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were past; that is, remission of their fins | tuo!
415, the soul was to be cut off, where who lived and died before Christ came
an atonement was to be made for sins of in the Helh: See Exod. xxxii. 31. 32. and ignorance; yet (that being by the law as xxxiv. 6. 7. 2 Chron. vii. 14. Isa. xliii. 2; with its judicial additions) it was the rule Pfal . xxv. 11. fi. 12. 14. and xxxii
, 1. &c. of their judicial policy, by which there was XXVII. Whatever reinison of fins these no facrifice appointed that might free them under the law had, it was not merited by from temporal death; and so this was but any works of theirs; their do and live be- a peculiar appointment of their cominon. ing only a fhuring them up in close pri- wealth, it being mainly for omifrons or fon, that they might fly to a Media-commissions in their ceremonial performtor; bur by Jesus Christ, the Lamb fain ances; for verse 22d looks clearly back from the foundation of the world, Rev. xiii. to the preceding verses, and had no re8. the orly Mediator between God and man, fpect to the spiritual expiation of fin there1 Tim. ii. 5. see Heb. xiii. 8. John viii. by typified, otherways none guilty of such 56. 58. (hence he is said to have been fins should ever have been saved) expiatempted by the Israelites, 1 Cor. x. 9. with rion by legal facrifices was not for some Exod. xxiii. 20. 21.) who once offered him- fins only, others excepted, but for all, self, Heb. ix, 25. &c. whose death could Lev.xvi. 21. And so, though under the have merited before it did exist, as any law their purgations and sacrifices being moral meritorious cause may do. And rested on, could really expiate no fin, as is tho' Moses be called a mediator, Gal. iii. clear, Acts xiii. 38.39. Heb.ix.9. they be. 19. 20. yet that was but as a type of Christ, | ing but fhadows of Christ
, the good thing to Deut. xviii, and as a servant, Heb.iii. 5. who come, Heb, x. I. yet typically they expiate wrote of Christ, John. v. 46. Hence all all fin, none excepied: for here, indefinitetheir facrifices and ceremonies pointed out ly, and indiscriminarely it is said, for the reChrist, who was the substance of all those mission of sins that are paff. See Heb.ix. 15. fhadows, Heb. x. I. and could not expiate XXX. Under the old covenant believfin, Heb. ix. 9. and x. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. For ers were freed not only from temporal here the remiffion of fins that are pall, was death by their typical facrifices, but also through the propitiation in bis blood. See from death eternal ; their fins being a Afts x. 43. and xv. 11. and xxvi. 23. transgression of a moral law, requiring
XXVIII. Albeit Christ the only Medi- obedience upon pain of eternal death; for ator was not come, but darkly shadowed it was such a reniffion as was purchased forth by types and figures, as a promised by the blood of Christ, and by no less ; Mellias, or a Mefias to come, under the and Christ died to deliver them from death, law; yet pardon of fias was no otherways even fuch as, throug! fear of death, were had then, but by faith in Chrift: for tho' in bondage, Heb. ii. 1$. and thus Christ the doctrine of faith was sparingly then was a propitiation through faith in bis blood, held forth, yer faith was then necessary, | for the remission of fins that tre paít. and substantially the same with faith under XXXI. It was a great"arguinent of the gospel, both leaning 10 a Melliah, the God's patience and forbearance, that he one as to come, the other as come already: passed by the iniquities of those under the for here, Christ was a propitiation through law, even when there was no actual fa:isfaith, for the remission of sins that are pail. | faction made to justice for tlieir transgresSee Heb, xi 4. 5. 6. 7. Hab. ii. 4. A&s lions ; therefore it is added, through the X. 43. Heb iv. 1. 2.
forbearance of Gud. XXIX. Albcit it be said Numb.xv.
