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lished that Teutonic and Aryan pot-names were nationality of the settlers of one village recorded, formed, amongst other means, by using the first why should we not find other nationalities simistem of the compound or full name. Hence we larly recorded ? Let us see whither MR. ADDY'S expect to find an A.-S. Beorht the origin of the method of evolving history from local names will name Bright. This name does occur in its North- lead us. We will test our local names by some umbrian form Bercht, Berct, Berecht, no fewer other national dames besides Wealh. We are not tban fourteen times in the 'Liber Vitæ Dunel surprised to find the Saxons (A.-S. Seaxe) recorded mensis.' It is Latinized as Berctus in Bede, 'H. in Sax-by, Saxc-ton, Sax-ham,* but it rather E.,' iv. 26. There are many Middle-English ex- astonishes us to find them in the purely Anglian amples of compound names wherein Beorht occurs districts. And we may expect to find the name of in its correct M.E. form as Bryzt, &c. So that the Danes (A.-S. Dene) recorded, as we do in such local names in Bright contain no evidence what- names as Den-by, Dens-ton, Denaby, &c., for we ever of Celtic occupation.
are well aware that the Danes did settle in EngMR. ADDY next finds traces of Welsh settle- land. But what is the meaning of the gen. sing. ments in the local names Wales and Waleswood. in Dens-ton? In the light of our accepted history There are many similar names, such as Walesby, we bardly expect to find the Suevi, the Huns, the Waleston, Walsham, Walsall (*Weales-heall), on Franks, or the Vandals established upon English · the English maps.* There is a Wales-burna soil. Yet we find distinct traces of their names in mentioned in 872 ("Cartularium Saxonicum,' ii. our local nomenclature. The pame of the Suevi 162, 19). There is also a Vals-gard and Vals-bol occurs in Swaves-ey, Swafield, the two Swoff-hams, in Denmark; here it is plain that Val (=0.N. and in the Domesday Sueves-bi and Suave-torp, *Valr (pl. Valir), A.-S. Wealh) cannot refer to and in Swcéfes healh or heall, in 'Cart. Saxon.,' ii. the Welsh.t MR. Addy is no doubt correct in 490, 15. These names come clearly enough from deriving Wal from the A.S. wealh, gen. weales ; the A.-S. *Swa'f, pl. Swa'fas, or the correspondbut the deduction that he draws is wrong. This ing O.N. *Sváfr. The name of the Huns is preA.-S. wealh means a foreigner generally (specialized served in Hun-shelf, Hun-cote, Huns-bury, Hunsin England as a “Welshman"), and also a slave. coat, Hun-worth, &c., and in Húnes-cnoll (* Cart. Indeed, the corresponding fem. wielen is applied Saxon.,' ii. 603, 33) and Húnnes-wiell (id., i. 559, almost exclusively to slaves or handmaids. So 20). The name of the Franks is recorded in far we see that it is far from certain that Wealh Frank-ley and in the two Frank-tons. I The in these names means Welshman, for it is just as Vandals (A.-S. *Wendel, gen. *Wendles, pl. likely to mean “slave." But it does not mean Wendlas) are commemorated in Uuendles-clif either. MR. ADDY cites in support of his view (Cart. Saxon.,' i. 341, 11, 34), Wandles-cumbs the Hitchin field-name "Welshman's Croft.” But i Cod. Dipl.,' 'vi. 120, 15), Wendle-bury, and in we do not know the age of this name nor its Windsor (Wendles-ore, Windles-ora ; 'Cod. Dipl.,' original form, and it is extremely risky to found | iv. 165, 9; 178, 19). || And we must conclude etymologies upon modern forms without consulting from Pyhtes-léa® (Pytchley) of 'Cod. Dipl.,' iii. the old spellings. I Here is an apposite instance 439, 14, that even the Picts had a settlement in of this danger. The Lincolnshire Walesby is A.-S. times in Northamptonshire ! situted in Walsh-croft wapentake. This looks The results that we have arrived at are truly "Welsh” enough! But a reference to Domes- alarming. Very few historians will be found ready day shows that the wapentake was then known as to accept conclusions that involve a Suevic, a Walescro8 ; so we see that the Walsh has arisen Hunnish, a Frankish, and a Vandal participation from the dropping of the e of the gen., the in the English Conquest. All these names must coalescence of the s of the gen. and the c of the stand or fall together. If we admit that the local cros, and the subsequent palatalization of the sc. names in Wales are proof of distinct Celtic settleHence the genesis of the Walsh is clear enough. ments in English districts, then, also, must we be
In any other science than etymology it is needless prepared to believe that the Sueves, Huns, Franks, to insist upon the danger of arguing from particulars. The danger is just as great in etymology, * Their name also occurs in the Danish Sax-trup though not so generally recognized. The following (trup=thorpe). instances reveal this danger. If we find the † This is preserved in the Danish Svave-sted. Here
we have a Suevic village in Denmark !
