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judgment of Canova-having long sedulously practised his 5. Who searches for beauty in nature and does not find it? art, and having a thorough knowledge of its principles, Do not be discouraged-study, and it will be found. It is from perfected experience. Pliny said long ago, that the every thing to know how to search for it. true masters in the Arts, were those who execute best: 6. Would you avoid the fatigue of great research, and al
“ Soli artifices possunt antem acri exploratoque judicio ways proceed in a sure way, I will tell you how to do— Try persencere."
first to become skilful in the principles of your art. That is, Having therefore, daily opportunities of conversing with learn design--Anatomy, and Dignity ; feel the graces--acthe great sculptor; and being in his perfect confidence, in quire an understanding and taste for true beauty. Let it matters relating to his art, of which he delighted to speak; move your passions. You must obtain all these attitudes and being present at discussions in which he was often en- of your art in an eminent degree, and then you will have zazed; his sayings were committed to writing, and treasured the short road which you are in search of. When at first up in order to aid these reminiscences. Often I tried to view, you find a part, superlatively beautiful and graceful, prerail on him to present his ideas to the public, but he that is enough for you can form the other parts in agreeconstartly objected, saying, “that advice,--precepts and ment and correspondence, with that subtility, and make rules were all well, but they were not enough, -example all harmonize, and thus have a whole, beautiful and perwas better than the most definite rules would be without it." | fect. But this you tell me is difficult. It is indeed difficult, He added, I “ execute my best,- I am not a lecturer, nor and therefore the profit of study; and when you become would I for any treasure ever become exposed to the vexa. distinguished in your art, it will not appear difficult, but tion and chagrin of contending or disputing with a parcel seem easy. of imitable pedants.” He said, besides, " he did not trust 7. In civil society, he observed, I have always seen too much to his own discernment and observation, but they the graceful man preferred to the severe and austere. were such as were elicited by feeling and meditation on the Grace has an omnipotent charm, and attraction, which Arts, and experience the great master; but he gave his overcomes all hearts. Recollect, the same happens in the Opinions without wishing to force their adoption upon others, Arts. Acquire grace, and you will please. But mind, that as they were the result of his private judgement.
as in society, he who affects grace much, and does not posIn order not to suffer his maxims to be lost, I have here sess it, becomes awkward and ridiculous ;-so the artist collected them into a little code; as they abound in wisdom who studies grace too much, instead of pleasing, is sure to and much that goes to advance the good of the fine arts. disgust. Keep to the just and discreet measure ;-and this They flowed from the author's conversation only, were I tell you-you must feel in your soul the innate principles given without arrogance, and were not attempted to be im- of gracefulness, and beauty. If you are cold in this essenposed as infallible rules.
tial particular, cease your efforts to acquire it-| take you 1. As Canova was an ardent promoter of the Arts, he la for lost,—and give you up in despair. You must follow the mented to see an immense number of young men, daily austerity of your art, for even in this, there is glory to be dedicating themselves to their pursuit, and observed :
"It cannot but happen, that most of these must become 8. And the temper which I advise you to obtain, in regard poor and unhappy. For how can Italy, and the world, al- to gracefulness, I would also inculcate with respect to exready full even to satiety of works of Art, give support to pression. The whole contour, always properly adjusted, and $0 many Alumni? The worst of it is, they can only arrive composed, shows proof of your temperance of feeling, and at obscure and humble mediocrity; for excellence cannot be the subdued repose of your breast. If you manifest great reached by the many, though all labor to attain it. The effort, it will be improper, and not succeed. It was this Academy therefore, ought carefully to note the genius of rule which gave to Raphael the palm over all other imitaeach, and where no extraordinary talent for the Arts appears, tors of beauty. they should be advised to apply their time and talents to 9. Sculpture, I heard him say one morning, in conversation sume civil occupation, in a line where they can succeed in with some eminent artists, is only the language [among the becoming useful ; for the majority must fail, and produce many languages,] by which the eloquence of artists exworks of little merit and bad style, by which the Arts are presses nature, and this is a heroic language, as the tragic is 12jured and the youths ruined.”
the language of the poets. And as the terrible is the first 2. Formerly, he said, a work was not thought beautiful if element of the tragic language, so, nudity is that of the it bad any defects. The most sublime works are not free language of the statuary. And as the terrible in the from faults, and are still beautiful ; besides the beauty Epipea tragical, expresses gods, in their most sublime which strikes the mere intellect, they have the beauty of in- manner, so nakedness in that of the statuary, represents spiration, which captivates the senses and triumphs over the gods in their most chosen and beautiful forms. This is heart. They possess the sentiment—the passion-within the convention which exists in Arts and in letters, in order themselves--they have life in them, and cause tears, joy or to effect sublime execution. emotion at the sight of them, and this is true beauty. While invention and disposition, seek to unite strictly
3. It is my study, he used to say, to obtain my end by nature and reason, both in elocution and execution, it is the most short and simple ways, as the blow which comes agreed to lay aside all vulgar ways, and to find out and emstraightest does most execution. Hence, I do not wish to ploy a sublime eloquence, composed of the most beautiful employ vain ornaments and amusing distractions.