XXXII. As God is righte us with an that foc iuch fins as were done preiump- universal. ri h:enuineis, whercly he can
do no wrong, but is perfe&t and upright | made and imposed a penal law, and dein all his ways, which is an absolute effen creed to punilh the contraveeners of that tial artribute in God; so is he righteous law, this relative justice, whereby he will. with a particular relative righteousness, eth to give to every man what is his duc whereby he will render to every man what according to God's will, requireth that the is his due; which appeareth in his ruling finner be not freed from punishment withthe world, and appointing a place of tor- out satisfaction made to justice, seeing he is ment for the obstinate, Jude 15. and in constant, faithful, and true; for Christ is afflicting the wicked even in this world, set forth to be a propitiation, to declare bis ?ful. Ixxxix. 14. lfa. xxviii. 17. so here he righteousness
, thut he might be just, &c. is said to be just.
XXXVÍ. Albeit in these days of the XXXIII. Albeit this relative righteous. gospel there be much of God's love, merness of God be often manifested in his ex- cy and good-will manifested, more than eecuting his wrath upon the workers of ini- ver, and God doth not usually pursue quity, and was actually, manifested often- finners with such visible and temporal times before Christ came, as in the destruc. plagues as he did of old; yet finners lave tion of the old world, and of Sodom, Go no cause to encourage themselves in wic, morrah, b'c. yet none of these, nay, all kedness, as if God were all mercy and no of them, gave not such a proof and de juitice now; for even in the gospel days monstration of this vindicative justice, as his justice is as great as ever, and more his giving Christ to die and satisfy for fin. clearly and convincingly held forth than uers is : for Christ was set forth to be a pro- ever, in that he would not spare his only pitiation, in his blood, to declare his right begoten Son, in whom was never any guile eusness.
found, but put him to death while standXXXIV. If we look upon God in re-ing in the room of finners: therefore fays spect of his absolute power, that is, his he, to declare at this time his righteousness
. power not limited by the demonstration of his own will, he might have passed by God's justice in the matter of our redempfinners, and not have punished them; lotion, yet it is useful to consider seriously, that he punisheth not by any necessity how justice as well as mercy kyths in it, antecedent to his own free determination, and how they kiss and embrace each other, seeing by no natural necessity he imposed that the wisdom of God may be the more a penal law, there being no natural ne- admired in the falvation of finners, who cessary connection betwixt his dominion o- can make justice and mercy, as it were, ver the creature, and his imposing of pe- lay their shoulders together to help in cur nal laws; for he set forth Christ as a propi. redemption, and mercy gain the day, yet tiation, that sinners may go free; and so fo as justice should suffer no detriment: substituted him in their room to suffer for therefore doch he once and again, that it them, which he could not do, if he pu- may not be forgoten, say, that one end nished sin by any natural necessiry, as the of Christ's being a propitiation for lin was, fire burneth ; and hereby, as by punishing to declare his rigósteousness, and again, to the wicked in his own person, he intends declare, I say, his righteousness. the demonstration of the glory of his justice, XXXVIII. Albeit Chriit Jesus was most which he might, had it so seemed good righteous and innocent, free of all iniquiin his eyes, never have intended to lhew ry, yet it was no act of injustice or cruelforth.
ty in God, to bruise him and aftliet him for XXXV. Whatever God might have OU cause, and to lay the punishment of our done, absolutely confidered, yet having fins upon him, secing he willingly gave himlele to justice, and laid down his life | Here is another argumene whereby the a God, voluntarily became our caucioner, and for by works, but by faith, to this purpose: that cause took on him a dear relation to We are only justified that way by which us, even the relation of a head and hus- | all ground of boasting and gloriation is band, and a near kinsman; but rather an taken away
from man: But so it is that all act of justice: therefore it is said, he was ground of gloriation is taken away by the set forth to be a propitiation, to declare his way of faith, and not by the way of works; righteousness, that he might be just. Therefore, &c. The first proposition is
XXXIX. Tho' Christ was set forth to clear from what he had said in the precedbe a propitiation to satisfy justice, and for ing verses, from which he seemeth to indeclaration and manifestation of the righ- fer this by the particle then; as if he had teousness of God; yet it was not only in | said, If the Lord had any mind, that man respect of God, otherways it had been no Thould have had any ground of boasting, proof of God's rich mercy and goodness he would not hare set Christ forth to have towards us, but also for our good: and been a propitiation through faith in his there is no inconsistency here, but a sweet blood, that thereby way might be made harmony and agreement; the fatisfaction for his justifying of finners, so as his jusof justice making way for good to redound tice might suffer no prejudice; but now toward us, which otherways we could not be has taken this courle, and therefore the have been partakers of: for both these only way of justification is a way that yields ends are held forth here, as Christ was no ground of boasting. The next proposet forth to be a propitiation, that God | lition he cleareth here, and propoleth it might be just, so also, that he might justify by interrogations, the more to bear in the believers in Christ.