I Cf. also the Danish Franke-rup (=Frank-thorpe). In Walsham and Walsall the a bas been labialized The æ of Wandles has arisen from the common by the subsequent l. In the other cases the e has pre-confusion in late A.-S. MSS. of e and æ. Hence Wandles vented this labialization,
Wendles. † There is also a Vals-fjord in Norway.
|| These instances are from charters of dubious authen1 In this article, where I give the modern orthograpby ticity, but the form of the name agrees with the twelfth of local names, it is to be understood that that ortbo- and thirteenth century Windlesora, &c. The etymology graphy is contirmed by Domesday or some other early "winding.shore” is a wild guess. It is, however, adopted authority,
by Dr. Taylor in that seges errorum, “Words and Places.'
and Vandals had similar villages inbabited solely find an actual instance, apart from the evidence of by men of their own tribe. * It is evident, there- local names, of the use of these pet forms. The fore, that we must reject MR. ADDY's line of argu- evidence being ample that the Anglo-Saxons used ment unless we are prepared to rewrite our early all the above stems in compounding full names, history. I hold that these names no more prove we are, I hold, entitled to assume that they also the existence of such national or tribal settle- used these stems alone as pet formg. For instance, ments tban the name of the present King of Italy we know that Wealh was used in full names; thereproves that he is a Hun.
fore we can at once assume a pet-name Wealh. The What, then, is the explanation of these names ? accuracy of our principles is at once established by My answer is that it is to be found in the Anglo- the occurrence of this very name in the following Saxon system of personal names, which is, in instances : A.D. 696-713, Walh presbyter, ‘Cart. truth, the key to the etymology of a large pro- Saxon.,' i. 131, 27; A.D. 696-716, Walh presbyter, portion of our local names. Every one of the id., i. 131, 27; A.D. 757, Vales, gen., id., i. 262, 14; above names is derived from a personal name em A.D. 777-9, Wales, gen., id., i. 313, 13; 325, 10; bodying a national name. The Teutonic tribes A.D. 800-900, Walch, 'Liber Vitæ Dunelm.,' 20, adopted tribal and national names—such as Angle, col. 3 ; A.D. 805-31, Wealh, 'Cart. Saxon.,' i. 445, Goth, Frank, Sacon, Sueve, Vandal, Dane, Hun, 26. I have instances of the use of the pet forms &c.-as name-stems; that is, they were freely com- Hún and Dene, and the existence of Swae'f is pounded with other stems to form personal names. proved by the Swce'fes-healh or heall of 'Cart. Sax;' Adopting the same principle, the Anglo-Saxons ii
. 490, 15; but so far I have not met with instances similarly used Piht, a Pict. The name-stem Wealh of the names Franc, Wendel, and Sear. But as was, no doubt, used by them long before they made these names are regular formations from authentiacquaintance with the Welsb. Jordanes, c. xiv., cated name-stems, and as they are preserved and records a fourth century Vala-rauans,t an ancestor recorded in local names, there is not the slightest of Theodoric the Great. The *Walhs of this name reason to doubt their having existed. cannot, it is evident, refer to either the Welsh or To show the fallacy of MR. Addy's arguments it the Italians, but relates to some other non-Teutonic is only necessary to consider that most of the Norrace, whose acquaintance the Teutons had made at mantons are older than the Norman conquest, and a much earlier date. I These names compounded hence cannot record Norman settlements. They with national o nes were, of course, subject to are derived from the name Nord-mann. Simi. the same laws as the other Teutonic names. Hence larly the Nottinghamshire Saxon-dale does not the first stem could be used as a pet or diminutive record a Saxon settlement, but is derived from the form. It is this practice that accounts for the personal name Seax-a, masc., or *Seax-e, fem., gen. appearance of these national names in our English masc. and fem. Seax-an. local names. In other words, local names in The notion that Gestfield, and Sibbfield, record Weales., Swa'fes, Hunes., Denes-, Wendles-, &c., a Celtic occupation is surely one of the most absurd are simply derived from men named Wealh, Swee'f, arguments that has been produced even by the Hún, Dene, Wendel, &c.; or, to put it more accu “Celtic" etymologists. It is astonishing enough rately, from men whose full names began with these to hear of separate Welsh and English villages in stems,
A.-S. times ; but the idea of separate settlements I have maintained upon several occasions that it in the fields of one village, distinguished as the is only necessary for us to know that a certain " friends' field ” = English, and the “ foes' field”. stem was used in compounding personal names to Welsh, is one that very few people will be able to enable us to assume, with reasonable certainty, swallow.