which exists in nature, embellished by the most perfect in 4. He taught that we must imitate nature, and not any par- the ideal conceptions. ticular master, although that master should have succeeded 10. Wealth, he said, could not be more fairly acquired, than in imitating nature.
by the fine Arts ; as every one could exist without purchasing Study with your own eyes, and especially study the an- such works--they are merely luxuries, and are bought voCients. The Greeks, more than any other people, saw and luntarily and spontaneously by those who have the means to imitated nature with the greatest perfection.
expend in this way, and no price put on a work can be If it become necessary to imitate a master, as in paint called excessive, because, nobody is compelled to buy. ing, judge of what is best in him as you would of nature- 11. Rule and measure, he observed, are immutable, when that is, choose the most beautiful parts, and leave those they are just ; and so they should be for an artist who is not which are not so perfect. Take care not to imitate the very confident of himself; but an eminent artist sometimes faults of his works, however great the author may have departs from rules; which shows the highest sagacity. In this been.
the artist only follows the maxim of Aristotle, in which he
says, that in some cases, it is better to prefer a false simili. work and not to write ;" and how absurd that mere literary tude that is agreeable, to one that is true, if it should be dis- amateurs should set up for judges in the Arts. The weakgusting. The Niobe for example, has on a bathing chemise, ness and folly of such people, create a market for what is and so have many other ancient statues. This is not truth- badly executed, hy artists who have neither genius por but if the artist had followed the truth, he would have aban- talents. doned his art. He by this conceals desects, or what would 18. When my works are attacked, said he, even by enty, not be so agreeable to the sight; he therefore avails himself I attend to the criticisms and examine their correctness, wat of a falsehood, to present a beautiful likeness—as under that with anger or disdain. The fault-finding which prevails, is bathing dress, which adheres to the person, the artist can inseparable from the human condition. I distrust toyself make the forms appear, and display at the same time the too, and know the great difficulty of producing a work without excellence of his art.
great defects. Yet I am perfectly convinced, that if an Thus, to express the strength of Hercules, Glicon gave arm, a body, a leg, or a head of one of my statues, were him a bull neck--thus, to make Apollo Belvidere appear dug up, and were thought an antique, many would sing its more quick and active,-the Greek artist gave him one shoul- praises as a miracle. Antiquity has its privileges. How der a little more elevated, than when relieved by drapery, unjust men are ! They only open their eyes to the beauty of and made his thighs and legs somewhat longer than his boily. the ancients and spy out only the defects of the moderns,
This boldness, however, is not an infraction of rules which and I remember also to have read this complaint in Tacitus. results from ignorance, but is the science of the Arts, in 19. When he had finished a work, he still continued to dost knowing the right point of view, and the proper effect; from on it—to caress it—and when asked why he did not leave it this flows the philosophy and judgment of the artist. alone, he replied, there is nothing more precious to me than
12. He used to say, that the principal element in sculpture, time, and every body knows how economical I azn of it; was the beauty of the most perfect design and excellence of yet, when I am about finishing a work, and after it is done, form. The remark applied to painting might not compre- I wish to bring it often before me if possible ; as fame is not hend-coloring—the free and liberal touching invention- derived from the number of works, but from a few done effect—the scene :—but take away design and form from well. I try to find in my material a something, I know not sculpture, and what have you left? The marble only. what, of spirituality which gives it soul. It is necessary 1
13. He said, we could see how important it was that sculp- should add to it intellect and passion, and ennoble the form ture should be eminently beautiful, from the fact, that a sin. with inspiration. I could wish to come as near as possible gle figure triumphs forever, as a single word convinces to life, but I do not succeed. and moves.
Alas! then, if that figure, or that word be 20. When I apply myself to the study of the great Greek wanting.
exemplars, it appears to me, said he, that to obtain the man14. Learn anatomy well, was his advice to his pupils, but ner they had in execution, it is indispensable that we should be not too much devoted to it. It is true that the arts ought examine their maxims, discern the ends they propound, to imitate nature: here, also, we follow nature, not making the their means and their principles, and in fine to feel and be parts too evident, but concealing them by an ingenious veil as much as possible, as they were nothing short of this of fat and skin, presenting a pleasing outside, which is gently can make us so select, and at the same time so true. modulated, and which falls, and winds along without
(To be continued.) projecting.
