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The Committee and its members have followed the progress of the Community with great interest, and a number of its members have been encouraged by their meetings with the president, M. Monnet, and other members of the High Authority. The Committee had contemplated reference to the real progress of this most significant step toward European integration in the legislation now pending before it. In view of the convening of the Common Assembly of the Community on June 15th, and in view of the fact that the Community is not an applicant for funds authorized in the pending legislation, the Committee adopted the enclosed resolution which I have the honor to transmit to you. It is our hope that you will fit to transmit it with the personal good wishes and congratulations of the Committee to the Community and its High Authority. We hope that this is a symbol of prompt action on the part of the European Defense Community and the European Political Community because we believe that the nations of Europe must pull together to achieve not only military integration but political federation.
Whereas the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives has followed the development and progress of the European Coal and Steel Community from its inception with great interest, through hearings, reports and unofficial discussions with its officials; and
Whereas this is the most significant step toward European integration to date; and Whereas the Congress has repeatedly expressed its belief in the paramount importance of such integration, having stated in the Mutual Security Act of 1952 "The Congress welcomes the recent progress in political federation, military integration, and economic unification in Europe and reaffirms its belief in the necessity of further vigorous efforts toward these ends as a means of building strength, establishing security, and preserving peace in the North Atlantic area;" and
Whereas the Committee has learned that the first annual report from the High Authority will be made to the Common Assembly of the Community on June 15th; Now therefore be it
Resolved, That 1. The Committee congratulates the Community and its High Authority under the leadership of its president, M. Monnet, upon the substantial progress already made, not only because of the tangible benefits that are already apparent, but because of the significance of the Community in the building of a united Europe.
2. The Committee notes with satisfaction that the Community is in a position to seek capital loans for improving productivity on a sound credit basis. Subject to proper qualification, it is the hope of the Committee that the Community may be able to obtain a portion of such loans from United States sources.
3. The Committee, reiterating the view repeatedly and officially stated by the Congress of the importance of European unity to Europe and to the free world, expresses its hope that the European Defense Community and the European Political Community which constitute the necessary further steps, of which the Coal and Steel Community is the first, may be speedily developed, ratified, and put into force.
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. We have this bill before us for amendment. We can have any section reread that you wish, but I would suggest that chapter I on military assistance beheld under the 5-minute rule. Boyd, when the 5 minutes is up, will you tell me and then I will not be embarrassed. Now, who wants to start on page 1?
Mr. RICHARDS. I will withhold mine if anybody has anything in regard to that.
Mr. FULTON. I have one in the title. It should read, "to amend further the Mutual Security Act of 1951." It just says, "to further amend."
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Is there any objection to that?
Mr. FULTON. I move that. That is a split infinitive.
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Without objection the motion is adopted.
RICHARDS AMENDMENT ON PROVISION OF AID FOR A EUROPEAN DEFENSE
Mr. RICHARDS. Mr. Chairman, I offer an amendment on page 2 at line 3. Insert "of which not less than 51 per centum shall be available only to the organization referred to in clause (c) of section 2(b) of this act."
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Can you explain that in 5 minutes?
Mr. RICHARDS. What it really means in this act, it mentions the organizations which may evolve from current international discussions concerning a European defense community. What you really do here, these same countries proposed to be in the European defense community will have in this military aid 51 percent of the amount proposed. That amounts to something over $1 billion.
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. You want the countries that are trying to do something to get a majority of it?
Mr. RICHARDS. Instead of individual countries, I want this end item stuff, the hard war that we are also sending out, to be made to this European defense community. They say it is going to be ratified this fall. Some people think it will, and Lawrence does not think they ever will get together. We have been prodding those fellows a little all along. This does not say they (as individual countries) do not get any money; this just says 51 percent of that fund will be made available to the European defense community.
Let us take France. I think France is the only one where people talk about how tender their feelings are, but they are already getting in this bill outside of that $100 million. They are already getting $400 million for Indochina. They will get their proportionate share of $300 million provided in here for these same countries.
