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commemorated in this scene. The picture has been almost entirely hammered out by some one who wished to obliterate the memorial, and its real significance is lost.

For the most part, her years seem to have passed in prosperity and peace; the sovereign was entirely occupied with the internal affairs of the kingdom, and no record remains which suggests that she impoverished the treasury or sacrificed her people in the prosecution of wars.

If in the end the empire lost some of its Asiatic provinces by this peaceful policy, the land of Egypt was certainly the better for it; since the long period of peace was employed in developing its resources, adding to its buildings and restoring its ruins.

The whole valley of the Nile bears witness to the industry of this reign. In the great temple of Amen at Karnak, Hatshepsut not only added sculptures to several side chambers, but chose this site for the erection of her two obelisks. The larger one of these commemorated the

Sed festival,” which occurred in the sixteenth year of her reign. In planning these obelisks, Hatshepsut, as usual, asserts devotion to her divine father Amen as the leading motive: “I make this known,” declares the queen,“ to the "generations which are to come, whose hearts will enquire “after this monument which I have made for my father, “and who will talk enquiringly and gaze upon it in future: "I sat in the palace and thought upon him who created me, "and my heart prompted me to raise to him two obelisks of "electrum, whose apices should pierce the firmaments, “ before the noble gate-way between the two pylons of “Thotmes I.. . . Beware of saying, 'I know not, I know

not, why it was resolved to carve this mountain wholly of “gold.' These two obelisks, my Majesty has made them of “electrum for my father Amen, that my name may remain "and live on in this temple for ever and ever."

LEPAGE-RENOUF, R.P., XII, 133-135; M.'s S.N., 244.

The description of the obelisks as “mountains wholly of gold” is only the usual Pharaonic exaggeration always found in the laudatory accounts of their own works. The lower terrace of the queen's temple has a representation of the transport of the obelisks from Elephantine. They were placed on a barge and towed by thirty boats with crews of more than a thousand men down the river to Thebes. Only seven months' time was required for the quarrying, inscribing, transportation, and erection of the great monoliths. The tops were gilded, and the towering shafts of polished rose granite must have been beautiful indeed, when, rising above the temple buildings, “their brilliancy lit up the two lands of Egypt.”

The greater of these two obelisks is 97: feet in height, and when its metal top caught the sunlight, it would have been a glittering spot in the clear atmosphere, visible from every direction for many miles. It is still standing, the finest obelisk in Egypt, although the gilded covering of the apex has long since disappeared.

In all of the queen's works, she had the services of a great architect, Senmut by name, who was one of the most important figures of his time. He built temples for her Majesty, and erected the obelisks at Thebes; he was the queen's royal seal-bearer and chief tutor to her children. On his stela at Aswan he stands before Hatshepsut, and is styled, “the companion greatly beloved, keeper of the palace, “keeper of the heart of the queen, making content the Lady "of both lands, making all things come to pass for the spirits " of her Majesty."

Hatshepsut's building achievements in Egypt were not her only enterprises. She caused the reopening of the ancient mines of Sinai, and obtained from thence a quantity of the green stones used in decoration and in jewellery. The officer sent to accomplish this mission also restored a temple of Hathor in the distant land.

· The only taller obelisk in existence is in Rome, before the church of S. Giov. Laterano. It was erected in Thebes by Thotmes III.

The length of the queen's reign cannot be stated exactly, nor the date of her death. Considering the force of her character and the firm hand with which she held the sceptre, it is only reasonable to suppose that she never relinquished it in life. In the remains of her buildings at Karnak, mention is made of the seventeenth year. This was the latest date known of her reign, until Mr. Petrie found at Sinai a stela set up at the shrine of Hathor, dated in the twentieth year

year of Hatshepsut and Thotmes III. Among the last works of the queen was a rock shrine in Middle Egypt, an important monument now known as the "Speos Artemidos.” The sanctuary was excavated from the rock, and entered by a vestibule with eight columns. It was dedicated to the lion-headed goddess Pacht, and has above the entrance a long inscription, in which the queen recapitulates the chief events of her reign.

