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INTRODUCTION......

CONTENTS.

1. Experience

2. Analogy

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3. Testimony

4. Calculations of Chances

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Part IV. The Superiority of Scientific Evidence re-examined.............

CHAP. VI. Of th Nature and Use of the scholastic Art of Syllogizing...
CHAP. VII. Of the Consideration which the Speaker ought to have of the Hear-

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ers as Men in general..

SECT. I. As endowed with Understanding..

SECT. II. As endowed with Imagination.

SECT. III. As endowed with Memory

SECT. IV. As endowed with Passions

99

SECT. V. The Circumstances that are chiefly instrumental in operating on

the Passions

Part I. Probability.

Part II. Plausibility..

Part III. Importance

Part IV. Proximity of Time...................................................................

Part V. Connexion of Place...................................................................................................... 110

Part VI. Relation to the Persons concerned.......................................................................

103

104

ib.

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111

ib.

117

Part VII. Interest in the Consequences.

SECT. VI. Other Passions, as well as Moral Sentiments, useful Auxiliaries... 112

SECT. VII. How an unfavourable Passion must be calmed...

115

CHAP. VIII. Of the Consideration which the Speaker ought to have of the Hear-

ers as such Men in particular

CHAP. IX. Of the Consideration which the Speaker ought to have of himself. 118

CHAP. X. The different Kinds of public Speaking in use among the Moderns,

compared with a View to their different Advantages in respect of Eloquence 121

SECT. I. In regard to the Speaker.....

ib.

SECT. II. In regard to the Persons addressed

............................. 124

SECT. III. In regard to the Subject

...................................... 126

SECT. IV. In regard to the Occasion........................ ........ ............................. 128

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Canon the Sixth.

Canon the Seventh

Canon the Eighth
Canon the Ninth

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Part VII. From long Sentences

SECT. II. The double Meaning...

Part I. Equivocation

Part II. Ambiguity.

SECT. III. The Unintelligible

Part I. From Confusion of Thought.
Part II. From Affectation of Excellence

Part III. From Want of Meaning..

Under this the various Kinds of Nonsense:

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ib.

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ought it to be attempted?.....

CHAP. II. Of Vivacity as depending on the Number of the Words............ 353

SECT. I. This Quality explained and exemplified........

SECT. II. The principal Offences against Brevity considered

Part I. Tautology.

Part II. Pleonasm.......................................................

Part III. Verbosity

CHAP. III. Of Vivacity as depending on the Arrangement of the Words...... 372

SECT. I. Of the Nature of Arrangement, and the principal Division of Senten-

ib.

358

ib.

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ces ....

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SECT. II. Simple Sentences......................................................................................................................... 374

SECT. III. Complex Sentences .....

.............. 388

Part I. Subdivision of these into Periods and loose Sentences

.... ib.

Part II. Observations on Periods, and on the Use of Antithesis in the Compo-

sition of Sentences

Part III. Observations on loose Sentences.....

292

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Part IV. Review of what has been deduced above in regard to Arrangement 403

CHAP. IV. Of the Connectives employed in combining the Parts of a Sentence 404

SECT. I. Of Conjunctions ......

SECT. II. Of other Connectives.....

...... 405

... 411

SECT. III. Modern Languages compared with Greek and Latin, particularly in

regard to the Composition of Sentences..

CHAP. V. Of the Connectives employed in combining the Sentences in a Dis-

419

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course

SECT. I. The Necessity of Connectives for this Purpose................... ib

SECT. II. Observations on the Manner of using the Connectives in combining

Sentences

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424

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ist,

ALL art is founded in science, and the science is of little value which does not serve as a foundation to some beneficial art. On the most sublime of all sciences, theology and ethics, is built the most important of all arts, the art of living. The abstract mathematical sciences serve as a groundwork to the arts of the land-measurer and the accountant; and in conjunction with natural philosophy, including geography and astronomy, to those of the architect, the navigator, the dialand many others. Of what consequence anatomy is to surgery, and that part of physiology which teaches the laws of gravitation and of motion, is to the artificer, is a matter too obvious to need illustration. The general remark might, if necessary, be exemplified throughout the whole circle of arts, both useful and elegant. Valuable knowledge, therefore, always leads to some practical skill, and is perfected in it. On the other hand, the practical skill loses much of its beauty and extensive utility which does not originate in knowledge. There is, by consequence, a natural relation between the sciences and the arts, like that which subsists between the parent and the offspring.

INTRODUCTION

I acknowledge, indeed, that these are sometimes unnaturally separated; and that by the mere influence of example on the one hand, and imitation on the other, some progress may be made in an art, without the knowledge of the principles from which it sprang. By the help of a few rules, which men are taught to use mechanically, a good practical arithmetician may be formed, who neither knows the reasons on which the rules he works by were first established, nor ever thinks it of any moment to inquire into them. In like manner, we frequently meet with expert artisans, who are ignorant of the six mechanical powers, which, though in the exercise of their profession they daily employ, they do not understand the principles whereby, in any instance, the result of their application is ascertained. The propagation of the arts may therefore be compared more justly to that variety which takes place in the vegetable kingdom, than to the uniformity which obtains universally in the animal world; for, as to the anomalous race of zoophytes, I do not comprehend them in the number. It is not always necessary that the plant spring from the seed, a slip from another plant will often answer the purpose.

There is, however, a very considerable difference in the

B

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