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1. 1225.—The blossoms of passion. If not entirely figurative, this refers to the Passion-flower, a genus of plants chiefly met in the warm districts of America, with gorgeous flowers which early Spanish settlers thought represented our Lord's passion, " the filamentous processes being taken to represent the crown of thorns, the nailshaped styles the nails of the cross, aud the fine anthers the marks of the wounds." Some species have narcotic properties (1. 1224.)
1. 1226.-nepenthe (ně penth' ē). (Gk. vn, not, nev@os, grief.) “A drug to lull all pain and anger, and bring forgetfulness of every sorrow. Whoso should drink a draught thereof, when it is mingled in the bowl, on that day he would let fall no tear down his cheeks, not though his father and mother died.”—Odyssey, iv. 219ff, tr. Butcher and Lang.
asphodel-flowers. The white asphodel, a sort of lily with a pale blossom. It grows freely in waste places, such as burial-grounds, and so became associated with death. See Odyssey, xi. 539; xxiv. 13.
Others in Elysian valleys dwell
-Tennyson, The Lotos-Eaters.
Page 161. 1. 1233.-Saginaw River. Flows through Michigan into Lake Huron.
1. 1241.-Tents of Grace. ... Moravian Missions. Bohemian Protestants, contemporary with John Huss (1368– 1416), became organized as a church, Unitas Fratrum, the Unity of the Brethren, in 1467, which spread through Bohemia and Moravia. It was suppressed in 1627, but supposed descendants of the Brethren emigrated in 1722 into Saxony, when they assumed the name of Moravian Breth
From Herrnhut, Saxony, the church spread into Germany, Britain, and America. Mission stations, which still exist, were established at Bethlehem, Nazareth, etc. in Pennsylvania, Salem in North Carolina, etc.
Tents of Grace. The early editions have “tents of grace," as if a general name of the Moravian mission stations; in 1867 the reading is that of our text. The term translates Gnadenhutten, the name of a village on the Tuscarawas River, Ohio, founded by the Moravian missionaries in 1773 among the Mohican Indians. Burnt in 1782, it was again in 1797 made the centre of a Moravian settlement from Pennsylvania, whose descendants are still to be found there.
1. 1242.-battle-fields of the army. The wars of the Indians and the United States troops.
1. 1253.-in sylvan shades the name of Penn. William Penn (1644–1718) was the most influential of the Quakers of his time. His reputation for enlightened philanthropy justifies the term “the Apostle.” He founded Philadelphia, the City of Brotherly Love, in 1682, on a bluff covered with pines. “Penn laid out his capital as methodically as the Romans did theirs, when they used to colonize. He rules his streets straight out towards the west, naming them from the trees they displaced, such as cedar, spruce, and sassafras; not as Mr. Longfellow has it, to appease the dryads whose haunts he molested (1. 1257), for he had a horror of the heathen mythology, but because he meant his city to be a rural city, and to rustle eternally with the breath of trees and shrubbery."-Stoddard, A
Century After, p. 10. Page 163. 1. 1257–Dryads (dri'ad). (Fr. dryade, Lat. dryas,
from Gk. spûs, a tree). In classical mythology, deities or nymphs of the woods.
1. 1260.-René Leblanc. See l. 263, n.
1. 1264.—The Thee and Thou of the Quakers. The characteristic and traditional mode of speech of the Friends, imitating Biblical simplicity. To-day, however, the “ thee” has become the subjective as well as the objective case.
1. 1265.— It recalled the past. French is characterized by the use of tu, thou, among near relations and close friends, while vous, you, is a polite singular.
1. 1266.-Where all men were equal. Refrain frcm 1. 397.
Page 164. l. 128.-Like to some odorous spices.
Once git a smell o' musk into a draw,
-Lowell, Bigelow Papers.
Page 165. 1. 1288.–Sister of Mercy. The French order of
Filles de Notre Dame de Miséricorde, Daughters of our Lady of Mercy, was founded in 1633 by St. Vincent de Paul, “ to have for monastery the houses of the sick....for their cloister the streets of the town or wards of the hospital.... for veil, holy modesty.” It spread rapidly throughout the world. Branches were established in America, but not for some years after the time here described.
