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was, so to speak, set on work by infinite, which is, in ordinary speech, said to be love, to find out some way how justice and reconciled, and the other to be pacified; yet mercy might embrace each other, did fail even where it is said that we are reconupon no other way, but that the only Son ciled to God, it is clearly implied and of God should fatisfy: therefore is there hinted, that God likeways is reconciled to an emphasis in this whom (excluding all us, (and how can it be otherwise, seeing other means and ways imaginable) God the one neceffarily followeth the other) hath set forth, to be conceived.
Rom. v. 10. where reconciled, verse 10. is VII
. Sure it must be some more urgent, he same with justified, verse 9. and to be weighty and important cause, for which justified says, we are accepted of God; fo God should set forth Christ to die, and are we faid to receive this reconciliation, thed his blood, than to confirm his doctrine; verse 11. and so it must necessarily imply seeing that was sufficiently done by his life that God is atoned ; so 2 Cor. v. 18. 19. and miracles; and the death of the blessed 20. 21. it is implied that God is reconcil. martyrs that suffered for the truth; and ed to us, for it is added by Jesus Christ, seeing he was fo dear to his Father, bis and then the effect is, not imputing their Son, bis only begotten Son, his well beloved trepasses, and the cause, for be made him Son; and feeing it was no ordinary exer- fin for us; yea, and it is made a motive cife he was put to, even to die, and to die upon which ministers should persuade peoin an unheard-of manner; and more than ple to be reconciled; so Ephel ii. 12.---17. that too, to give bis soul an offering for where the reconciliation is of both sides, fin. And what else can it be for, than to as the enmity was on both sides ; and this satisfy justice, and loose the obligation of reconciliation of God to both Jews and a standing law, &c. hence it is called a Gentiles, is a mean of reconciling them apropitiation here, and 1 John ii. 2. and iv. mong themselves, and the cause of all is the 10. Upon this, sure, it is that he is call. body of Christ upon the cross. This hath ed a bloody facrifice, and was typified by ground moreover here, it, in that it is the sacrifices under the law.
called a propitiation (the purport of which VIII. Seeing (as we cleared, Doct. 3d.) word is to render propitious and favourable, because of fin, God has a real difpleasure as 1 John ii. 2.) and that (as we thew in the at us, and a legal enmity, and Christ fatis. exposition) with reference to the covering fied, (as was shown in the last Doct. Ob of the ark, or the mercy feat, which hath terv.) it followeth as a clear truth, that this name, Heb. ix. 5. which did declare God is now pacified by that which Christ that God was atoned and appeased by the did and suffered; atonement being made, facrifice offered without, without which he he is now reconciled; that is, his wrath would not have any pledge of his being and anger, and all the effects of it, are atoned, seen; so the Lord declares himself now turned away : not as if we thought appeased by his blood; hence there is menthere were any proper change in God, tion made of his blood, to call to mind the who is still one and the fame unchangeable bloody facrifices of old, which typified Jehovah; but now the bars that obstruct Christ, in whom alone God was well his love of complacency and friendship, pleased and reconciled.2diy, It hath such as the law, justice and truth, are re. ground, in that it is such a propitiation moved, without the least change in him, as hath remiffion following it. Now, reall the change being in us. It is true, we mission being an act of God, it fheweth, find it not said expressly, that God is re- that by the propitiation he was pacified; conciled to us, but that we are reconciled to for, want of satisfaction to justice, lay in God, because we are the party offending, the way of pardon and remislion, before;
but now, when there is remission, it says, vii. 26. and was free from diseases of body, that fatisfaction is had, and to God is paci. nor was liable to corruption, Psalm xvi. 10. fel . zdy, In thac ic followerh, that he Acts ii. 31. and xiii
. 35. nor did descend lomight be the justifier of the believers in cally into hell, seeing that same night he Chrit; for what sense were it to say, we went to Paradise, Luke xxiii. 43. nor inwere reconciled, or atoned, that he might dured the curse for ever ; yet was Christ jullify? Is it not better sense to say, Jur- our furety, Heb. vii. 22. and his death and tice now being satisfied, and the law an- sufferings were satisfactory unto justice; the fwered by the alonemeni, God was then law was thereby satisfied, God's wrath 2free to justify believers, there being now verted : for whatever was essentially and a fair door opened, which was closed be properly penal, in the punishment which fore.