15. He advised young painters to take the pencil early in their hands, which practice made so many eminent men in the Venetian school ; and in the Academy of naked figures, he wished the pupils to imagine when painting, that the bodies were alive, as this, he said, would give life to their
MUSIC. paintings. This, he said, would make the works more like the select chief works, from which they were taken. Then “της μουσικής δέόσον κλέος εστίν ουδείς αχνοεί." they would try to see nature, with the same eyes and the
e'Longini fragmentus. same pleasure that she was seen by the ancient masters
1. who executed the incomparable works. This advice was I seem to lie with drooping eyes, always given to the young pupils who had just begun their Dreaming sweet dreams, studies in the Arts.
Half longings and half memories, 16. “It is a fault that this Nymph does not speak," said an
In woods where streams Englishman-and “of that Hebe, that she does not ascend in With trembling shades and whirling gleams, the air. Where is the prodigy or miracle of Pygmalion,
Many and bright, that we may be fully satisfied ?” “You deceive your
In song and light, self,” said he, “you would then have no satisfaction or sur
Are ever, ever flowing; prise. I do not presume in my works to deceive any one. While the wind, if we list to the rustling grass It is known that they are marble, but they are mute and Which numbers its footsteps as they pass, motionless : but it is enough, that I have overcome in part
Seems scarcely to be blowing ; my material with art, and to have approximated the truth. And the far-heard voice of Spring, If my works were truth, what praise would I have for my From sunny slopes comes wandering, labor? I am glad they know it is marble, since the difficulty Calling the violets from the sleep makes them excuse its defects I only aspire to an illu- That bound them under the snow-drifts deep,
To open their blue and child-like eyes 17. He used osten to repeat that fortunately, but few ar- On the new Summer's paradise. tists knew how to explain with dignity and propriety, their And mingled with the gurgling watersideas by writing; otherwise, what great wars we should
As the dreamy witchery have among the votaries of the Arts, and how much time Of Achelous' silver-voiced daughters, would be employed in decapitation of works!
Rose and fell with the heaving sea, Those artists who have written much, have always been Whose great heart thrilled with ecstasymen of mediocrity.
The song of many a floating bird, “Bisogna operare e non iscrivere"--"It is necessary to Winding through the rifted trees,
Now faintly heard and far,
As if the spirit's ears
Chanting with his brother-spheres
With a tempest-sound of might, As of voices doom foretelling
To the silent ear of night; And now a mingled ecstasy
Of all sweet sounds it isOh! who may tell the agony Of rapture such as this?
VI. I have drunk of the drink of immortals,
I have drunk of the life-giving wine, And now I may pass the bright portals
That open into a realm divine !
In the ecstasy of song,
That its life were not more long;
In beauty's every shape, And now around my soul it lies
No juice of earthly grape !
I can flutter, I can rise;
Sweep the Heavenly harmonies.
Is dreamily half heard-
Arousingly doth roll.
Downward from its floating home,
And the never-resting foam, With a dim and ghastly glare, Which, for a heart-beat, in the air,
Shows the sweeping shrouds
Of the midnight clouds,
As if my brother dear,
On the bright waves of song,
Merrily float along;
My white sail bellies over me,
And bright as gold the ripples be That plash beneath the bow;
They feel the wind,
While the heart beats thick,
Sees God in clouds and hears him in the wind.' This wild, but noble and unhappy race, is rapidly becoming extinct. At the discovery of America, the Indian tribes were numerous and powerful. They occupied the country from north to south, from east to west-living in a state of nature and supporting themselves by hunting and fishing. Their wigwams were extended along the banks of the noblest streams, or enveloped in the gloom of primeval forests. Their origin is buried in fable, and their traditions are obscure, fabulous and unsatisfactory. They are evidently, however, of Tartar stock-but how or when they came, is involved in inextricable darkness. Their vices are those of all savages. They are ferocious, blood-thirsty and vindictive, but their virtues are equally prominent; they are hospitable, brave and true to their word. Of the numerous and warlike tribes that formerly owned and peopled this extensive continent, but few now exist. They are rapidly passing away into the stream of oblivion, and soon nothing will remain of them, but the simple record of their past existence and glory. Where are the descendants of Powhatan, the father of Pocahontas ? Alas! they
are blotted from the face of the earth, or swallow-1" in the veins of any living creature. This called ed up in the remnants of other tribes. What a on me for revenge. have sought it. I have fully noble and generous action was that of Pocahontas! glutted my vengeance. Who is there to mourn für Where, in the history of civilization, can you find Logan? Not one." a more disinterested act of generosity and sympa- The poet Campbell, has made his Oneida chief thy ? Of the Indian posterity of Powhatan, not a futter the same affecting sentiment: trace remains—but Pocahontas, the amiable, cou
He left of all my tribe rageous and noble child of nature, mingled her Nor man nor child, nor thing of living birth: blood with that of a European, and her posterity No! not the dog that watched my household hearth, still live to boast of and glory in the virtues of her Escaped that night of blood, upon our plains. whose story, it is feared, will be regarded as a ro
All perished ! I alone am left on earth!
