the following

[Mr. Bullock read the material.]

Mr. FULTON. I have an amendment to cut the $100 million out. Mr. VORYS. We want something in there. We want a word of encouragement for the Middle Eastern business.

Chairman CHIPERFIELD. We heard Governor Stassen and Mr. Dulles after they returned.13 They told us about the delicate situation and the instability in Egypt, Iraq, and Iran, and that before we get an agreement, it would not be wise to send over there $100 million for aid.

Mrs. BOLTON. I liked what Roy read.

Mr. JAVITS. I would not be afraid of this. I would not oppose it. Would the Chairman undertake to get us a statement from the State Department as to what would best help them get a Middle

"The Kersten amendment was an amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act to control the use of U.S. funds for the training and maintenance of military units formed from among emigres from Communist bloc countries.

13 The proposed Middle (Near) East Command was to be a multilateral military organization comprised of various Middle Eastern states which would provide a defensive buffer along the southwestern border of the Soviet Union.

13 The persons referred to by Chairman Chiperfield are Hon. John Foster Dulles and Hon. Harold E. Stassen who at the time were Secretary of State and Director of the Mutual Security Agency respectively. Their testimony on the Middle East situation was presented to the committee on June 2, 1953 and can be found in this volume.

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