was due unto the finners, was suffered by IX. Howbeit Christ was a worthy per Christ, who endured the total temporal fon, being the Son of God, who thought privation of all the fense of the good of it ro robbery to be counted equal with the the promise, and the positive evil flowing Father, Phil. ii
. 6. yet by no less could be from the curse, confidered absolutely, withSatisfy justice than by his death and blood; out respect to the disposition of the pato less could be a propitiation, there being tient. Now, it is accidental to the pua standing, law, and the covenant runing nishment, and that which floweth froin thus, The day thou eatest, thou shalt die : the disposition of the sufferer, that he dies. Justice required that that should be made in fin, (for sin is not essential to punithgood, either by himself or by his cautioner. ment, whereof God is author) or despairThe sacrifices, which were types of Christ, eth, or lieth finally, and for ever under the were bloody, and so the Antitype behov- punishment, for ibis flowerh merely from cd to be so allo. Christ was a teftator, and the inability to make fatisfaction; nor is a testament is of no force until the testator the place of torment essential to the pudie, Heb. ix. 16. 17. and without foeding nishment: so that the punishment that of blood there is no remision, ver. 21. Hence Christ underwent, being both the pain of is there so often mention of his blood, Heb. lofs, Pfalm xxii. 2. Matth. xxvii. 40. and ix. 14. and x. 19. i Pet. i. 2. 19. 1 John 1.7. the pain of senfe, Matth. xxvi. 37. Ifa. lüi: i Cor. x. 16. Eph. ii. 13. and we are said | Luke xxii. 44. was equivalent (if not the to be redeemed and purchased by blood, fame) to what the lawthreatened. For here Acts xx. 28. Rom. v. 9. And though blood there was a propitiation, though but in bis be, particularly mentioned, it includes all blood, or death. See Heb.ii.ix.14. Gal.iii. 13. his precedent sufferings, both of body XI. Altho' God in justice might have (which made way for this bloody death) refused any satisfaction made by Christ
, lecand of soul, Marth. xxvi. 27. and xxvii. 46. ing it was wholly out of God's free love that Gal. iii. 13. Therefore it is faid here, to Christ was sent and appointed' unto that be a propitiation through his blood. office; and he might (had it fo seemned good
x. Albeit that man by his fall incured in his eyes, who doch all things according death, both spiritual and temporal, and so to the good pleasure of his will, Eph. i. 11.) was dead in fin, Eph. ii
. 1. and had mise have execute the threatening, upon us ries, sickness, and diseases on his body, and who were the offenders; yet Chrilt being was liable to corruption, and death of foul appointed to the work by God, and acand body in hell for ever, Mat. ix. 44. 46. cordingly discharging the under aking, 48. 2 Theff. i. 9. and altho' it be true that what he did and suffered was a full and perChrist Jesus was never dead in sin, but was fect fatisfaction; it had an intrinsic worth, like us in all things except fin, Heb.iy. 5. and I in that he was God, who laid down the
price, Aets xx. 28. and the price was no , fion for the carrying on the work of our less than himself, Heb. ix. 28. So that it falvation, and so is able to save to the ut. was perfećt, not because God did by way termot all that come to God through him, of grace fupply what he wanted, and in- Heb. vii. 25. yet seeing the foundation of dulged any defect; or because of God's that work which he carrieth on there, was gracious acceptation, but because of the in- laid in the earth, he was a high-priest beward equality and condignity betwixt the fore he ascended, even while on the earth; price and the thing purchased; so that hence it is said, that he gave himself a saChrist's obedience and sufferings were more crifice, Eph. v. 2. and such an one is a priest
, satisfactory to justice, than the everlasting Heb. v.1. fee Eph. v. 25. Gal. ii.22. Rom. death of all had been ; and more fatisfac- viii. 32. and iv. 25. Heb. v. 6.7. and i. 3. tory than the sins of all those for whom and vii. 27. and ix. 12. 26. 1 Pet. ïi. 21. he died were displeasing; otherways God Thus the blood of the sacrifices which would never have suffered sin to have been: typified Christ, viz. the daily sacrifices, Therefore it is a propitiation in his bicod. was not carried into the holy place. There
XII. Howbeit it be a truth that Christ fore here there is a propitiation in his blood, hath delivered all his own from all the pe- and so before he ascended he was a priest Dalty of fin, by suffering it in their stead, making atonement. and yet believers meet with death, seeing xv. To expect justification for any it is so appointed, Heb. ix. 28. yet it will works we can do, is to cross the grand denot hence follow, that Christ's temporal fign, and noble device of God, in sending
