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acquire for magnanimity. They also said that God them in any thing which they have introduced. would not otherwise be assisting to them, than upon And when they determine that all things are done their joining with one another in such counsels as by * fate, they do not take away the freedom might be successful, and for their own advantage: froin men of acting as they think fit : since their and this especialiy if they would set about great ex- notion is, that it hath pleased God to make a temploits : and not grow weary in executing the same. perament; whereby what he wills is done; but so So men received what they said with pleasure : and that the will of man can act virtuously or vicithis bold attempt proceeded to a great height. All ously. They also believe that souls have an imsorts of misfortunes also sprang from these mnen; mortal vigor in them: and that under the earth there and the nation was infected with this doctrine to an will be rewards, or punishments ; according as they incredible degree. One violent war came upon us have lived virtuously or viciously in this life: and the after another; and we lost our friends, who used to latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison; but alleviate our pains : there were also very great rob- || that the former shall have power to revive and live beries, and murders of our principal men. This was

but able to persuade the body of the people : and whatin reality, from the hopes of gain to theinselves. soever ibey do about divine worship, prayers, and Hence arose seditions, and from them murders of sacrifices, they perform according to their direction. men ; which sometimes fell on those of their own Insomuch, that the cities give great attestations to people : (by the madness of these men towards one them, on account of their virtuous conduct both in another; while their desire was, that none of the the actions of their lives, and their discourses. adverse party might be left :) and sometimes on But the doctrine of the Sadducees, is, that souls their enemies: A famine also coming upon us re. die with the bodies. Nor do they regard the obduced us to the last degree of despair ; as did also the servance of any thing besides what the law enjoins taking and demolishing of cities. Nay the sedition them. For they think it an instance of virtue to at last increased so high, that the very temple of God dispute with those teachers of philosophy whom was burnt down by the enemies' fire. Such were they frequent. But this doctrine is received but by the consequences of this, that the customs of our fa- a few ; yet by those still of the greatest dignity. But thers were altered, and such a change was made, as they are able to do almost nothing of themselves. added a mighty weight towards bringing all 10 de- For when they become magistrates, as they are unstruction : which these men occasioned by their thus willingly and by force sometimes obliged to be, they conspiring together. For Judas and Sadducus, who addict themselves to the notions of the Pharisees, excited a fourth philosophic sect among us, and had because the multitude would not otherwise bear a great many followers therein, filled our civil go- them. vernment with tumults. and laid the foundations of The doctrine of the Essenes is this; that all things future miseries, by this system of philosophy,which are best ascribed to God. They teach the immorwe before were unacquainted with. Concerning tality of souls; and esteem that the rewards of which I will discourse a licile: and this the rather righteousness are to be earnestly striven for. And because the infectiou which spread thence among when they + send what they have dedicated to God the younger sort, who were zealous for it, brought unto the temple, they do not offer sacrifices : bethe public to destruction.

cause they have more pure lustrations of their own. The Jews bail, for a great while, had three sects On which account they are excluded from the comof philosophy peculiar to themselves. The sect of mon court of the temple ; but offer their sacrifices the Essenes, the sect of the Sadducees, and that of themselves. Yet is their course of life better than the Pharisees. Of which sects although I have al- that of other men: and they entirely addict themready spoken in the second book of the Jewish war; selves to husbandry. It also deserves our admirayet will I a little touch upon them now.

tion, how much they exceed all other men that adNow the Pnarisees live meanly, and despise deli- dict themselves to virtue, and this in righteousness : cacies in diet; and they follow the conduce of rea- and indeed to such a degree, that as it has never apson; and what that prescribes to them as good for

peared among many other men, eitherGreeks or Bara then they do. They also pay a respect to such as barians, even for a little time; it has endured a long are in years: nor are they so bold as to contradict while among them. This is demonstrated by that

XII. 10. and Dean Prisleaux. as there quoted. Nor do "we, that I know of, had the least footsteps of such impicly or infidelity of these Sadducees before this time.

