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ner addeth : “ Thisz infinite multitude which environs one man's soul, is by his spirit governed, and by his reason guided ; which otherwise would oppress and break herself with her own force, if by his counsel she were not sustained.” For, “ Hea is the bond which holds fast the state together, he is that vital breath which so many thousands draw in; who otherwise as a lifeless and unwieldy load would prove a booty, if that soul of the empire were ta

ken away."

The king being safe, one mind unites them all;
He gone, their league dissolveth, and they fall.

XXVI. Where further also it is to be considered, that the placing of the supremacy of civil power (which the Latins call majesty, the Grecians κύριον πολίτευμα, κυρίαν ao xnv, and ăkpav čovolav) in some certain head, is so essential to all states of government, that from it the

formal difference ariseth of all particular kinds thereof. For, although in Switzerland, for example, the cantons have their several magistrates, who during the time of their government order all things among the people, yet are they not an aristocracy for that, but a mere democracy; because these officers derive their authority wholly from the people, and to them or their deputies they are to give an account of the exercise thereof. And, although in the commonwealth of Venice there be but one duke, yet, because this person is not invested with the supreme power of government, that state is nothing less than monarchical. The

3" Hæc immensa multitudo, unius animæ circumdata, illius spiritu regitur, illius ratione flectitur; pressura se ac fractura viribus suis, nisi consilio sustineretur.” Seneca de Clementia, lib. 1. cap. 3.

* " Ille est enim vinculum, per quod respublica cohæret; ille spiritus vitalis, quem hæc tot millia trahunt; nihil ipsa per se futura nisi onus et præda, si mens illa imperii subtrahatur. - Rege incolumi mens omnibus una est; Amisso rupere fidem—” Seneca de Clementia, lib. 1. cap. 4. Versus autem Virg. sunt lib. 4. Georg. de apibus, quorum sententiam hoc eodem libro, cap. 19. ita expressit idem Seneca, “ Amisso rege totum dilabitur examen.”

b“ Imperii summam vim ipsam nunquam habuit, sed imaginem tantum quandam et umbram imperii, plus minusve, pro temporum varietate." Nicol. Crass. Not. 15. in Donat. Jannot. de rep. Venet.

Lacedemonians had two kings (for failing) and both of them hereditary, descending from the race of Hercules, and yet that hindered nothing at all their aristocracy; because they being subject to the oversight and control of the Ephori, were but equivocal kings, such in name, but not in deed. For, to speak properly, by the name of a king, as Gregory Nyssen noteth, we understand such an one as is “hisd own master, and hath no other master beside :" who hath "absolute power in himself,” and is no way subject to the control of any other. And therefore when Anthony was so much pressed by his Cleopatra to call Herod unto question, he answered: “It was not fitting a king should give account of what he did in his government, for he should be in effect no king at all."

XXVII. On the other side, in our high court of parliament, although the knights, citizens and burgesses (representing the whole body of the commons) bear the shew of a little democracy among us, and the lords and nobles, (as the optimates of the kingdom) of an aristocracy; yet our government is a free monarchy notwithstanding: because the supreme authority resteth neither in the one nor in the other, (either severally or jointly) but solely in the person of the king, at whose pleasures they are assembled, and without whose royal assent nothing they conclude on can be a law forceable to bind the subjects. Whereupon by a special act of the same great court it is

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• As other inferior princes likewise named, Isai. chap. 10. ver. 8. Jerem. chap. 19. ver. 3. Psalm 105. ver. 30. So Eustathius in Homer. Odyss. a. Σημείωσαι δε ότι ου μόνον "Ομηρος βασιλείς λέγει τους ενδόξους και βασιλικούς, αλλά και οι μετ' αυτόν. et Proclus, in Ηesiod. "Εργων α. Βασιλήας τους δικαστές και τους άρχοντας λέγει: ούτω γάρ αυτούς εκάλουν οι παλαιοί.

ο Αυτοκράτορα και αδέσποτον τον βασιλέα καλούμεν. Greg. Nyssen. contra Eunom. lib. 1.

e avrokparés te kai dvapxov. Greg. Nyssen. contra Eunom. lib. 1.

* Ου γαρ έφη καλώς έχειν 'Αντώνιος, βασιλέα περί των κατά την αρχήν γεγενημένων ευθύνας απαιτείν ούτως γάρ αν ούδέ βασιλεύς είναι. Joseph. antiqu. lib. 15. cap. 14.

& Quis tantæ est authoritatis ut nolentem principem possit ad convocandos patres cæterosque proceres coarctare? Justinian. Novel. 23.

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declared, that the king's highness must be acknowledged to be the ONLY SUPREME Governor of his dominions in all causes whatsoever. Which could not stand, if that either court itself, or any other power upon earth, might in any cause overrule him: I say any power, whether foreign or domestical.

XXVIII. This government is called “havredns' uovapxía, a full monarchy," by Sophocles; “ avrapxíak, a free and independent regiment,” by Marcus Aurelius in Dio; αυτοκρατης βασιλεία και ανυπεύθυνος, an absolute kingdom, not subject to the control of any,” by Plutarch, in that little book wherein he compareth the three kinds of governments (monarchical, democratical, and oligarchical or aristocratical) together; and in the end, out of Plato, preferreth a monarchy before the rest for this very reason; because “the others being ruled, do yet after a sort rule, and being led do lead the civil governor” set over them; who “having no solid and firm strength herein from those who gave him his power,” is subject to be suppressed by the same hand that raised him. Whereas a free monarch, who hath the supremacy of power placed in his own person, and by virtue thereof maketh such laws, and imparteth to the subordinate magistrates such authority for the seeing of them put in execution, as may best conduce to the benefit of the whole state, doth thereby in a most special manner represent unto us (as we have before heard out of the same author) the image of God, the most high and absolute monarch of this whole universe. To this purpose, Cyril

, bishop of Alexandria, maketh that “high" eminency of glory,” annexed unto the imperial state, to be

Statut. Angl. ann. 1. Eliz. (et Hibern, ann. 2. ejusdem) eap. 1.