; cause death to them is not properly penal, Christ out to be a propitiation, is a standing but rather a favour, liberating them out argument, that justification is not by works, of their prison : for here there is a propi- but by faith. tiation even in bis blood. Hence he was XV1. Albeit God set forth Christ from a curse, even when he died, Gal. iii. 13. eternity to be a propitiation for his choand he is said to offer himself for us. sen, in particular, and in time sent him to
XIII. Albeit Christ Jesus was innocent | lay down the price and ransom for those in himself, and knew no fin, yet this will and no other, in particular; and Christ not hinder but his sufferings were fatisfac- both undertook, and discharged the untory; nor was it any injustice that he, an dertaking, for none other, but for those innoent person, should suffer for the no- in special; yet this price paid and laid cent and guilty, seeing he was most willing down, is not forthcoming to the elect, nor to do so, and cook delight in it, and was actually applied for their good, until they the head of his church, and fo a near kinf- believe; for it is a propitiation through man, yea, and able to pay all, and suffer faith : and faith is the way God in his all, and procure more glory to God than wisdom hath carved, whereby this death man's own sufferings could have done : and blood of Christ's becometh an actual hence God's goodness is the more set forth propitiation. to us, in that such an one who knew no XVII, Albeit faith be requisite to the fin, should have been made fin for us, applying of the redemprion purchased by 1 Cor.v. 21. see aiso, 1 Pet. ii. 21. and iii. Christ, yet this doth no way lessen the free78. For here there is a propitiation in his dom of it, seeing our faith, upon whatblood, and God (who is justice itself, and ever score, doth not come in to pay the can do no wrong) fet him forth.
least penny of the price; it comes not in XIV. Tho' Christ be acting the part of as a mite in the ransom, but receives the a high priest in heaven, making interces- whole ransom, and rests upon it, in an. other. Tho' we cannot be the better of fin as a reward of Christ's deach and sufan alms till we receive it, yet it is no less terings, because of his mere pro.nile, and an alms that we receive it. And further, not because of any worth or meric in them; faith itself is given and bestowed freely ; seeing this redemption and propitiation in for we are justified freely by his grace, Christ's blood, is set out as a price, 1 Pet. verse 23d, altho'the propitiation be through i. 18. 1 Cor. vi 20. For ye are bought with faith.
a price. Nor will it hence follow, that XVIII. Faith looks for acceptance for we ought not to pardon those that offend nothing in itself, but goes quite out of, aus, without fatisfaction; for though we are. man's self, and rests upon the merits and commanded to imitate God in pardoing of death of Christ, as only satisfactory to jul- fences, Math. xviii. 27. Eph. iv. 32. and tice, and through which it expects to be v. 1. yet not in every particular: for, to accepted of God, and brought into favour speak properly, we cannot pardon at all, again; it pleads this only as the ground of but God only, Ifa. xliii. 12. only we should its being justified before God: therefore pardon the wrong that is done us, as reait is faith in his blood.
ly, surely, and effectually, as God doch XIX. Tho' when angels, more glorious the fin against him. See Eph.i. 7. Matth. creatures than men, fell, there was no por- xxvi. 28. Acts xxvi. 18. fibility of recovery, or of pardon for them, XXII. Tho? God decreed from all eteryer it seemed good in the Lord's eyes, the nity to pardon the sins of his own chosen, riches of whose love is unsearchable, to and so their fins may be said, in so far, to make forgiveness of sins possible and attain- be pardoned intentionally, before they be able unto poor man: hence is there men- committed, and laid our lins on Chrift, tion made here of remision of sins. who in due time fatisfied for them, and so
XX. Albeit man that has sinned cap ne meritoriously they may be said to be para. ver be made innocent again of that where- doned, yet are they not actually. pardoned, of now he is guilty; for what is once done until the finner, convinced of a necessity, can never be so andone; nor can it ever fee in to that price, and tean to it; for be said, that his fins deserve not God's remission is not had but by faith in his blood, wrath; the law being once made, the going before ; so that pardon results from breach thereof doth, thro' God's appoint Christ's merits, and our accepting of these : ment, incur his wrath and displeasure; nor merits, and resting on chem. the blot that sin makerh. upon the soul XXIII. In justification believers have can never be removed fully till death ; yet their inquities pardoned, all their by-past, fin is so far pardoned, as that the actual tranfgressions are covered and remited : obligacion unto condemnntion is removed, for being jultified by his grace, ver. 24th, guilt actual is taken away, so that the fin is to have their fins remited, ver.' 25th. ner once pardoned, shall never be con- XXIV. Albeit the elect be not actually demned; for this, is remifion of fus here justified or reconciled until they believe, mentioned.