*Or providence

fli seems, by what Josephus says here, and Philo himself elsewhere, Op. p 676. that these Essenes did not use to go up to the Jewish festivals at Jerusalem; or to offer sa

crifices there. Which may be one great occasion why they are never mentioned in the ordinary books of the New Testament: though in the Apostolical Constitutions they are mentioned : as those that observed the customs of their forefathers, VI. 6. and that without any such ill character, as is there laid upon the other sects among that people.

institution

institution of theirs, which will not suffer any thing , deprived Joazar of the high-priesthood, which diga to hinder them from having all things in common: nily had been conferred on him by the multitude; so that a rich man enjoys no more of his own wealth, and appointed Ananus, the son of Seth, to be highthan he who has nothing. There are about four priest. Herod and Philip, in the mean time, had, thousand men that live in this way: and neither each of them received their own tetrarchy, and settled marry wives, nor are desirous to keep servants : as the affairs thereof. Herod also built a wall about thinking the latter tempts men to be unjust; and the Sepphoris, which is the security of all Galilee, and former gives a handle to domestic quarrels. But as made it the metropolis of the country. He also they live by themselves, they minister one to another. built a wall round Betharamphtha, which was itself They also appoint certain stewards to receive the in- a city also; and called it Julias, from the name of comes of their revenues, and of the fruits of the the emperor's wife. When Philip also had built ground; such as are good men, and priests; who Paneas, a city at the fountains of Jordan, he named åre to get their corn, and their food ready for them. it Cæsarea. He also advanced the village Bethsaida, They none of them differ from others of the Essenes situate at the lake of Gennesareth, unto the dignity in their way of living: but do the most resemble those of a city, both by the number of inhabitants it conDacæ, who are called Polistæ * or dwellers in cities, tained, and its other grandeur : and called it by the • But of the fourth sect of Jewish philosophy, Ju. name of Julias, in honour of Cæsar's daughter. das ihe Galilean was the author. These men agree Now as Coponius, who was sent along with Cyin all other things with the Pharisaic notions; but renius, was exercising his office of procurator, and they have an inviolable attachment to liberiy; and governing Judea, the following accidents happened say that God is to be their only ruler and lord. As the Jews were celebrating the feast of unleavened They also do not value dying any kind of death ; nor bread, which we call the passover, it was customary indeed do they heed the deaths of their relations and for the priests to open the temple gates just after mida Friends: nor can any such fear make them call any night. When therefore those gates were first opened, man lord. And since this imnioveable resolution is some of the Samaritans came privately into Jerusa: well known to a great many, I shall speak no farther lem, and threw about dead mens' bones in the cloysabout that matter. Nor am I afraid that any thing ters. On which account the Jews afterward exI have said of them should be disbelieved: but rather cluded them out of the temple, which they had not fear that what I have said is beneath the resolution used to do at such festivals: and on other accounts they shew when they undergo pain. And it was in also they watched the temple more carefully than Gessius Florus's time that the nation began to go they had formerly done. A little after this accident mad with this distemper ; who was our procurator; Coponius returned to Rome, and Marcus Ambivius and who occasioned the Jews to go wild with it, by came to be his successor in that government. Under the abuse of his authority; and to make them revolt whom Salome, the sister of king Herod, died; and from the Romans. And these are the sects of Jewish

left to Julia (Cæsar's wife) Jainnia, all its toparphilosophy.

chy, and Phasaelis in the plain, and Archelais : where is a great plantation of palm-trees; and their

fruit is excellent in its kind. After him camé AnCHAP. II.

nius Rufus, Under whom died Cæsar, the second

emperor of the Romans : the duration of whose reign Of the erection of several cities in honour of Cæsar; was fifty-seven years, I six months, and two days, the succession of priests and procurators; and of which time Antonios ruled together with him the affairs of Phraates, and the Parthians. fourteen years : but the duration of his life was se

venty-seven years. Upon his death Tiberius Nero, THEN Cyrenius had disposed of Archelaus's his wife Julia's son, succeeded. He was now the

money; and when the taxings were come to third emperor: and he sent Valerius Gratus to be a conclusion, which were made in t the thirty- procurator of Judea, and to succeed Annius Rufus. seventh of Cæsar's victory over Antony at Actium; he This man deprived Ananus of the high-priesthood ;

* Who these lohisæi ia Josephus, or Krisau in Strabo, world. That battle is known to have been fought between - among the Pythagoric Dacæ were, it is not easy to de- Augustus and Mark Antony in the beginning of September,

termine. Scaliger offers so improbable conjecture, that in the 31st year before the Christian era. To which add some of these Dacæ lived alone, like monks, in tents, or 36 years to the beginning of September, A. Đ. 6.- In the caves : but that others of them lived together in built ci- next year to which naturally falls the banishment of Arties; and thence were called by such names as inplied the chelaus, and the taxation under Cyrenius, to the 37th sie.

year of the Actiack vietory, A. D. 7. See Authentic Re+ Harduin hinds fault with Josephus, for saying the tax- cords, Pt. II. pag. 1103, 1104. alion under Cyrenius fell out in the 37th year after the These listy-seven years are from Julius Cæsar's death. Actiаck victory, but without any just occasion in the VOL. 11.-NO, XXXV.