conviction of the truth, saying, where is XL. Tho' God be just and righteous, boasting then? Can any, may any man now and in strict justice might have punished boast of himself, or be proud ? No, fays all, according to the rigour of the law, he, it is excluded; it is thot out of doors : with everlasting destruction, without any By what law? By what doctrine? By mercy; yet now, out of the depth of his that of works? Nay: the way of justitiwildom, there is a way found out how cation by works makes a man (well with poor finners might be delivered from the pride and conceit of his own power and deserved curse, and absolved from the pe- ability, and puts him out of God's revenally of the law, without any wrong done rence, to speak fo: But by the law of to justice ; for through Christ's being a faith ; that is, by the doctrine of the gopropitiation God is just, and withal, the spel, which pointeth out salvation in Corist, justifier of those who are by faith in Christ
. and commandeth faith in him, as the only XLI. Whatever worth and excellence way of justification: and he makes menbe in the death and merits of Christ, yet tion of a law, in imitation of those with none have ground to claim any benefit whom he was now difputing, who would thereby, but such as are by faith in Christ; hear of nothing but of a law, as Chriit for he will be the justifier of such only as did call faith a work, John vi. 29. The ere by faith in Christ.
way of justification by faith makes a mag
destitute of all his own righteousness, and VERSE 27. Where is boasting then? It is puts him to flee out of himself, and lay
excluded? By what law of workshoid of the righteousness of another, and Nay: but by the law of faith. so takes all occasion of boasting and glori
ation from him. Q2
VERSE 28. Therefore we conclude, that a I. Proud men would fain be at such a man is justified by faith, without the way of reaching the crown, as may afford deeds of the law. them most ground of boasting, and selfapplauding; and therefore are most back- Fter this long dispute, the apostle, ward to lubinit unto the righteousness of before he goes to make use of other God, Rom. x. 3. and therefore the apostle mediums for the farther confirmation of labours to cast down this, by crying out, the truth, sets down the conclusion, in Since Christ is set forth, cóc. Where is short; Therefore we conclude, from firm boalling?
and solid reason, that a man is justified, II. God hath fo contrived and ordered absolved from all accusation, and that juthe whole business of our salvation, as all dicially, by faith, laying hold on the memouths may be stoped, and all that glory rits of Christ, who was set forth to be a may glory in the Lord; and therefore propitiation through faith in his blood, whatever way men fall upon, whereby without the deeds of the law, of whatsomans mouth is opened in the least, it is
ever fort, as being any part of the merifarthest off from God's way, which is alto torious cause of our justification; or being gether to lay man's boasting, to boasting any condition on which dependeth our be. is excluded, no more to get entry. ing put in a justified state.
III. As it is an evidence of great pride and self conceit in a man to look for justifica
OBSERVATIONS. tion or salvation for any thing in himself, I. There is such a privilege vouchsafed or which he can do; so to expect justifica. upon finners, who have fled in to Christ tion because of any worth in us is a most by faith, as justification, whereby they vain course, and a way that God doch not get their iniquities and transgressions parallow of; and that it is so, may be suffici doned, only because of the propitiation ently made out from this, that it is a way which Christ made by his bloody facrifice; which puffeth up a man, and makes him so as they are accepted of as righteous, swell so with pride, as that he cannot con- not for any thing in themselves, or done tain himself, but boast and glory of his by them, but allenarly for the righteoufown worth; for justification by works ness of Christ, imputed to us, and acceptdoth not exclude boasting, and because it ed by faith: for this definition of justifiis so, therefore the apostle conclude:h, that cation results from the preceding dispute, it is not the right way; for this is the where it was shown, that God justifieth ; force of his argument.