To whom nor relative nor blood remains,
No! not a kindred drop that runs in human veins !" eminent parliamentary orators of this country, is said to be a lineal descendant of that Princess in Poor Logan fulfilled his melancholy desting by the sixth degree. The act to which I have alluded sharing the fate of his family and kindred. He is has been attempted to be preserved and perpetuated said to have been murdered by a party of whites, by the genius of the sculptor, in a groupe in basso not long after he had delivered the eloquent and relievo, occupying a parcel of stone over the wes- affecting speech from which I have made the ex- . tern door of the Rotundo of the Capitol at Wash-tract above. But ninety now remain of his once ington. The artist, Capillano, has, however, in powerful tribe. pursuit of the antique, failed to give the features The Delawares, another numerous and warlike and costume of the Indian, and made a figure re- nation, whose settlements extended from the Hud-sembling more a Grecian Venus than an Indian son to the Potomac, are now also nearly extinet. Princess. The baptism of Pocahontas has been It is reduced to a few hundred souls, living in Ohio, chosen as a subject for the pencil of Chapman, which Louisiana and Missouri. These men called them is to fill one of the panels in the Rotundo. Of the selves Lenni Lenape, or, the Original People. They Iroquoise or Five Nations, once a formidable and came at first, according to tradition, with the Fire warlike confederacy, consisting of the Mohawks, Nations from beyond the Mississippi, to which they Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondagas and Senecas, but a have been gradually returning since the arrival di meagre and scanty remnant remains. These Ro- the Europeans in this country. They were finally mans of the west occupied, in 1603, a portion of divided into forty tribes and were very numerous. Canada, and resided where Montreal now stands. They occupied Pennsylvania when Penn arrived, From an agricultural they became a warlike peo- and their descendants still cherish his memory. ple, extended their conquests like the ancient Ro- The Delawares held in high estimation the cha: mans, and spread terror wherever they appeared, racter of one of their ancient warriors, whom they until they possessed themselves of all the territory called Tamenend. He was alike distinguished fer not sold to the English, estimated at about 1200 his private virtues and superior talents—and was miles in length and 800 miles in breadth. Their believed to have direct communications with the warriors in 1677 numbered 2150, and their whole Great Spirit. This chief, the whites during the population amounted to about 7000. The following revolution converted into a saint, and celebrated is the language of one of the warriors of this con- his festival yearly on the 1st of May, by walking federacy-Garangula-addressed to the Governor in procession, their hats decorated with bucks'tails of Canada : “ We are born free. We neither de- and dining in a sylvan retreat, called the ligvis pend on Yonondio, nor Corlear. * We may go This subsequently gave rise to associations called where we please, and carry with us whom we please, Tammany societies, which are now however falland buy and sell what we please. If your allies ing into discredit : though, I believe, one is still be your slaves, use them as such—command them kept up nominally in New York. A fine history to receive no other but your people,” &c. This is of this nation has been written by Heckewelder. the language of a fearless and independent mind, But, the most warlike and savage of the Indian and characteristic of these bold and high-souled nations were the Shawanees, who were originally natives of the forest. With another distinguished settled in Georgia and Florida, but afterwards spread chieftain of this confederacy-Logan, we have been along the Ohio and the forks of the Delaware and made acquainted through the “Notes” of Mr. Jef- Pennsylvania. They were engaged in almost perferson. He was a Cayuga chief of fine talents petual wars, either with the neighboring tribes of and great bravery. Though the friend of white the whites. It was this tribe that had the honor men, his friendship and devotion were rewarded of producing the famous TECUMSEH-a man of exwith the destruction of his whole family. traordinary powers and great ambition. He was
“There runs not a drop of my blood,” he said, born near Chilicothe. His father was Shawadees * The names they gave to the French and English Go and his mother a Cherokee, who had been made
prisoner in a war between these nations." He