In addition, these countries have got over $300 million of unexpended funds that we have already appropriated. It is not going to hold up anything, and I think it is time to let them know we are authorizing some of this money for this European defense community directly and not to these nations that are going this way and that way and the other way.
Secretary Dulles said in February-I think he has cooled off sincethat nothing that the United States can do will ever be enough to make Europe safe when it is divided into numbers of international camps. In the old days, if John had met Moses coming down off Mount Sinai, he would have wanted to offer about 10 amendments to the Ten Commandments.
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. You told the President about John, too. He told the President that John slept on an almanac all night.
Mr. RICHARDS. You are taking up my time now. I am for this bill and I am for giving these fellows this money. But here is a bill, in addition to all the other aid, and I think maybe it will be a little prod for them to do something about it. You have got plenty of stuff in the pipeline.
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Is there any other suggestion?
Mr. VORYS. I would like to comment on my beloved colleague's amendment with which I have great sympathy, because he joined with me at one time in similar efforts. But we have tentatively gone on the basis that we are not going to try to earmark funds within a given area for particular favored countries. I have long contemplated a similar proposition in this bill, but in attempting to discuss it with those who know more about the psychology over there than I do, they have begged that we not do it because it would be used as an excuse to the feet draggers over there to say, "Well, you are trying to high-pressure us."
Also, I mentioned that another thing we tentatively decided on is that we are not going to attempt to furnish too much money for blind dates for international agreements that have not yet been arrived at. What this does is to tie 51 percent to what? I am reading clause (c) of 2(d). "The organizations which may evolve from current international discussions concerning the European defense_community." We think we know what may evolve if they ratify the EDC treaties, but if there are more protocols and reservations put in there to weaken it or change its character before it is set up, it seems to me we should not limit funds solely to a still uncreated and unevolved organization. Therefore, while I have complete sympathy with the thought that our former chairman has in mind, I still hope this language will not be put in there.
DIPLOMATIC PRESSURE TO ESTABLISH A EUROPEAN DEFENSE COMMUNITY
Mr. LANHAM. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? On the question of pressure, did not Mr. Dulles and Mr. Stassen go over on their first trip and put this pressure on pretty strongly? Have they changed their minds about it now? Do they think they made a mistake?
Mr. VORYS. No; they put on considerable pressure. Our leading commentators here were saying they were being too rough. They both feel that they woke up something that was so sound asleep that it looked like it was dead. That is the way they feel about it.
Mr. LANHAM. We might put a little more life into them.
Mr. VORYS. The difference, they point out, is between diplomatic pressures and executive pressures.
Mr. LANHAM. It is all right for the diplomats, but not for the Congress; is that the theory?
Mr. VORYS. That is right; that is what they said.
Mr. JUDD. Mr. Chairman, I am completely in support of this amendment. I think the diplomatic pressure is worthless without some dignified, constructive provision of this sort which establishes incentive. I have been shooting for that for 4 years. Every year all hell was going to break out if we were to say our soul was our own or even our money was our own. It has not broken out. I think if we had established this pattern right at the beginning, we would have been much further along. We are not refusing to go along with them. We are going along with whoever is going in the direction of peace. If they are not going along, then it is they who deviate and detour; we do not.
I think this is completely sound. There is no threat in it at all. We want to help them. But the point is, it will not help. It is just like a doctor treating his patient. Îf the patient will not do the things that are necessary for his recovery, you can bribe, coax, pass out pills, but he will not recover.
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Be sure you give the right advice as a doctor.
Mr. JUDD. We are responsible for this program, and they are responsible for theirs. I feel strongly that we would have been so much better off if we had done this right from the beginning. I can see no reason why we should not now. I know perfectly well, and you know, that Mr. Dulles has been weakened in his representations abroad and with the President of the United States by the hammering that has gone on from our allies. Mr. Churchill writes to the President personally. The President himself told me this. He carries on a personal conversation, the same thing Mr. Roosevelt did over Cordell Hull's 3 head, and it was a mistake.
Mr. RICHARDS. I want to help DeGasperi and I want to help the leaders of the French Government to get a majority. I want to help with their own problems, and this will help those countries to do that work.
