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through this is the other of internal co- that they become, in some manner, provenanting drawn, as a hidden vein) be- portionably one; whence it is that the lign cause he is speaking of justification, and geteth the name of the thing fignified, dhewing, by Abraham's instance, how that Matth. xxvi. 26. 27. Gen. xvii. 9. 10. 11. it is by faith, and that there is a righte. | Acts vii. 7. 8. Exod. xii. 11. 21. Matth. ousness imputed, and hew his instance is xxvi. 28. and the thing signified the name conclusive, in that he is the father of all of the sign, 1 Cor. V. 7. Col. ii. 11. 12. believers, and so all must be justified as be yet they remain really distinct, and canwas justified, be they Jew, be they Gen- not be properly the fame; for facraments tile.

are figns, and so must be really distinct OBSERVATIONS.

from the thing which they hgnify and re

present, for nothing can be a sign of itself. I. Albeit we find not the word facra- IV. Sacraments being a piece of God's ment in the scripture, and so can make no worship, the prescribing whereof belongs use of the name, to clear or point forth to God only, Exod. xx. 5. must only have any thing of the nature of that which now their institution and appointment of God; goes under that name; yet among other so as no man may lawfully invent any new ordinances which God hath set up in his facrament, nor add any facramental rite church, this which is commonly fignified by unio what God hath appointed, without the word sacrament is one, whereby he the guilt of will-worship and superstition : would confirm his promises, made upon therefore it is faid. Abraham received cirsuch or such conditions ; for such an orcumcifion, and so it was none of his own dinance was circumcifion, a sgn and seal of invention, but an ordinance that had God the righteousness of faith.

for its author, who only was the author of II. These facraments are instituted and the covenant whereof it was a feal: See appointed to be signs, and so are sensible, Gen. xvii. 10. Exod. xii. Matth. xxviii. 19. falling under the fenfes, particularly of and xxvi. 26. 1 Cor. xi. fight, having some apinefs to point forth

V! Tho the facraments be not absolute. something invisible by proportion, whereby ly necessary unto falvation, so as there the covenanted people are differenced from should be no salvation to such as want them, others, who have not that badge, (hence feeing children, under the law, were not the Jews are often fignified by circumcision, to be circumcised until the eight day, beand so called, as thereby differenced from fore which day many might have died, and all others) and united among themselves, fome did die; yet it is not in man's power i Cor. x. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. and such to use then or not, as he thinks fit, but signs as still point out our duty, Rom. vi. 4. they must be received in the order and and layeth on engagements on people, manner which God has appointed. None being sometimes such signs as call to mind of God's institutions ought to be neglected, former received mercies, Exod. xii. 26. nor his commands disobeyed, Esod. iv. 24. 27. 1 Cor. xi. 24. 26. Matth. xxvi. 26. Luke Gen. xvii. 14. Numb. iz. 13. nor his gifts xxii. 29. Mark xiv. 20. Thus, here, circum- or privileges slighted: Now, this is an orcision is called a sign; the cuting off of dinance instituted, as we shewed in the last the fore-skin of the flesh was a viâble fign, Obsei vation, and commanded, Gen. xvii. having some resemblance with what it did 10. Exod. xii. 3. Lev xxiii. 4. Acts xxii. represent.

16. i.Cor. xi. 24. 2 5. Luke xxii. 19. fo is it III. However there be such a strait a privilege granted. Hence Abraham is faid union betwixt the ligo in the facrament to have received circumcision. God commandand the thing thereby represented, as 'ed, and he obeyed presently, Gen. xvi. 23

VI. Sacra

VI. Sacraments, depending upon the re- | ii. 41. viii. 12. 13• 38. ix. 18. x. 48. xvi. Iation betwixt the sign and the thing fig. 15. 33. and xviii. 8. nified, hold forth no benefit, but in so far IX. Albeit God's covenant, and proas they are used and applied; their institu. mises therein, be firm, complete and valid, tion prescribing application, theweth, that and altogether sure, being uttered by the their being consists in use, and that unless God of truth, who cannot lie, and his athey be used and applied, they are fruit- lone word might be enough for us to rest lels : Abraham received the sign of circum-on, being surer than heaven and earth; cifion, and then it was a feal of the righte- yet it hath pleased the good and gracious oufn-fs of faith.

God, so far to condescend to our low capaVII. Howbeit there be an infinite dif- city, as not only to make use of carnal and tance betwixt the Creator and the rea- sensible creatures, suitable to our natures, fonable creature, so as there can be no to help our weak understandings the better equality betwixt them, and man be bound to take up fpiritual things, as Christ used as a creature to obey his Maker, though homely fimilitudes and parables, John iii. 5. God should never indent with him, and 8. Mark iv. 33. Hos. xii. 10. but also to bind himself to reward his obedience; yet make use of outward seals to confirm and it hath seemed good in the Lord's eyes, strengthen our faith, that we mig at have whose goodness is unsearchable, to conde- strong confolation, Heb vi. 18. for circumfcend so far as to enter into a formal cove. cision was both a sign and seal, and for this nant with man, and deal with him by way end appointed of God. of promise and restipulation, the more to X. As facraments do represent and sigengage man to obedience, and to rational nify, by fome external sign, something that obedience, out of love, when he sees what is fpiritual ; so do they serve as seals to he is bound to, and what advantage he confirm the covenant, and to ratify the will get by his obedience: fo. here God promises thereof, not in themselves, as if entered into covenant with Abraham, and they were not true and sure before, but unpromised righteousness, &c. and Abra- to us who are ready to question the truth ham was to believe and obey; for seals do of them, and to stagger through unbelief, always presuppose a covenant or bargain, and so they are as earnests of a bargain, they being added for confirmation : see seals and earnests being one, 2 Cor. i. 22. Gen. xvi Deut. xxvi. 17. 8. 9. Hof. ii. | Eph. i. 13. 14. so circumcision is here call19. 20. and hence the sins of his people ed å seal; and are not bare, void and inare often called, breaches of covenant. effectual ligns, but such as exhibit graće,

