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fient aš, working a real change upon the by faith, seeing before faith they are liable Creature, bringing hin from a state of to God's curse and wrath, c. John iii. damnation, to a late of salvation; they not 18. Eph. ii. 1 2. Tit. iii. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. being actually guilty, (albeit God fore i Cor. vi. 9. 1 Pet. ii. 10. 2 Pet. i. 1 Pet. knew their guilt, for that says it was not i. 3. 23. 2 Tim. ii. 26. Heb. ii. 14. Rom, from eternity, but was to be in time) and vi. 14. 15. 16. 20. 21. 2 3. and vii. 15. fo not capable of pardon, nor of punish John viii, 24. 32. 33. 34. 36. John iii. 14. ment; otherways, from eternity they should 15. and v. 10. 11. 12. And farther, Chrilt have been heirs of the kingdom, contrary
did not so die for the fins of the elect, to Heb. xi. 7. Tit. iij. 7. Gal. iii. 26. 29. that they should be pardoned whether they Rom.iv.11. 12.13.74. and viii. 16. 17. Eph. believe or not; yea, but whatever right
5. deserving condemnation, contrary to Eph. and however absolutely, in respect of the i. 1. 2. 3. Rom. viii. 1, 2 Cor. xiii. 5. John purchase made, yet no actual remiflion, vi. 53. i John v. 12. nor bound to con but by faith; so that faith is the condifess themselves such, and be humbled 'tor tion of remission, tho' both faith and reit, nor pray for pardon and a right to hea-mislion, and all graces, are alike absoluteven, nor use any other means for that end; ly purchased: for here the apofile faith, all which are gross: for the apostle faith, Weare justified by faith, and so not before; We are justified by faith, not speaking of not at Chrilt's death, for then Paul's dila justification from eternity: For, 11, he pute would have been groundless, for so we speaketh of such a justification as is either thould neither be justified by faith, nor by by faith or by works; but justification from works. eternity is neither by faith nor by works, VII. Howbeit when Paul says, we are but before either we believe or work. justified by faith, he does not exclude 2dly, He speaketh of such a justification Christ from being the meritorious cause, as is merited by the blood of Christ; but but include him; so thar faith is taken as justification from eternity (which can be having reference to its object, and connotatno other thing, but God's purpose to juf- ing it; yet faith in this business is not to be tify in time) is not merited by Christ's considered only objectively, as if the meandeath; yea, it overthroweth Chrisels me- ing of the apostle was this, we are justified rits, for then Christ thould not have died by faith; that is, we are justified by Christ's to have procured pardon, and satisfy juf- blood meritoriously, and so faith should tice, but only to manifest God's love; and be excluded from being a condition ; but justification should have been our idue, faith is taken subjectively, with connoiawhether Christ had died or not. Sce, tion to its obje&t; and the meaning is this; moreover, Acts X. 43. Rom. v. 1. 2. Gal. we are justified by Christ's blood, laid bord ii. 16. and iii. 22. Afts xiii.
on by faith; or, by faith griping Christ VI. Albeit Christ as a public perfon, and his merits: for he infers this from suffering for the elect, made full fatistaćtion what he said before, touching the meritoto justice for their fins, and thus meriro rious cause in Christ, as a conclufion; and riously purged 'their fins, Heb. i. 3. and so it must not be the same, proven by the took them away, John i. 29. for as God fame. Beside that, it is hard to think the requireth no more fatisfaction, either at apostle would so often fay, we are jusifi his hands or theirs, Matth. ii. 17. and ed by faith, putring always faith for Chrift thereby procured a right to heaven; yet especially when he is clearing how ar are not the elect actually and personally what way we are justified, that is, hoy justified then, no, not uacjl this be applied 'justification is procured, and how it be
cometh ours: now, if faith had no interest in justificarion, as a mean applying it, the VERSES 29. 30. Is he the God of t?e Jews apostle would not say, as he doth, that we only ? is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, are jullified by faith.
of the Gentiles aifo : VIII. Faith, being true and sincere, is Seeing it is one God, which shall justify the the mean of justification, whether it be circumcifion by faith, and uncircumcision veak or strong; it justifieth as a true and through faith. lively faith, and not as strong in such and such a degree, nor as enduring so long or Efore he proceeds he answereth two fo long : fór he concludes, that we are
questions, which might serve to clear justified by faith, not telling of what de- the doctrine of justification. The one is grees it should be.