Mr. JUDD. Those people are not fools. When the chips are down, they know they have got to have United States on their side. This is not a bribe; it is just a straightforward statement that we go along with all who are going in the direction of unity and peace.
COMPOSITION OF THE PROPOSED EDC
Mr. MORANO. I want to support this amendment, but I want to ask a question of the authority. This amendment refers to an organization which is to be found, namely the EDC. Will that conflict in any way with NATO? Is there any conflict?
Mr. RICHARDS. No conflict at all.
Mr. MORANO. Between withholding all this money from NATO and giving it to EDC?
Mr. RICHARDS. NATO is an all-inclusive organization. It has other countries besides the six countries in the program, you see. There are just six countries proposed for the European Defense Community. Mr. MORANO. I echo the sentiments expressed by Dr. Judd, and I am in favor of this amendment.
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Mrs. Kelly.
Mrs. KELLY. Dr. Judd, this amendment is in line with Mr. Vorys' and our amendment of last year on the floor, is it not?
Mr. JUDD. Yes.
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Mr. Battle.
Mr. BATTLE. I would like to ask, Mr. Chairman, on this EDC proposition, whether or not it is emphatic or understood completely that Germany is going to be a part of the thing. Does this money go on the basis that Germany will be a part of the EDC?
Sir Winston Churchill, leader of the Conservative (Tory) Party, served as Prime Minister of Great Britain during the periods 1940-45 and 1951-55.
Hon. Cordell Hull was Secretary of State under President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the period 1933-44 and won the 1945 Nobel Peace Prize.
Alcide DeGasperi, a founder of the Italian Christian Democratic Party (CDP) after World War II, was Premier of Italy in the period 1945-53. Following the defeat of the CDP in the 1953 Italian national elections, he was forced to resign his leadership positlons. DeGasperi died in 1954.
Mr. RICHARDS. It goes on the supposition that these six countries will accomplish what they try to do in getting together. It will be Germany, Italy, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and Holland.
Mr. BATTLE. It is a necessity to get this money for Germany to be in there; is that right?
Mr. RICHARDS. It is a cinch Germany is going to be in this, or they will branch out on their own.
Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Read the paper this morning.
Mr. BATTLE. Mr. Chairman, so far as I am concerned, I think an amendment of this general nature is indispensable, not only for passage of the bill, but also to make sure that we accomplish something. Chairman CHIPERFIELD. Mr. Battle, Russia is trying to undermine us in Germany. It is in the paper this morning. There is no question about that. I do not want to get into this organization at all. We will let the committee decide.
Mr. FULTON. First, I want to say I am for the amendment. We have had also previous experience on this committee with the International Refugee Organization when France was holding back and not going in it. When it looked as if the funds were not coming on their general aid, there was a call here to our ambassador right from the outer committee room. They felt, when they were being held up on the other aid, that they would go along. So it does help officials in these countries.
AMOUNT OF AID FOR THE PROPOSED EDC
The other thing I wanted to ask about is a question as to the amount. What is the amount in for these six countries in the total for Europe, and how near does your amendment come to putting that total amount under the amendment?
Mr. RICHARDS. It would really give $1,120 million to the six countries, which is their proportionate share under the existing bill if this amendment was not on here. In addition to that, these countries get other help. France gets $500 million. I do not know what the committee is going to do on Indochina. They get $100 million directly out of the report. And then there is a $300 million fund going to Europe anyway and they will get a share of that. I think this is a very modest approach to it.
Mr. FULTON. The intention of your amendment is, then, under section 101 (a) (1), to put the exact proportion of the military aid going to these six countries under an EDC arrangement?
Mr. RICHARDS. That is right?
Mr. MORANO. Will the gentleman yield at that point?
Mr. FULTON. Yes.
Mr. MORANO. Are we then to understand from the author of this amendment that he does not favor any cuts?
Mr. RICHARDS. No, I do not say I will not favor any cuts, but I will certainly say I do not favor any drastic cut of the program.
Mr. MORANO. Would the gentleman be willing to say that he does not favor any cuts in that title of the bill?