W. H. STEVENSON. that that stem was used alone as a pet form. I have been assailed for this by those who were not acquainted with the principles of the Teutonic 'FAME'S MEMORIALL,' BY JOHN FORD. Dame-system; but every day confirms me more and
Ford's dull and pompous lament for Charles more in my opinion. It is not always possible to Blount, Baron Mountjoy, who was created Earl of
Devonshire in 1603 by James I., has suffered a * This is, practically, the view adopted by Dr. Taylor general, and perhaps merited neglect. I wish to call in Words and Places."
| This represents a Gothic *Wala-hrabns, A.-s. attention, however, to a few points connected with * Wealh-kræfn, O.H.G. Walah-kraban. The High Ger: it, which may not be without interest either to man or Frankish form of this name is familiar to us in the biographical or bibliographical student. The the Norman Waleran or the French Gualeran. The subject of the poem, it will be remembered, was for name Balcho-baudes in Ammianus Marcellinus,, xxvii. some years before his death a lover of Lady Rich, 2, 6, is, according to Dietrich, from the stem Walho-2.
better known as Sir Philip Sidney's “ Stella. This I The impossibility of interpreting these personal names as having any ethnic origin is shown by the A.-s. lady lived from the first very unhappily with her names Wéalh-hún and Piht-hún, where we have two husband, and about Nov. 15, 1605, she obtained nistaral names in each compound.
a divorce from him, On December 26 following
she was married to the Earl of Devonshire at Wan- late husband, and this view is supported by the stead, in Essex, by William Laud, at that time his fact that the three verses omitted from the printed chaplain.
edition are more directly addressed to her and This event caused considerable scandal at Court, more personal than any others in the work. The where before both parties had enjoyed great favour. second especially describes very forcibly the conThe legality of the marriage was disputed, and in trast between Lady Devonshire's position at Court turn defended by the earl in a learned protest before and after her second marriage. The differaddressed to the king. James remained obdurate, ences between MS. and printed text gain in and when the earl died, April 3, 1606, the heralds, interest if we may conclude that they were desired it is said, refused to quarter his wife's arms on his by her. The following are the omitted stanzas, tomb. Public opinion, however, was divided. They occur after the verse beginning.“O sad Lamentations for the deceased appeared as usual, disgrace" (v. 94), which, with the previous one, and among them was what seems to be Ford's first is slightly altered from the original MS. :poetical effort. A MS. of Fame's Memoriall'is
Lyue thou vntoucht foreuer aboue fame ! preserved in the Bodleian Library (Malone, 238). More happie yt thou canst not be more haplesse ! It is a beautifully written small quarto. When
The wordes of malice are an vsual game, purchased, Malone says in a note, it had gilt edges,
Whose mouth is lawlesse, whose invention saplesse,
Their breast of hony tornes to poison paplesse and is in all probability the actual copy presented
Still be thine eares to sufferance tun'd readio to the widowed countess. A comparison of this
In mynde resolu'd in resolution stedie, MS. with the first edition, printed by Christopher
What hee, amongst the proudest of contempt Purset, 1606, and, I believe, all subsequent editions, Whiles as thy sunshine lasted, did not bend reveals three stanzas more in the MS., 151 against Vnto thy presence? flattery redempt 148, and different, apparently contradictory, Wth seruice on their seruice did attend ? dedications. I will notice the latter first. After All stryving to admire, protest, comend,
Wch now by imputation black as hell a few lines coinmon to both, the Epistle Dedicatory
They seemo to derrogate from dooing well. (which, by the way, is quaintly addressed to the Rightlie right Honorable Ladie, the ladie Pene
Thy virtue caus’d thy honor to support thee
In noble contract of vndoubted merit, lope Countesse of Deuonshire”) in the MS. runs :
His knowledge to his credence did report thee “Yet ere I committed it to the presse (for fame A creature of a more then female sperit, yndiuulged is an bidden minerall) being vnknowne ynto Concord of musick did thy soule inherit, you, I might haue beene imputed as much impudent as Courtiers but counterfeit thy Rarity fond if I had not first presented it to yor milder view : For thy perfections brookt no parity. Earnest to ynderstand whether your acceptation and The next verse begins as in the printed editions, liking may priuiledge the passe vnder your honorable “Even as a quire."