in these two verles, viz. Whether this way IX. Whether faith, in juftification, be of justification by faith be meant only in considered as an instrument in that it ap- reference to the Jews, or in reference to plieth the righteousness of Christ, which the Gentiles also ? and thus it is proposed : muft inmediately be presented to God's | Is he the God of the Jews only? is he not justice, and hash'a peculiar aptitude for also of the Gentiles? That is, is he thus a that effect, and doth the same in justifica- reconciled God, or a God in covenant to tion, which the flung people their looking the Jews who have the law of Moses? on the brazen serpent dià in recovery of and is he not thus also reconciled to the their health ; and is that which is used by Gentiles, who have not the law? As if the Lord, the principal agent in justifica- he had said, Is this way of justification by tion, it being his gift and work, as sub- faith, without the works of the law, comservient to him, in producing this effect of mon both to Jew and Gentile ? He anjustificatioa, far more noble than itself; | fwereth, Yes, it is common to both. And not that the Lord had any reed thereof, why? because it is one God, or God is one, but so it seemed good to him, to make use who shall justify the circumcifion, or the of faith for this end, so that he would not Jews who were circumcised, by faith, and julify without it) or only a mere condition the uncircumcision, or the Gentiles, through and do instrument, lest man, or any act of faith. As if he had said, There is but , his, should share of Christ's honour, which one God, and so but one way of becoinis but a groundless fear; yet ic hath a pe. ing his people; he dealeth not one way culiar interest in our justification, which no with one people, and another way with other grace hath; to our being put into a another people: Or, God is the same unstate of justification it doth concur, so as changeable Jehovah, who is constant in no other work can share with it, no other all his promises, both these which he made grace having such a peculiar apritude to before, as to Adam, and after the differ. apply and rest on Chrift; therefore we are ence began betwixt Jew and Gentile; and said to be justified by faith, without the therefore he becometh reconciled to all, deeds of the law: so that as we are not after one and the fame manner, for he is justified for the deeds of the law, they not no accepter of persons. This by faith, and beiag the meritorious cause; nor are we through faith, are materially the same, as justified by them, or put into a justified Rom. xi. 36. (and even the Gentiles are eitate by them, even as conditions, how- said to be justified by faith, Gal. iv. 7.) ever they be necessary to salvation, and hereby shewing, that for all the good required of those who are in a justified I things that were among the Jews, who stare.
had the law, yet only their faith was taken
notice of as to their justification; and the ence there be otherways among people, in Gentiles had an open door to the privi- respect of external enjoyments, there is leges of the Sons of God, even through one and the same way for all, of what faith. His expressing of the same thing rank, condition, or quality they be, of thus diversly, was to give a check unto the winding in favcur with God, and no pride of the Jews, who would still have way but one: for he is the God of the some difference put betwixt them and the Gentiles, as well as of the Jews, and one Gentiles; therefore he says, If you will God, and justifieth the one and the other by have a difference pur, it is only in this, faith, that you are justified by faith, and they V. This way of geting an interest in through faith.
God, as it is none of our invention, so it
is a business carried on wholly in a manOBSERVATIONS.
ner without us, we being rather paffive I. Men are apt to think that God will than active therein; and a business in which value more, and deal after another manner the hand of God is eminently and allenarwith, those who have been favoured with ly to be seen; for, says he, it is one God external privileges, (as if these would com who justifieth: he both fell upon this deInend them more to him, and he saw as vice, and he carriesh it on; he justifieth men seeth) than with those who have never us, and not we ourselves. enjoyed such ; for this is the ground of VI. Sinners, have they never so many this question which the apostle propound privileges to dote on, must, ere they be eth, and cleareth, for the satisfaction of justified, come out of themselves, grip to, the Romans, saying, is be the God of the and reft upon another, even Jesus Chrift; Jews only? &c.
he must be received, John i. 11. stayed on, II. Tho' all filesh have forfeited their and trufied in, Ifa. xxvi. 3. 4. and without interest in God as theirs by covenant, by this fiducial act of faith, staying on, rolltransgresling his law; yet there is a posti- ing the foul upon, firmly adhering and bility, and a way found out, in the depth leaning, and humbly submiting unto, and of his wisdom, who doth all things accord- relying upon Jesus Chriit
, there is no juing to the good pleasure of his will, how this ftification; for he is the justifier even of the covenant interest.may be renewed, and he uncircuncifion, by faith. may become a God again to some peculiar VII. There is no condition a people ly, in a covenant way; for the apostle says, can be in, tut if they will cast themselves he is Ged to some both among Jews and over on Christ, and renouncing their ou e Gentiles.
strength and righteousness, will wholly III. This interest will not be, so long as reft upon him for salvation, they fhall be justice is not satisfied for the wrong done, accepted and justified; for be is the justific and the breach inade; but ere God become of the uncircumcifion through faith. a covenanted God to any, they must be juftified, and so acquited from all their Verse 31. Do we then make void the lat former guilt; for the apostle clears him to through faith? God forbid : yea, w be God to Jews and Gentiles, because he
establish the law. juliifieth both; so that he is not a God to any but whom he justifiezh, and justifica Here the apostie answereth anothe evince a
, in God.
jection which might be started against whi IV. Seeing all have firined, and come he had delivered through his whole di lort of the glory of God, whatever differ- course aneni linners justification by fait!
