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But since Chili has had a government of her own every effort has been made to procure for the country the benefits arising from the influx of sober, industrious, and enterprising emigrants. Since 1812 agents have been sent to Europe to promote emigration. Several societies have been formed with the purpose of lending aid to the emigrant, and lately (in 1853) the government appropriated, by a special act of Congress, nearly a million of acres, to be ceded to emigrants on the most liberal terms.

This territory lies in the southern part of Chili, wurrounding the beautiful Lake Llanquihue, a large body of fresh water, which is navigated by many little crafts, and which will soon have the benefit of a regular line of steamers. The map accompanying this pamphlet shows the exact location of this happy and prosperous colony, under the name of the Territory of Colonization. But properly, the whole province of Llanquihue, the center of which is now occupied by the colony, may be considered a largefield allotted to European settlers.

The conditions of the settlement for emigrants cannot be more liberal, just, and generous. According to special act of Congress of August 28, 1858, the emigration lots are to be distributed under the following rules :

1st. Every head of a family will receive an arable lot of -48 acres (12 cuadras), and further, 24 acres for every male child which has reached the age of ten.

2d. The government defrays, at its own cost, the expense of landing the emigrants at the nearest port to the colony; keeps them for a few days on shore, and transports them to the place in which they will have their alalloted land, and their cottages built by their own choice.

3d. A monthly pension of $15 is allowed to every famiily during the first year of settlement; and further, they receive the necessary seeds for the first season, a couple of oxen, a cow and calf, five hundred planks for building purposes, and one hundred pounds of nails. These articles are to be valued to the satisfaction of emigrants, and the amount is refundable by yearly installments, free of interest, and in very convenient proportions.

4th. Emigrants are exempted, during a term of fifteen years. from all kinds of taxes, general or municipal, as well as from all kinds of public or civil service; and further, are entitled to all the rights of Chilian citizens, without any of the charges, by a simple declaration made in the presence of the local judge, that they wish to settle permanently in the country.

5th. The free exercise of religious worship is established, and every sect is permitted to have its churches, clergy, and schools.

The colony is governed by an Intendente appointed by the government, who at the same time acts as an emigration commissioner, and is empowered to decide all the difficulties arising out of the action of the emigration laws, having always in view the benefit of the settlers and the prosperity of the colony.

Under such liberal and judicious regulations the colony of Llanquihue could not but rapidly develop itself. Already no less than two thousand Germans are established within its precincts, and the treasury of Chili has laid out no less than two hundred thousand dollars for their settlement and comfort. It is true that the emigrants are bound to refund at least half of that sum; but proposals were lately presented to the government to bestow that amount upon the colony, and declare the settlers free of all obligations.

Agriculture and the cutting of timber and lumber, which is of a first-rate quality in those primeval woods, are the principal occupations of the community. In order to show the growth of the colony and the extraordinary fertility of the land, we here insert a table of the principal productions of the rural district of the settlement during the year 1861; Articles.

Seed.

Result.
Potatoes,
Wheat,

1,815

19,844 Rye,

276

2,870 Barley and oats,

572

8,726 167

6,844 Maize,

23

161 Beans,

25

111

8,227{ fanogas of

3 bushels. } 125,128

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Peas,

It is fair to say that such production has been doubled, or perhaps tripled, in the last five years, as there were in 1863 no less than forty-seven thousand acres under tillage. The number of cattle at the same time was represented by the following official figures : Cattle,

34,205 Horses,

2,574 Sheep,

9,210

206

308 Pigs,

3,214

Mules,
Goats,

The capital of the colony, called either Melipulli or Puerto Montt, is situated on the large and beautiful bay of Reloncavi, opposite the island of Chiloé. It already has two hundred and twenty-nine houses, and two thousand one hundsed and fifty-two small cottages; there is a Protestant church and cemetery, with a chaplain paid by the community. The government maintains a public library, which is better attended than any other in the large cities of the country, and supports two or three free schools, in which the Catholic religion is not taught but to those children whose parents choose to educate them in that creed. Lately a plank-road has been completed for the exportation of the products of the colony between Melipulli and Lake Llanquihue, at an expense of $40,000. It may be said that there is in Chili no public institution (and as such emigration is considered in that enlightened country) to which more attention is paid, or towards which more liberality and more kindness has been shown by the government during the last fifteen years, than in the German colony of Llanquihue.

Emigration, however, is not confined to that southern settlement, as foreigners of all nations, especially skillful workmen in practical arts and trades, find a ready and fair opening in all parts of the country; the miners in the north, the agriculturists in the central provinces, and the artisans, carpenters, bricklayers, blacksmiths, tailors, etc., in all the villages and larger towns.. Lately some contracts have been made by proprietors of large farms engaging the services of emigrants for a certain number of years, allowing them a fixed salary and a considerable portion of irrigated land. But these enterprises have not proved quite successful, owing to the circumstance that the country does not want so many common laborers, but settlers of a higher grade.

It has been calculated that Chili, with the whole of her arable land under cultivation, is capable of maintaining a thriving population of not less than twelve millions of people. Now she supports only two millions, and of these but thirty thousand are foreigners. What a field there is open for the men who are brought out from the overcrowded countries of Europe to that distant but beautiful, genial, and prolific land, where everything is cheap, abundant, prosperous, increasing, and, above all, where there is the greatest blessing of mankind-LIBERTY !

CONCLUSION.

We deem it well to put into the hands of persons desirous of paying a visit to Chili, as a farewell ticket, the following directions :

The best way of reaching any of the ports of Chili, from Copiapó to Puerto Montt, is by the steamers plying thrice a month between New York and Aspinwall (six days), then crossing the isthmus by rail, taking on the other side the English steamers for the south, which connect at Panama with those of New York. The time

spent in the voyage south to Callao, the principal port of Peru, is five days; to Copiapó, the most northern part of Chili, six days; to Valparaiso, three days; to Puerto Montt, three days—making twenty-seven days between New York and Valparaiso, including stoppages.

Fares from $150 to $400 through passage of first, second and third (steerage) class cabins.

And now God speed all who choose the happy land of Chili for their new home, and bless them with plenty, prosperity, and eternal happiness in the present and future world.

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