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and appointed Ismael, the son of Phabi, to be high- as pledges of his fidelity to Rome: and they were priest. He also deprived him in a little time, and sent to Romne accordingly; because it was not easy ordained Eleazar, the son of Ananus, who had been for him to contradict her commands. Now while high priest before. But when he had held the sacer. Phraataces was alone brought up in order to sucdotal office for a year, Gratus deprived him of it, || ceed in the government, he thought it very tedious and gave it to Sinon, the son of Camithus. And to expect that government by his father's donation when he had possessed that dignity no longer than as his successor. He therefore formed a treachea year, Joseph Caiaphas was made his successor. rous design against his father, by tis mother's asWhen Gratus had done these things, he went back sistance; with whom, as the report went, he had crito Rome, after he had tarsies in Judea eleven years : minal conversation. So he was bated for both these when Pontius Pilate came as his successor.

vices: while his subjects esteemed this wicked love And now Herod the tetrarch, who was in great of his mother to be no way inferior to his parrifavour with Tiberius, built a city of the same name cide: and he was by them in a sedition expelled out with him, and called it Tiberias. He built it in the of the country, before he grew too great, and died. best part of Galilee, at the lake of Gennesareth. But as the best sort of the Parthians agreed, that it There are warm baths at a little distance from it, in was impossible they should be governed without a a village named Emmaus. Strangers came and in- king; while it was also their constant practice to habited this city; a great number of the inhabitants choose one of the family of Arsaces ; (nor did their were Galileans also: and many were necessitated by law allow of any others;, and they thought this Herod to come thither out of ihe country belonging kingdom had been sufficiently injured already by the to him; and were by force compelled to be its in- marriage with an Italian concubine, and by her habitants. Some of them were persons of consli- issue ;) they sent ainbassadors, and called Orodes tion. He also admitted poor people ; and those such to take the crown : for the mulurude would not as were collected froin all paris to dwell in it. Nay otherwise have borne them: and though he were some of them were not quite free-men. And these accused of very great cruelty, and was of an in. he was a benefactor to, and made them free in great fractable temper, and prone to wrath, yet still he numbers : but obliged them not to forsake the city, was one of the family of Arsąces. However, they by building them very good houses at his own ex- made a conspiracy against him, and slew him; and pence, and by giving them land also. For he was lhat, as soine say, at a festival, and

among their sensible that to make this place a habitation was to sacrifices; for it is the custom there to carry their transgress the Jewish ancient laws; because many swords'with them. But as the more general report sepulchres were to be here taken away, in order to is, they slew him when they had drawn him out a make room for the city Tiberias. Whereas our hunting. So they sent ambassadors to Rome, and aws pronounce that such inhabitants are unclean, desired they would send one of those that were there * for seven days. +

as pledges, to be their king. Accordingly Vonones About this time died Phraates, king of the Par- was preferred before the rest, and sent to thein: for: thians, by the treachery of Phrataces, his son ; he seemed capable of such great fortune, which two upon the following occasion. When Phraates had

of the greatest kingdoms under the sun now offered had legitimate sons of his own, he had also an lia- hin; his own, and a foreign one. However the Jian maid servant, whose name was Therinusa ; who barbarians soon changed their minds, they being had been formerly sent to him by Julius Cæsar, naturally of a mutable disposition; upon the suppoamong other presents. He first made her his con- sition, that this man was not worthy to be their gocubine : but being a great admirer of her beauty, and

For they could not think of obeying the in process of time having a son by her, whose name commands of one that had been a slave ; for so they was Phraataces, he made her his legitimate wife, called those that had been hostages : nos could they and had a great respect for her. Now she was able bear the ignominy of that name: and this was the to persuade him to do any thing that she said; and more intolerable, because then the Parthians must was earnest in procuring the government of Parthia have such a king set over thein, not by right of war, for her son. But still she saw that her endeavours but in time of peace. So they presently invited would not succeed, unless she could contrive how Artabanus, king of Media, to be their king; he to remove Phraates's legitimate sons out of the king- being also of the race of Arsaces. Artabanus comdom. So she persuaded him to send those his sons, plied with the offer that was made him, and came * Numbers xix. Il.-14.

own time. I suppose the reason is, that after the large bis+ We may here take notice, as well as in the parallel tory of Nicolaus of Damascus, including the life of Herod, parts of the books of the War, II. 9. that after the death and probably the succession and first actions of his sons, be of Herod the Great, and the succession of Archelaus, Jo- had but few good histories of those times before hims. sephus is very brief in bis accounts of Judea; till near his

vernor.