RACHAEL POOLE, conduct: wch if it may, I shall deeme my willing paines, (though hitherto confined to the Inns of Court a Studie different) higblie guerdoned; and myne vnfeathered Muse richlie graced wth ye Plumes of soe worthie a
ALE-Tasters.—I think the following is worthy protectresse. The honourer & Louer of your Noble of preservation in ‘N. & Q.':perfections, John Ford."
“A correspondent of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle The parallel passage in the first edition runs :
gives the following particulars concerning the last of the
ale-tasters :—The late Richard Taylor, of Bacup (the ale“Let not therefore (worthie Countesse) my rasher pre- taster of Rossendale), may with propriety be described as sumption seem presumptuous folly, in the eyes of your dis- the last of the ale tasters. His proper calling was that creeter iudegment, in that without your priuitio (being a of a spindlemaker, hence his nickname . Spindle Dick'; meere straunger alltogether vnknowne to you) I haue thus and the curious will find allusions to him in the History aduentured to shelter my lines vnder the well-guided of Rossendale.' He was a fellow of infinite humour, and conduct of your Honorable
name : Srounding my boldnes performed his duties to his lord and the halmot jury as upon this assurance that true ge’tility is euer acco'panya | if to the manner born, as the following extract from one (especially in your sex, more specially in your selfe) of his annual reports will testify :- The appointment with her inseparable adiunct singular Humanity, princi- which I hold is a very ancient one, dating (as you are pally towards those whom neither Mercenary hopes or aware) from the time of the good King Alfred, when the seruile flattery haue induced to speake but with the jury at the court leet appointed their head-boroughs, Priuiledge of troth...... Thus (Madame) presuming on tithing men, bursholder, and ale-taster, which appoint, your acceptance I will think my willing paines," &c.
ments were again regulated in the time of King Edward The two dedications, I have said, appear contra- III., and through neglect this important office to a beerdictory. But it seems most unlikely that Ford imbibing population ought not to be suffered to fall into should have abstained from presenting his lament beer is meat, drink, and washing; do away with the office
disrepute or oblivion...... To some Rossendale men, indeed, to the Countess of Devonshire after having it of ale-taster, an inferior quality of the beverage may be copied by a professional transcriber.for the pur- sold, and the consequent waste of tissue would be awful pose. The explanation is probably that Lady to contemplate...... In my district there are fifty-five Devonshire disliked to appear to sanction the licensed public-houses and sixty-five beer-houses. The publication of a poem which treated very frankly and calculated to prevent the deterioration of tissue, and
quality of beer retailed at these houses is generally good, various matters concerning herself and her I do not detect any signs of adulteration. When dis
charging bis high functions, Dick carried in his coat of the name was partly brought about by the fact pocket a pewter gill measure of peculiar old-world shape, that Pliny speaks also of a Chalcedonian jasper that projected straight from the middle of the side. This (Nat. Hist.,' xxxvii. 37). But it is not likely that symbol of his office was secured by a leathern thong about the third stone in the foundation of the New Jeruhalf a yard in length, one end being round the handle, salem was the “chalcedonius” described by Pliny the other through a button-bole in his coat. As might ( Nat. Hist.,' xxxvii. 18). The fourth stone was the Bench on the charge of being drunk and incapable ; to The third is called yadındúv in most of the MSS., be expected, he was occasionally summoned before the opápaydos, translated “ emerald ” in our
versions. before a subordinate court and fined five shillings and
costs but there are other readings, externally indeed of whilst fulfilling the duties of my office. In a wide and no great authority, which make it very probable populous district the duties when conscientiously per- that the original reading was kapxndóv, the Greek formed were more than mortal stomach could bear un word for Carthage, from
which a species of the car. harmed; in the words of the good ale-conner, deteriora bunculus or carbuncle was called "carchedonius," tion of tissue' was certain to ensue. The last of the aletasters died, a mart' to duty, on October 10, 1876.” propter opulentiam Carthaginis magnæ” (Pliny, WALTER KIRKLAND.