1. 1292,—the watchman...." One need not be old to remember those old-time watchmen. How they used to light the lamps early in the evening. How they used to sit in their boxes, on the street-corners, and smoke their clay pipes. How they used to go their rounds, all night long, in the snow, in the rain, in the moonlight and starlight, singing, as they went the hour and the weather, 'Eleven o'clock, and a windy night!' Three o'clock, and a cloudy morning.'”–Stoddard, A Century After, p. 157.
1. 1296.-The German farmer. The German settlements about Philadelphia are very numerous, as they also are through Pennsylvania. Germantown, one of the suburbs of the city, records an early colony.
Page 166. 1. 1298.-A pestilence fell on the city. The pestil
ence of yellow-fever in 1793. It is the theme of Charles Brockden Brown's novel of Arthur Mervyn, and of M. Carey's essay Yellow Fever in Philadel phia in 1793 (Essays, 1830).
1. 1299.-Presaged by wondrous signs. "Among the country people large quantities of wild pigeons in the spring are regarded as certain indications of an unhealthy
Whether or not this prognostication has ever been verified, I cannot tell. But it is very certain that during the last spring the number of those birds brought to market was immense. Never, perhaps, were there so many before.
."-A Memoir of the Yellow Fever in Philadelphia im 1793.
1. 1308.—the almshouse. The place referred to is disputed. An explanation was once given by Longfellow and published in the New York Times :
“I got the climax of 'Evangeline' from Philadelphia, and it was singular how I happened to do so. ing down Spruce street one day toward my hotel after a walk, when my attention was attracted to a large building with beautiful trees about it inside of a high enclosure. I walked along until I came to a great gate, and then stepped inside and looked carefully over the place. The charming picture of lawn, flower-beds, and shade which it presented made an impression which has never left me, and twentyfour years after, when I came to write 'Evangeline,' I located the final scene, the meeting between Evangeline and Gabriel, and the death, at this poor-house, and the burial in an old Catholic graveyard not far away, which I found by chance in another of my walks. It was purely a fancy sketch, and the name of Evangeline was coined to complete the story. The incident Mr. Hawthorne's friend gave me, and my visit to the poor-house in Philadelphia gave me the ground-work of the poem.”
The details' suit admirably the Pennsylvania Hospital,
I was pass
situated between Spruce and Pine streets, the oldest part of which was erected in 1755. Its walks and flowers are still as charming, and the button-woods and chestnuts as shady as when the poet visited it. But with its new additions it is no longer “meek in the midst of splendor.”
Still it was not an "almshouse," and some therefore associate the place with the Friends' Almshouse, now no longer standing. “ The Friends' Almshouse, approached by a court from Walnut Street, near Third, is a remaining part of a cluster of wings and tenements begun about 1713, and finished with an edifice fronting on Walnut Street in 1729. It was used exclusively for indigent Quakeresses, and jocularly styled the Quaker's Nunnery; a few 'decayed' Friends are still maintained in seclusion and respectability. Its interest is largely due to the rumor that here the Acadian refugees....might have been tended as described in....'Evangeline.' A mere poetic fiction does not demand the very gravest adherence. If not here, the labors of the gentle French nurse must have been expended in a neighboring edifice, the old City Almshouse at
Fourth and Spruce."-Stoddard, A Century After, p. 63. Page 167. 1. 1312.—the words of the Lord. Matth. xxvi. 11. Page 168. 1. 1326. —Christ Church First erected in 1695,
twelve years after the city was laid out. The present church was begun in 1727 and its spire completed in 1754. " The chimes consist of eight bells bought in London in 1754, at a cost there of £560 sterling.... They are always chimed on Sundays and holydays, before divine service; and upon public occasions, when request is made.”—Dorr, Hist. Account of Christ Church, p. 330. They were almost the first chimes in America and attracted great attention. The church boasts of being the cradle of the American Episcopal Church, and of sharing with Faneuil Hall, Boston, the renown that gathers about the chief scene of the Revclutionary movement.