to then with an army. So Vonones met him; and lish the Jewish laws. So he introduced Cæsar's at first the multitude of the Parthians stood on his images, which were upon tbe ensigns, and brought sile, and he put his army in array: but Artabanus then into the city : whereas our law forbids us the was beaten, and fled to the mountains of Media,

very making of images. On which account the Yer did he a little after gather a great army together, former procurators were wont to make their entry and fought with Vonones, and beat him. Where- into the city with such ensigns as had not those orupon Vonones fled away on horseback, with a few naments. Pilare was the first who brought those of his attendants about him, to Seleucia. So when images to Jerusalem, and set them up there: which Artabanus had slain a great number, and this after was done without the knowledge of the people, he had gotten the victory, by reason of the great because it was done in the night time. But as soon dismay the barbarians were in, he retired to Ciesi, as they knew it, they came in multitudes to Cæphon, with a great number of his people: and he sarea, and interceded with Pilate inany days, that now reigned over the Parthians. But Vonones fled

he would remove the images. And when he would away to Armenia : and as soon as he came thither,

not grant their request, because this would tend he had an inclination to have the government to the injury of Cæsar; while yet they persevered country given himn; and sent ambassadors to Rome

in it; on the sixth day he ordered his soldiers for that purpose. But because Tiberius refused it

to have their weapons privately, while he came him, and because he wanted courage, and because and sat upon his judgment-seat: which seat was so the Parthian king threatened him, and sent ambas- prepared in the open place of the city, that it consadors to denounce war agaiost him if he proceeded; cealed the army that lay ready to oppress them. and because he had no way to regain any other king. And when the Jews petitioned him again, he gave dom; (for the people of authority among the Ar. a signal to the soldiers to encompass them round; menians about Niphates joined themselves to Arta- and threatened that their punishment should be no banus); he delivered up himself to Silanus, the pre- less than immediate death, unless they would leave sident of Syria : who out of regard to his cducation off disturbing him, and go to their respective homes. al Rome, kept-him in Syria; while Artabanus gave But they threw themselves upon the ground, and Armenia to Orodes, one of his own sons.

laid their necks bare, and said they would take their At this time died Antiochus, king of Comma.

death very willingly, rather than the wisdom of their gene: whereupon the inuliitude contended with the

laws should be transgressed. Upon which Pilate nobility: and both seni ambassadors to Rome. For was deeply affected with their firm resolution to the men of power were desirous that their govern. keep their laws inviolable; and commanded the ment might be changed into the form of a Roman

images to be carried back from Jerusalem to Cæprovince; while the multitude were desirous to be under kings, as their fathers had been. So the se- Pilace now + undertook to bring a current of nate made a decree, that Germanicus should he sent

water to Jerusalem; and did it with ihe sacred 10 seule the affairs of the East; fortune hereby

money: and derived the origin of the stream from taking a proper opportunity for depriving him of his the distance of two hundred furlongs. However, life. For when he had been in the East, and settled

the # Jews were not pleased with what had been all affairs there, his life was taken away by a poison done about this water; and many thousands of the which Piso gave him.

people got together, and made a clamor against him, and insisted that he should leave off that design.

Some of them also used reproaches, and abused the CHAP. III.

man; as crowds of such people usually do. So he

disguised a great number of liis soldiers in their Of a Sedition of the Jews against Pontius Pilate: habit, who carried daggers under their garments, remarks concerning Christ: and what befel and sent them to a place where they might surround Paulina, and the Jews at Rome.

them. He then bade the Jews go away: but they

boldly casting reproaches upon him, he gave the UT now * Pilate, the procurator of Judea, re- soldiers that signal which has been previously agreed

moved the army from Cæsarea to Jerusalem, on. Accordingly, they laid upon them much greater to take their winter-quarters there, in order to abo- blows than Pilate had commanded; and equally pu

sarea.