'Hist. Nat.,' xxxvii. 25). The carbuncle was called Eastbourne.
åvopag by the Greek writers (that name occurs in
the Septuagint, Ex. xxviii. 18, where the stone A CURE FOR WHOOPING Cough.—The follow-composes one of the twelve on the breastplate of ing appeared in the Edinburgh Evening News of the high priest), from its supposed resemblance to Saturday, May 14, 1887. Maryhill
, the scene of a live coal, and the Latin name is derived in a the incident described, is a large and important similar manner from “carbo” (Pliny, in loc. cit., suburb of Glasgow ; indeed, it is practically an "a similitudine ignium appellati”). integral portion of the “second city.” Perhaps Attention was called to the probability of readers will say whether anything of a similar kapxydóv being the true reading in Rev. xxi. 19 character has recently come under their notice : by a London Physician” in a very interesting
"On Thursday a travelling candyman and rag-gatherer, little work published by him a few years ago with a cart drawn by an ass, drew up in front of a row under the title "The Precious Stones of the Bible.' of houses know as Pirrat’s Row, a little off the high. It is evident that this was also the opinion of Mr. way at Maryhill, Glasgow. Two children living in this King, who seems to have fallen into the error of short conversation with the proprietor of the ass, the supposing that the translators of the Authorized mothers of the two children took up a position one on Version took the same view. "Epiphanius," he says each side of the animal. One woman then took one of (* Precious Stones and Gems,' p. 157), "and the the children and passed it below the ass's belly to the Vulgate render yadındúv, the third stone in the other woman, the child's face being towards the ground. foundations of the New Jerusalem, by smaragdus, The woman on the other side caught hold of the child, but the Authorized Version translates it' and, giving it a gentle somersault, handed it back to the other woman over the ass, the child's face being turned buncle.'". The Authorized Version, the Douay, and towards the sky. The process having been repeated three the Revised Version all call it " chalcedony," times, the child was taken away to the house, and then the and the Vulgate has "chalcedonius," the fourth second child was similarly treated. While this was going stone being the “smaragdus,” from the Greek on two other children were brought to undergo the magical opápayồos, correctly translated in the English effect the ass must not be forgotten, and at the close of
W. T. Lynn. the ceremony each mother must carry her child to the head of the animal, and allow it to eat something, such as BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOOL AND COLLEGE bread or biscuits, out of the child's lap. This proceeding Magazines.-Such a bibliography is still a dehaving been performed in turn by the four mothers, the prescribed course was concluded. When it began there
sideratum. The following is the result of some were not many people present, but before it was finished gleapings in this field, which the readers of quite a crowd of spectators had gathered. From inquiries N. & Q.' may be able to increase. made yesterday morning, and again last night, it seems the mothers are thoroughly satisfied that their children Monthly Magazine. 2 vols. 8vo., Oxford, 1750
The Student ; or, the Oxford and Cambridge are the better of the enchantment."
1751.- This is the first college magazine I have Helensburgh, N.B.
come across. Lowndes gives "Tho. Warton, Smart,
Bonnel Thorton, Geo. Colman, and Dr. Sam. CHALCEDONY, CARBUNCLE.— It is well known Jobnson " 'as the contributors. An annotated that the precious stone called chalcedony in Rev. copy exists in the Dyce Collection. xxi. 19 is not the stone which now goes by that The Microcosm : a Periodical Work by Gregory Dame, and is popularly called “white carnelian.” Griffin, of the College of Eton. Windsor, 1786. The “chalcedonius" of Pliny was an inferior kind This magazine, to which the four principal writers of smaragdus or emerald, found in the copper- were John Smith, Robert Smith, George Canning, mines near Chalcedon. Mr. King thinks ('Precious and John Hookham Frere, ran through at least Stones and Gems,' p. 158) that the transference four editions, the fourth appearing in 1809.
The Trifler.-A Westminster School magazine of Eastwood, near Glasgow, the following items about 1788.
occur of disbursements for tobacco during two The Flagellant. 1792.—This was a Westminster months. The prices are in Scots currency, the School magazine conducted by Southey, and for pound Scots being equal to twenty pencesteran article in it on “Flogging ” he was expelled. ling:It consisted of five numbers.