and that justification was not an infusing of IV. Seeing the way of justification by righteouluess in us, but such an act of faith in Christ carrieth a man quite out of God whereby he pardoneth our sins, and himself, to look for all in and through consequently looks upon us as righteous, another; therefore such as have any high and that only for Christ, who was set thoughts of themselves, are walking in a forth to be a propitiation through faith in way of works, and are strangers unto the his blood. right way of justification by faith; and II. This justification being a fundamenwhoever are practically acquainted with tal business, it becometh all of us to be the way
of faith, will have low and hum. clear in it; and however men of corrupt ble thoughts of any thing within them- : minds think it folly to say, that we are felves; for the law of faith excludes bouft- jullified by the righteousnels of another ing.
imputed to us, and so in scorn call it a
putative putatire righteousness, and a thing con- such a justification wherein we are paflive; trary to all sense and reason; yet we fee but we are not passive in this of justification it is a truth founded on firm and solid in conscience.
in conscience. 3dly, He speaks of such a grounds, that man is justified by the righ- | justification as is common to Paul with the teousness of another, laid hold on by faith: weakest and meanest believer; saying, We for the apostle concludes this truth from are justified: but justification in conscience folid and undeniable grounds, saying, Now hath divers degrees, for some are more, therefore we conclude, &c. And as it is some are less persuaded of their justification. a truth founded on solid grounds, so it is 4thly, He speaks of such a justification as a real deed, being a deed of God's, found- is a standing, lasting thing, not rising or ed upon the purchse of Christ, which falling; even of such a justification wherewas a real thing, and producing real ef- by believers are put into a safe state, and fećts, as peace with God, pardon, and só shall never be lost; but this justification joy in the Holy Ghost.
in conscience riserh and falleth, and is III. Howbeit faith be requisite to justi- sometimes quite loit; fo that believers are ficatica, (as hath been shown in the for- often in a state of damnation, and so unmer verses, and may yet farther appear in junified, as to their own apprehension. this) and in believing we are not mere 5thly, He speaks of such a justification blocks, but agents acted by grace; yet which is had by faith, and so is enjoyed justification, being a judicial, forinsical act by every true believer; but justification in of God, we doing nothing whereupon the court of conscience, many a believer we might be accounted jult, but being wanteth many, a day, if not all his lifewholly broken dyvers, and Christ only time. 6thly, lle speaks of such a justifipaying all, as to us is a passive thing, and cation which is had by faith, and so doth we paflive as to the Lord's pronouncing immediately follow faith, if not go alongst the sentence from the bench : hence it is with it; but justification in conscience doth always said, in a paflive sense, we are juf not so inseparably go along with faith, and tified.
immediately follow it. 7thly, He speaketh IV. Albeit it be true, that a believer, of such a justification, the meritorious cause by faith may win to apprehend, and feel whereof is the propitiation through the icgiy to know, that he is justified and par- blood of Christ; but this is the meritorious doned in and through Christ, when he cause of another justification than that in. reflects and looks back upon himself; yet conscience, even of our real and personal this is not all which is had by faith, nor justification. 8thly, He speaketh of such is this sense and apprehension of pardon a justification as is, in a special manner, by and reconciliation, that which is here calle faith, and not by works; but this justified justification by faith: before this justi- cation in conscience is by works, as well as fication in the court of conscience, there by faith : and so we are justified by faith. is a real, personal, actual justification, V. Albeit God did from all eternity otherways that justification in conscience decree to justify his elect, in time, thro fhould be error; and this is had by faith, faith in Christ, every transient act presupand of this the apostle speaketh here: For, posing an imminent act, seeing God doch ust, he speaketh of such a justification nothing in time but what he purposed to whereof God is the author; faying be- do from ecernity ; yet are not his children fore, It is God that justifieth: but man is actually justified from eternity, justificathe cause of this justification in conscience, tion not being an imminent act, which is by taking up, and considering, and under only terminated in the agent, having noItanding his estate. 2dly, He speaketh of thing for its term but himself, but a tran