In her greatest memorial, the Memnonium at Deir elBahari, she apparently wrote down the events of her life as they occurred. M. Naville says, “ It was like an open book, “ in which was inscribed during the queen's lifetime all she “ wished to hand down to posterity.” The building, or at least the decoration of it, was left unfinished at her death. All the members of the queen's family accompany her in this splendid monument, which she raised to perpetuate her memory; her grandmother Senseneb, her father Thotmes I., her husband Thotmes II., and Khebt-neferu, Neferura, and Thotmes III., her sister, daughter, and nephew.

The only instance in Egyptian annals of the personal description of a woman given by herself is in the case of Hatshepsut, who uses no measured terms:3 "His Majesty “herself put with her own hands oil of ani on all her limbs. “Her fragrance was like a divine breath, her scent reached “as far as the land of Punt; her skin is made of gold, it

· ERMAN thought she might have been deposed by Thotmes III. ? N., T.H., 57. 3 Temple Deir el-Bahari, N., T.H., 39.

66

"shines like the stars in the hall of festival, in the view of

the whole land. ... They celebrate Kamara, in her divine "doings, as she is such a great marvel. She had no equal " among the gods who were before since the world was. “She is living Ra eternally. He hath selected her for

protecting Egypt and for rousing bravery among men. . . “Horus, the avenger of her father, the first-born of his mother's "husband, whom Ra has engendered to be his glorious seed “ upon earth and to give happiness to future generations, being his living image, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Kamara, the electrum (gold) of kings.”

“By my life, by the love of Ra and the favour of my "father Amen, ... I bear the white crown, I am diademed “ with the red crown, . . . I rule over this land like the son “of Isis, I am mighty like the son of Nu, . . . I shall be “ for ever like the star which changeth not. He gave me my “ royal power over Egypt and the red country, all the foreign “ lands are under my feet . . . all the marvels and the “precious things of this land, they are presented to my

palace altogether ... (turquoise) of the land of Reshut " they bring to me the choicest things from the oasis of "Testesu (Dakhel), acacia, juniper, mer-wood . . . all the 'good woods of the divine land ... Tribute is brought to “me from the land of the Tahennu in ivory, seven hundred “ tusks ... She lives, she is stable, she is in good health, "she is joyous as well as her double on the throne of Horus "of the living like the sun, for ever and ever.”l

She reigned for at least thirty-three years, and although the date of her death is not known, her funeral ceremonies are represented on some red sandstone blocks found at Karnak. The queen is there shown in the form of an Osirian statue, and her inscription reads, "Kamara joins herself to the beauties of Amen,” which is to say that death has made her one with the god-head. A personage who is · From The Obelisk inscriptions at Karnak, NAVILLE, T.H., 48-51. LEGRAIN, 1897, Cairo M., Gal. O, 360.

probably Thotmes III., offers his devotions to the statue of the deceased sovereign. She was buried, it may be presumed, with all the pomp befitting so great a queen, in a rock tomb at Thebes. Until recently it was supposed that this tomb existed under the sanctuary of her temple at Deir el-Bahari, which some hidden stairway connected with the burial vault.

In the winter of 1904, however, the actual tomb was discovered and cleared by Mr. T. M. Davis, in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings. It is situated far away from the temple, on the other side of the mountain. Before the entrance to the tomb a foundation deposit was found in a shallow hole cut in the rock. The deposit consisted of small alabaster vases, many red pottery vases of ten different shapes, models of tools, with traces of gold leaf upon them, other models in wood and bronze, mats, baskets, a bundle of samples of linen, and a quantity of desiccated bread.?

The subterranean gallery leading to the tomb was of an unprecedented length, curving under ground for a distance of more than 200 metres, when it finally ended in the tomb chamber. This was in a totally ruined condition owing to the bad quality of the rock in which it had been cut. Unfortunately the burial chamber had been rifled long before this discovery, and nothing was found except a fine sarcophagus of red sandstone which had once been the resting place of the queen's body ;3 a second sarcophagus with the name of her father Thotmes I.; an empty canopic box, and some fragments of bowls and vases. These were of alabaster, blue glaze and red pottery, and were stamped with the cartouches of the queen, of Thotmes I. and II., and of her great-grandmother Aahmes

i N., T.H., 71, 72.

· Report of HOWARD CARTER in Tomb of Hatshopsitt, 104106. : Cairo M., Central Atrium, 528.

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