Maii, 1651. The College Magazine. Hore Otios.- These It. to Andro Carnduff for 4 pund of Tobacco 1 0 0 two magazines in MS.) were Eton productions it. To Robert Hamilton Chapman for Tobacco 18 about 1819, the writers being Lord Carlisle, H. N. It. 9 June to my wife to give for sax trenchers
1 13 4 Coleridge, W. Sidney Walker, Moultrie, C. H. It. 10 June. The sa day for tobacco & stuffes 0 14 4 Townshend, and Trower.
28 June, It, for tobacco
0 13 9 Apis Matina, 1820.—This, another Eton maga
A. G. REID, F.S.A. Scot. zine, was mainly the work of W. M. Praed, and Auchterarder. consisted of six monthly numbers. Among the
Eight HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY Sr. other contributors were Trower (afterwards Bishop
ERKENWALD.- St. Erkenwald, third Bishop of of Gibraltar) and F. Curzon.
The Etonian. London, 1820-21. 2 vols. It London, who died about A.D. 685, founded two appeared in October, and was carried on with monasteries, one at Chertsey, and the other at great spirit by Praed, H. N. Coleridge, Moultrie. Barking, in Essex. These foundations were both īt ran through four éditions, and Charles Knight of them commemorated on a tablet in St. Paul's,
London :was the publisher. The Brazen Head. Cambridge, 1826. - It ran
“ Is prius quam episcopus factus esset duo preclara for three numbers notwithstanding Praed's bril. hereditario sibi obvenerunt, unum sibi in finibus aus
construxit monasteria sumptibus suis, de bonis que jure liant papers in it.
tralium Saxonum, loco qui Cartesey vocatur, alterum The Snob. Cambridge, 1829.—Edited by Thac- Edelburge sorori sue, femini laudatissime, ad 'Bereking keray, who wrote, among other things, a parody on in ditione Orientalium Saxonum,” &c. Tennyson's prize poem Timbuctoo,' which was Erkenwald, moreover, enlarged the church of St. the talk of the day. It lived for nine numbers. Paul, as we learn from the same inscription, “Idem
The Gownsman. Cambridge, 1830.—This was Erkenwaldas celeberrimum hoc S. Pauli templum another of Thackeray's undertakings. Seventeen novis edificiis auxit,” &c.
Whence you may numbers appeared.
observe that " celeberrimum hoc S. Pauli tem. The Eagle. Cambridge, 1867.—The late Prof. plum" could never be the language of Erkenwald's Palmer was one of the editorg.
time, neither would he have been buried in the Momus. —Another college venture, of which church ; so that we may be assured the inscripPalmer and Mr. Walter Pollock were the editors. tion was not written till the translation of his
I hope that this very incomplete list may be bones, anno 1140 ; and, indeed, as Weever obgreatly enlarged by the readers of 'N. & Q.' serves, the whole of it is compiled from Bede (iv.
J. MALCOLM BULLOCH. c. 6) and the annals of this church. Aberdeen.
This inscription was destroyed in the Fire of A CENTURY OLD “Plaster SCRATCH.”—The Rev. s. Pegge’s ‘Sylloge of Authentic Inscrip
London, 1666, and has never been replaced. See following inscription is scratched in the plaster tions."
W. LOVELL. near the large window in the “Governor's Room"
Cambridge. in the Moorish Castle, Gibraltar :G. Regt.
“WOMAN” OR “FEMALE." When will “the W. Ross, Royal Attilery} Drummers.
better half of creation " be properly called ? The Confined April 4, 1787, for being insolent to the Drum Public Baths of Oldham are now being rebuilt, Major, 681h Regt., which the Governor tipt a cob for and the two principal entrances bear the words being a good soldier. May it come through him liko dogs hunting sheep
above them “Females," "Males." The kindliness mightes.
shown to dumb creatures in these later days may G. Brown. W. Ross.
be carried beyond the lines of sense if the CorporaW. Newland, 32nd Regt. Wm Trunnell, Corpl. 25th Regt. tion of Oldham really propose, as they set forth in
R. STEWART PATTERSON, stone, that hot, cold, and Turkish baths will in
Chaplain H.M. Forces. the future be provided for cows and bulls, and the Hale Crescent, Farnham.
females and males generally of all created things.
Old-fashioned “men” and “women THE PRICE OF TOBACCO IN 1649. (See 7th S. out of date.
J. Rose. iii. 106.)– Tobacco appears to have been cheap Southport and largely used at this period in Scotland. In å MS. account of household expenses kept by BOUTER.-In the 'Life of Crabbe,' by his son the Rev. William Hamilton, minister of the parish (vol. i. pp. 142-6), there is an admirable picture