without the works of the law; for it might , trine of faith some were ready to gather be objected, By this your doétrine, cryo a la'wless liberty, or rather lientiousness, ing up faith and down works, in the mat. to cast aside all law, and say, the law is ter of justification, you seem to make the made void through faith. law pul and void, as being useless, and of III. It is no new thing to see men of none effect, without any force or efficacy: corrupt minds, loying to follow pernicibut this is not right, and therefore your ous principles, smoothing over their cordoctrine is the more to be suspected. He rupt opinions with fair and specious coanswereth, by denying that his doctrine lours, and pretending a goípel privilege Tendeth to make void the law; yea, rather, warranting them thereto, and fo with says he, by this doctrine of justification by fair shews of reason and plausible pretexts, faith I establish the law, both ceremonial hide their damnable and foul-destroying and moral, in that hereby it is made appa- designs and practices : for even in Paul's rent, that Christ was pointed out by the days there were some ready to lay aside all ceremonial law, as the only Lamb taking | law, under pretext of faith in Christ, and away the fins of the world; and as for cry out, The law is void by faith. the moral law, that is established also, in IV. Tho' many unstable fouls, who that hereby is made manifest, that the pe- have not the truth rooted in their hearts, palty thereof is suffered by him, even may soon be deceived with fair pretences, death; and that he fulfilled all righteouf- and such grounds as a deceived heart, fet ness, and did every thing which the law on work by Satan to deceive, may make required; and in that hereby believer's appear very plausible; yet it is the duty. are not left loose to walk as they please, of all so much the more to abhor these but are the more constrained by the law errors, as they pretend to shelter themof love and thankfulness to yield obedi.. selves under the wings of comfortable goence, and are enabled in part to walk in fpel-truths, and to reject them, not without conformity thereto: therefore says he, yea, a testimony of abhorrence, as the apostle we establish the law.
doth here, saying, God forbid.
V. Albeit there be no poflibility now OBSERVATIONS.
of being justified and absolved before God
from the guilt of a broken covenant, by 1. Enemies to truth, who love not to fulfilling the law; but now the only way receive the same in love, are ready to is by fleeing in unto, and embracing of spread abroad their dissatisfaction very libe Christ by faith; yet is not the bridle laid rally, and to load the truth with baie and on the neck of believers, as if they were fcul calumnies, according to their plea- no more to study conformity unto the law fure; for these that liked not the dočtrine of God, nor as if it were a law wholly a. of faith, were ready to reproach it with brogated and laid aside, as to all its uses this, that hereby the law was altogether and ends : for when the objection is prorendered useless, and so object, that Paul posed thus, Then the law is made void by made void the law through faith. faith; he answereth, God forbid.
II. Licentious spirits, who love not to VI. As Christ was the end of the law be bound by the law of God, liking ra- | for righteousness, and so fulfilled all that ther to walk according to the lulls of their was typified of him in the ceremonial law, own heart, are ready to turn the grace and allo did and suffered all which we of God into lasciviousness, and to fuck were bound to do and suffer by the morank poison from the most comfortable ral law, and hereby strengthened and estapoints of truth; for even from the doc- blished the law of righteousness; fo our
resting on what Christ did and fuffered, | lays strong bonds and obligations on bem for justification and salvation, is so far from lievers to glorify their Lord Redeemer allowing us to cast at the law as a rule of by a christian conversation : Yea, fays the righteousness, that, on the contrary, it I apostle, we establifle the law.
FTER the apostle has thus con he hath whereof to glory, but not befort
firmed, and from folid undeniable God.
reason concluded, that we are justified by faith, without the deeds of the H S argument is this; If Abraham be Jaw, he now brings forth an example to not justified by works, then no man clear and illustrate the matter, (examples is justified by works. This they would being of great force to that effect) and al not question, seeing they all accounted him so to confirm it, it being hereby made out, the father of the faithful, and looked on that it was no new doctrine that he was him as a most eminent man in holiness: here teaching; and the example is of A. But Abraham was not jultified by works. braham, an example which they could not This he first sets down, verse 1. by way reject, having always him in their mouths, of question, W hat fall we say that AbMatth. iii. 9. John viii. 39. and so glory. - rabam our father, as pertaining to the fiel, ing much in him whom they all accounted bath found? That is, can ye, or I either,
to be the father of the faithful ; and for fay, that Abraham our father (so he calls : this cause he pitcheth on this example; as him, left they fhould think that he had also because it would prove a most con
made defection from the faith of Father vincing argument : for if Abraham, a rare Abraham) was justified, or attained righexample of virtue, was not justified by teousness, as pertaining to the flesh, that works, then no man could expect to be is, by the works of the law, (for somejustified by works; therefore he proveth times the commands of the law are filed that Abraham was not justified by works, carnal, Heb. vii. 16.) or works done in his to verse 9. then proposerh a question much own strength, after the way of the feth like that aniwered, chapter iii. 29. 30. if for to have confidence in the flesh, and in there be one way of attaining righteous our own righteousnefs which is of the nefs both to the Jew and Gentile? This law, is all one, Phil. iii. 3. with
9. Now he answereth affirmatively, and cleareh would he fay, you cannot make it cut up the way how, together with other diffi. that Abraham was so justified. And thu culties that arife by the way, to the end.
he puts them to it, by proposing the que
ftion to them, and in that it is left un VERSES 1. 2. What shall we say then, answered, it is equivalent 10 a flat denial
that Abraham our father, as pertaining Now, after this proposition is thus fe to the fiesh, bath found?
down, he confirms it with one argumen For if Abraham were justified by works, - verse 2. saying, if Abraham were just