was distinguished,” says Mr. Thatcher, "for a tribes on the west banks of the Mississippi, and steady adherence to principle, and generally to that upon Lakes Huron, Superior and Michigan. He of the best kind. He prided himself upon his now travelled over the route once more. From north temperance and his truth, maintaining an uncommon to south, and from east to west, he ranged the conreputation for integrity, and never indulging in the tinent—threatening, flattering, rousing resentment, excessive use of food or liquor. He would not alarming superstition, provoking curiosity. No lamarry until long after the customary period; and bor fatigued, no disappointment discouraged, no danthen as a matter of necessity, in consequence of ger alarmed, no emergency surprised him." He the solicitations of his friends he connected him- became the head of the Anglo-Indian forces, which self with an elderly female who was perhaps not were more numerous and powerful than had ever the handsomest or most agreeable lady in the world, before been collected. He commanded the right but nevertheless bore him one child, his only off-wing of the allied army at the battle of the Moraspring." Like Hannibal against the Romans, he vian towns. The battle was sanguinary. The seems to have sworn vengeance against the Ame- British and Indian army were, however, defeated ricans, while yet a boy, amidst the ruins and deso- by the Americans; but Tecumseh scorned to fly, lation of his native land. Before he was twenty- while all were flying around him. He was seen fre, he was reputed the greatest of the Indian in the hottest of the conflict, dealing death wherWarriors, and the most implacable enemy of the ever he moved. He fell at last on the battle field, whites, upon whose settlements his incursions and yielded up his noble spirit in the midst of a were repeated and terrible. He appears to have scene in which he gloried. His dead body was afbeen stimulated not only by hatred, but by a terwards found, surrounded by thirty of his men, much finer impulse-the love of glory and of coun- and buried near the spot where he had fallen. He try. The spoils which he acquired in his various has been properly called the “Indian Bonaparte," warlike expeditions, were always freely distributed and the history of the civilized world does not furamong his followers—as if he scorned the thoughtnish many instances of greater magnanimity, perof being influenced by the sordid love of plunder. severance, or native intellectual power. To show His views were as grand as they were patriotic. the loftiness and independence of his mind, a sinLike Napoleon, he could command armies better gle example will suffice. than detachments. He appeared, however, too At a conference held at Vincennes, after deliverlate to render the cause successful in which he had ing a long and energetic speech, he perceived that so bravely embarked. Against such a leader, he had not been provided with a seat. Governor Cortes and Pizarro would have been but rushes Harrison ordered one to be placed for him. “Your before the tempest. His object seems to have been father,” said the interpreter,“ requests you to take to form a great confederacy of the Indian tribes, a chair.” “My father!" replied Tecumseh, with for the purpose of preserving their independence a look of scorn--" The sun is my father and the and keeping the whites in check. For this pur-earth is my mother, and on her bosom I will repose he united with him his brother, the famous pose.” And he threw himself on the ground. Prophet, Elskatawa, who was to proclaim his com- When he understood that General Proctor meant to mission from the Great Spirit-reform the man-retreat from Malden, he demanded an interview, ners of the Indians, and raise proselytes by the and in the name of the allied Indians addressed miracles he performed and the great benefits he him in a speech of great eloquence, of which the cromised to confer upon his countrymen. The ef- following is a part. “Father, you have got the forts of these two singular men were, as far as arms and ammunition which our great father sent could be expected, successful in uniting the In- for his red children. If you have an idea of golans against the Americans—but the confederacy ing away, give them to us, and you may go and bich Tecumseh wished to form, was not so ex-welcome for us. Our lives are in the hands of the ensive and powerful as it would have been, if his Great Spirit. We are determined to defend our Tother had not permanently and imprudently suf- lands, and if it be His will, we wish to leave our cred himself to be led into a battle at Tippecanoe. bones upon them.” The portrait of this distinuring the absence of the former. The Prophet guished Indian warrior, statesman and orator, has astained a defeat, which caused some of the con- been sketched with great truth by the writer to ederate tribes to withdraw, some to remain neutral, whom I have been indebted for most of the parnd others to appear in open hostility. But Tecum- ticulars of his history. “His appearance,” says -h's spirit was not broken. He endeavored to make Mr. Thatcher, “ was always noble-his form sym
honorable peace with the Americans, but in vain. metrical-his carriage erect and lofty-his motions othing now remained but to strike a deadly blow. commanding; but under the excitement of his favole became the ally of Great Britain, during the rite theme, he became a new being. His fine
war between that nation and this. His “pride, countenance lighted up with a fiery and haughty Evenge and ambition were roused,” says Thatcher. pride. His frame swelled with emotion. Every Repeatedly before this, he had visited all the posture and every gesture had its eloquent mean