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BY

JANET R. BUTTLES

WITH A PREFACE BY

PROFESSOR G. MASPERO

ILLUSTRATED.

NEW YORK D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1908

F Elg 84515
I.7238

HARVARD COLLEGE

NOV 1900

LI

Mary Csgood fund

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

In the following preface, Professor Maspero has so clearly pointed out the difficulties which present themselves to the compiler of a history of this kind, that further word of explanation seems almost superfluous.

No claim for original research work of any sort is made for this sketch of the Queens of Egypt. The writer's attempt has been rather to collect, in convenient form, as much as was possible of the widely scattered evidence on the subject. So many of the royal women who shared the throne of the Pharaohs have left no traces on the land of their inheritance, that this attempt to tell their story results at best in only a brief outline of the prominent figures, the many gaps which occur in the long line of heiresses being but imperfectly filled here and there by isolated names unaccompanied by signs which indicate family or period. In the cases of many of the best known queens, Egyptologists often disagree in their explanation of evidence, and widely opposed theories result. In this volume the effort has been to choose a middle course between any two great extremes, and generally to give the views of more than one authority on disputed points.

In the Valley of the Nile, every year brings forth fresh discoveries, any one of which may throw new light on some of the many mysteries by which we are confronted in the study of the Ancient Egyptian Sovereigns; and

it may

well be found easier to write their histories in more detail a few years hence than it is at present.

I am under deep obligations to Professor Maspero for his preface to this volume, and for his kindness in having read the proofs.

My thanks are also due to Dr. Wiedemann, and to M. Legrain, for notes; to Mr. Percy E. Newberry, for having read the first part of the book in manuscript, and for placing at my disposal many of his own notes; to Mr. T. M. Davis, for permission to use the Plates Nos. I and VI, from his publication on the tomb of Hâtshopsîta ; and to Émile Brugsch Pasha, for courteous assistance in the Cairo Museum, for the use of books, and for his fine photographs, from which, with the exception of Plates I, IV, V, and VI, all the illustrations in this volume are taken.

JANET R. BUTTLES. .

Florence,

February, 1908.

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