as we cleared, Doct. 16th and 22d; yet. XXI. Christ's merits are the only pro hereby there is no wrong done to Christ caring cause of our pardon and remiffion, our Mediator, that the fruits of his medi2 1d our remiffion is no less remiffion thai ation are thus suspended, seeing it was his ir has such a valuable, considerable price own will it should be fo; for thus it was going before to purchase it ; for it is ia covenanted (to speak so) berwise the Father and through the propitiation in Chrift, tha and the Son, both of them having the same remiffionis had, and a proper remission too: will and intention, and so agreeing mutuallo wat it is false to say, God pardoneth lly, both anent the manner and time of our
reconciliacion; To that what was God's pur- XXV. Albeit that Christ as a cautioner, pose in the matter, was Christ's also, he satisfied justice in the room of the elect, being in the work, but (to speak fo) the (not that we substituted him in our place, Father's servant, Isa. xlii. 1. doing all in
to do and suffer all which we were bound obedience to God's command, John X. 18. to do and suffer; for then his righteousNow, it was God's purpose that the be- nefs should be ours whether we believed nefits of Christ's death should be suspend- or not, he believing in our name, as well ed until faith, John vi. 40. and iii 14. 15. as suffering : yea, ihen what he did and 16. Ifa. liii. 11. Nor doth this wrong or im- suffered thould be more ours than his, as pair the intrinsical worth of Christ's death the deed of an attorney and messenger is and merits; for his death, notwithstanding more the deed of such as they represent, of this, was a full and complete fa:istaction than their own) being substituted in our to divine justice, (as we shewed, Doct. 11.) room by the Father, to satisfy the law for us, fo thar the last farthing is paid, and justice and fo becoming one person, in law, with can crave no more by way of satisfaction: the principal debtors, paying the same and it can be no wrong to justice, that the
stice, that the debt, so as no other latisfaction is required Son make satisfaction, and the Father ace of the debtors: yet this fati: faction made cept thereof, upon terms which they may by Christ our cautioner, is not properly agree upon; and, particularly, that the our justification and pardon of fin, but onfinner, or debtor, be not actually loosed ly its ground and meritorious cause; for from the obligation upon the Cautioner's he is set forth to be a propitiation, and then payment, till such or such a time. Nei- followeth, as a distinct thing, remission of ther hereby is the death of Christ ren- fins; and justification, that he might be jujt, dered less efficacious, and the fruits and and the justifier of him that believeth, as effects of it less certain; for it is a re- merited and purchased thereby. demption which shall have effect in due XXVI. Whatever difference there be time, faith not being such a poteftative betwixt those under the Old Testament, condition as is fully in our own power to and those under the New, the one having act or not; but such a condition as is pur-Christ only in a promise, the other as acchased by Christ, and which God hath de- tually come in the flesh, and exhibited in creed to work irresistibly, Acts xii. 48. the gospel; the one having him in types and John vi. 36. Jer. xxx. 31. Eph.i. 18. Nor dark shadows, which were but sadows of is it ridiculous that God should promife good things to come, the other, the image of upon a condition which himself worketh, the things themselves, Heb. x. 1. the one seeing faith is not immediately from him having more full and clear promises than self, but so wrought by him as it is our the other, Heb. viii. 6. yet (bosh the act, and so performed by us voluntarily, old and the new covenam being the same And Christ's death contributes an imme. in substance, viz. a covenant of grace, diate efficacy unto reconciliation, and is the made por with perfect man, as the coveonly immediate meritcrious cause thereof; nant of works was, but with finiers, Deut. faith neither making Christ's death meri-xxix. 30, 31. 32. and often renewed, Dcut. torious, (as if it were not fo before) nor, xxxi. 28. 29 30. and iv. 30. 31. 2 Chron. moving God to accept of it as meritorious; . xv. 11. 2 Kings xi. '7. and xxiii. 3. 2 Chron. for it is said here, that Christ's death was xxiii. 16. and xxxiv. ; .) even then there a propitiation, and so completely satisfac- was remalion of firs promised and granted, tory, the thro' faith; ad upen those which is a great privilege of the new coterms he was lit forth to be a prajitiation, venan!. Hub. v. 2. Fir here we have viz. through faith.
mention made of remifion of fins that