Sophocles in Antigona, ver. 1177. * Xiphilin. excerpt. ex Dionis Marc. Aurelio.

1 μέν γάρ άλλαι πολιτείαι τρόπον τινά κρατούμεναι κρατούσι, και φερόμεναι φέρoυσι τον πολιτικών ουκ έχοντα την ισχύν βέβαιον επί τούτου (τούτων) παρ' ώ έχει το ισχύον, αλλά πολλάκις αναγκαζόμενον το Aloxúdelov dvapwveiv, &c. l’lutarch.

n Vide Philonem Jud. initio lib. 1. de monarchia. η Της μεν εν ανθρώποις ευκλείας το ανώτατον, και ασυνκρίτους διαφοραϊς των άλλων απάντων ανεστηκός τε και υπερκείμενον υμείς (ώ ψιλό

related : “ Blessedd be the Lord thy God, which delighteth in thee to set thee on his throne, to be king for the LORD thy God." And as the king's throne is accounted God's throne, so the kings themselves also are styled his kings and his anointed; “He shall give strength unto his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed," saith Hannah in her song; and David likewise in his : Great deliverance giveth he to his king, and sheweth mercy to his anointed.”

XXX. Where further also it deserveth special consideration, that this sacred title of the Lord's anointed" is not only attributed to Davide and Josiah", and such good kings as God in his mercy did raise up unto his people; but to Sauli also, a king whom he gave unto them in his anger: nor to those who were of the commonwealth of Israel alone, but to Cyrus an heathen emperor, of whom it is written: “ Thus' saith the Lord to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden to subdue nations before him :" whom, although at first he did not know his founder, yet at last by public proclamation he made this large acknowledgment of him: “Thus" saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the Lord God of heaven given me, and he hath charged me to build him an house in Jerusalem.” Yea, he that gave the empire to Cyrus that should " build his city, and let go his captives,” gave the same unto Nebuchadnezzar who had before destroyed the same city, and led the people into captivity; whereof the prophet Daniel did thus put him in mind : “ Thou?, O king, art a king of kings, for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom,

d 2 Chron. chap. 9. ver. 8.

e 1 Sam. chap. 2. ver. 10. f Psalm 18. ver. 50. 2 Sam, chap. 22. ver. 51. 6 2 Sam. chap. 12. ver. 7. chap. 19. ver. 21. and chap. 23. ver. 1. h Lam. chap. 4. ver. 20.

| 1 Sam. chap. 12. ver. 3. 5. chap. 24. ver. 6. 10. and chap. 26. ver. 9. 11. 16. 23. with 2 Sam. chap. 1. ver. 14. 16. * 1 Sam. chap. 8. ver. 7.

| Isaiah, chap. 45. ver. 1. m Isaiah, chap. 45. ver. 4, 5. » 2 Chron. chap. 36. ver. 23. Ezra, chap. 1. ver. 2. Isaiah, chap. 45. ver. 13.

p Dan, chap. 2. ver. 27.

law, is the figure of God among men.” And those admonitions of Agapetus unto the emperor Justinian: “Seeing thou hast attained to a dignity higher than all other honour, do thon also above all others honour God, who was pleased so to signify thee, according to the similitude of his heavenly kingdom, giving unto thee the sceptre of this earthly principality.” For, although "the" king, in regard of the nature of his body, be of the same mould with every other man, yet, in respect of the eminency of his dignity, he is like unto God, who is Lord over all ; whose image he beareth, and by him holdeth that power which he hath over all men.”

XXIX. If we consider God in his own sublime majesty, the Scripture will tell us that "his throne is in heaven;" but if we look upon him in these his vicegerents, which do so immediately represent his person among the sons of men, in the same Scripture we may find out another throne of his, prepared here on this earth, which is his “footstoolz." Thus, where, in the history of the kings, we read that “Solomon sate upon the throne of David his father, and his kingdom was established greatly." In the Chronicles we have it thus expressed: “Then Solomon sate upon the throne of the LORD as king instead of David his father, and prospered, and all Israel obeyed him." And, where in the former the queen of Sheba is brought in speaking unto the same king after this manner:“Blessed be the Lord thy God, which delighteth in thee to set thee on the throne of Israel:" in the latter, her speech is thus

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* Τιμής απάσης υπέρτερον έχων αξίωμα, βασιλεύ, τίμα υπέρ άπαντας τον τούτου σε αξιώσαντα θεόν, ότι και καθ' ομοίωσιν της βασιλείας έδωκέ σοι το σκήπτρον της επιγείου δωναστείας. Agap. Ρar. cap. 1.

Τη μεν ουσία του σώματος ίσος παντί ανθρώπφ ο βασιλεύς, τη εξουσία δε του αξιώματος όμοιος έστι τω επί πάντων θεώ. Agap. Ρar. cap. 21.

* Την εικονα φέρει του επί πάντων θεού, και δι αυτού κατέχει την επί Távtwy ápxnx. Agap. Par. cap. 37.

y Psalm 11. ver. 4. and Psalm 103. ver. 16.
* Isaiah, chap. 66. ver. 1. Matt. chap. 5. ver. 35.
* 1 Kings, chap. 2. ver. 12.

bi Chron. chap. 29. ver. 23. (1 Kings, chap. 10. ver. 9.

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