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* A. D. 27. + A. D. 28. # These Jews, as they are here called, whose blood Pilate shed on this occasion, may very well be those GaJilean Jews, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacribces; Luke xiii. 1, 2. These tuipults being usually

excited at some of the great festivals, when they slew abundance of sacrifices; and the Galileans being com. monly more busy in such tumults than those of Judea and Jerusalem; as we learn from the history of Archelaus, XVII. 9. and chap. 1o. Though indeed Josephus's present copies say not one word of those eighteen, upon nished those that were túmukuous, anir those that her, and he was not able to bear this misfortune in were not: nor did they spare them in the least. his amours, he resolved to famish himself to death And since the people were onarmed, and were for ware of food, on account of Paulma's refusal? caught by men prepared for what they were about, and he went on with this purpose accordingly. Now a great number of them were slain by this means, Mundus had a freeds woman, who had been niade and others of them ran away wounded. And thas free by his father, whose naine was Ide; one skilful an erid was put to this seditioixer

nished

in all sorts of mischief. This woman was much 6. Now there was aboat this time Jesus, a wise grieved at the young man's resolution to kill hina njan ; if it be lawful to call him a man ; for he was self: (for he did not conceal his intentions to deá doer of wonderful works, and a teacher of such suroy liimself from others); and came to him, and men as receive the truth soit la pleasure.. He drew encouraged him by her discourse, and made into over to him both many of the Jews, and many of hoper by sme promises she gave him, that he might the Gentiles. He was the Christ, s And when Pi- obtain a might's lodging with Paulina. And when late, at the suggestion of the principali men among he joyfully hearkened to her, she said, she wanted us, had condemned him * 10 the cross; "those that Ao inore than fifty thousand di achmæ for entrapping loved him at the first did not forsake himv: for he of the woman.“ So when she had encouraged the appeared to them alive again, the + third day : as young man, and gotten as much money as she res the divine prophet's had foretold these and ten thou quired, she did not take the same methods as had sand other wonderful things concerning him. And been taken before; because she perceived that the the tribe of Christians, iso named from hin, is not woman was by no means to be templed by noney: extinct at this day.

.i lui. But as she knew that shie was much devoted to the About the same time I also another sad calamity worship of the goddess lsis, she devised the follow put the Jews into disorder; and certain shametul ing scratagem : She went to some of Isis's prieste practices happened about the temple of Isis that was and upon the strongest assurances of concealment, at Rome. I will now first take notice of the wicked she persuaded thein by words, but chiefly by the attempt about the temple of Isis; and will then give offer of twenty-five thousand drachmæ in hand, and an account of the Jewish affairs. There was at as inuch more when the thing had taken effect; and Rome a woman whose name was Paulinar: . one told them the passion of the young man and perwho on account of the dignity of her ancestors, and suaded thein to use all possible means to beguile the by the regular conduct of a virtuous life, had a great woman. - So they were drawn in to promise so to reputation. She was also very rich. And although do, by, that large sum of gold they were to have. she were of a beautiful countenance, and in that Accordingly the oldest of them went iminediately to Power of age wherein women are the most gay, Paulina ; and upon his 'admittance, he desired to yet did she lead a life of great modesty. She was speak with her by herself. When that was granted married to Saturninus ; one that was every way an- hiny, he told her, that he was sent by the god swerable to her in an excellent characteri Decius Anubis, who was fallen in love with her, and end Mundus, a man very high in the equestrian order, joined her to come to him. Upon this she took the fell in love with this woman; and as she was of too message very kindly; and valued herself greatly great dignity to be seduced by presents, and had upon this condescension of the deity : and told her already rejected them, though they had been sent in husband, that she had a message sent her, and was great abundance, he was still more inflamed with to sup and to lie with Anubis. So he agreed to her love to her : insomuch that he promised to give her acceptance of the offer, as fully satisfied with the two hundred thousand Attic drachma for one night's chastity of his wife. Accordingly she went to the lodging. And when this would not prevail upon temple: and after she had supped there, and it was whom the tower of Siloam fell and slew them; which the And as he was willing to correct that error, be sent Christ fourth verse of the same thirteenth chapter of St. Luke to Herod at this time." informs us of. But since our gospel teaches us, Luke N. B. Whereas Oltius in his annotations upon Josexxiji. 6, 1. that when Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked phus, printed in Havercamp's second volume, pag. 305 whether Jesus were a Galilean ? "And as soon as he knew ---323. all along supposes that Josephus had read our that be belonged to Heroil's jurisdiction, he sent him to books of the New Testament, when he wrote his known Herod. And verse 12. The same day Pilate and Herod works; and that he gives many, though obscure intima: were made friends together; for before they had been at tions thereof; this ho-way appears to me, upon the peryenmity between themselves. Take the very probable key sal of his observations, to be true. He indeed, as then of this matter in the words of the learned Noldius, De an Ebionite, must have read and believed the Nazarene Herod, No. 249. “ The cause of the enmity between gospel, but not the books of our New Testament, llerod and Pilate," says he, “ seems to have been, that April 3. A. D. 33. Pilate had interineddled with the tetrarch's jurisdiction, + April 5. and ,liad slain sone of his Galilean subjects; Luke xii, I A. D. 33.

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