VIII. The facraments, being appointed and seal and confirm the covenant. for the confirmation of this mutual cove- XI. Sacraments are not physical, efficient nant, belong only to such as are in cove causes of grace, principal nor instrumental, nant; and their being in covenant only nor do they effectuate and produce grace gives them a fundamenral right to the la- and holiness b;' any inherent quality or craments; for Abraham was firit in cove- power in them, or by Goi's elevating them 0'7', and then received the sign of circum- for the production of such an eifect

, but

way. teousness of faith: Hence his posterity who and seal; and no inward graces do they were received into covenant, were called confer, but what an outward lin or feil the CIRCUMCISION; and in the New Tesis apt to confer, viz. by working upon iament such as believed, and so entered the understanding and faith ot the receizer, covenann, were baptized immediately, Acts for nothing that is material can produce

1 Cor. i. 30.

any spiritual effect; they are here only , v-hom, this covenant made with Abraham daid to be signs and seals of the righteous was setled; he was the purchaser and trednefs of faith, and of that faith too which furer of all the good things in the coveAbraham bad, yet being uncircumcised, and nant; for it is his righteousness which is so he had grace before he was circumcised. here sealed, as the marrow of the whole

XII. Aliho' in that covenant which God covenant, called the righteousness of faith, made with Abraham, there were some rem. to difference it from our own righteousporal promises added, as protection, mal. nefs, Roin. x. z: Phil. iii. 18. and because tiplication of his iflte, honour and riches, it is only applied by faith, Pbil. iii. 9. Heb. and the land of Canaan, which were large- xi. 7. being in itself the rigbiecujness of ly belowed upon his narural feed; yet it God, Rom. X. 3. Phil

. ii. 9. and hence is was a pure gospel-covenant, these temporal | be called our righteousness, Jer. xxiii, 6. bleffings notwith ftanding, seeing eren in rew testament days, there are promises of XV. The facraments of the New Covetemporal biefings, 1 Tim.iv. 8. Pfal. xxxvii. nant, as they exhibit and represent Christ, 3. Ephes.vi. 8. the most eminent promises, who only is the Mediator thereof; fo do (which are the marrow and fubstance of all, they oblign and seal his righteousness proand cught to give the denomination unto miled and held forth in the covenant, witha the covenant,) being fpiritual, as Gen, xii. our whom there is no salvation, Heb. V.9. 2. 3. and xvii. 1. and these oiber only ap- Acts iv. 1 2. nor pardon of fin, 1 John i. 7. pendices : See Heb. xi. 6. where the apostle Now facraments are for pardon and salva: disputes the matter; for here the apostle tion, 1 Pet. iii. 20. 21. Col. ii. 11. 12. 13. fays, that the righteousness of faith was Rom. vi. 4. not that every one who partake icaled by circumcifion; and so if that which of the sacrament, do certainly par:ake of ihe facrament fealed' be spiritual, the go-the righteousness of Christ, for the facravenant must be spiritual; but that which ments do not seal absolutely so, but only here was sealed is said to be the righteous- such who believe in him, and so perform ness of faith, that is, the righteousness of the condition; and to such the facramect Christ, which faith lays hold on for jufi- makes sure and lealeth the promise : Cira fication.

cumcision was a feal of the rightecusness of XIII. Man being now fallen into a fin- faith. ful ard miserable estare, and unable to XVI. Tho' the facraments under the law sid himself out of that condition, and the did differ from these under the gospel in covenant of grace being a covenant enter- several circumstances, as in their outward ed into, to deliver him out of that estate of signs, external rites, and time of duration ; fin and misery, the nain promise of this as also, in that those under the law were more covenant is the righteousness of faith, or painful and costly, and hence called a joke, ihat righteousness of Christ by which we A&ts xv. 10, and in several cther circummust be justified before God, and which stances, yet are they one and the same fos faith alone lays hold on, ard applicth, and substance, seeing they seal the same covenant, that no less under the Old Testament than the same gospel-promises, Gal. iii. 8. Heb.iv. under the New; for circumcision was a 2. and were given to children of the fame seal of the righteousness of faith, and so it father, Rom. ix. 4. and to subje&s of the was a main blessing promised in the cove- fame kingdom, Mat.viii. 11. for here cirnant, for here it is put for the whole co- cumcifion is defined to be a seat of the righTenant.

teousness of faith, which is a promise pureXIV, So that Christ Jesus, the Mediatorly evangelical, Rom. iii. 22. 30. and 1. 3 of the new covenant, is the head upon | Phil.-iii. 9. and hence we hear of circum

cilion of the heart, Jer. iv. 4. Deut. x. 16. if this were looked on es proper and peand xxx 6. Ezek. xliv. 9. which says it look- culiar to him alone, it would prove nothing ei to promises fpiritual, and so is not a as to others.. carnal badge, nor yet a type which fha- XX. This covenant which God entered dowed forth ours under the gospel... into with Abraham, was not made with XVII. Tris covenanted righteousness

, Abraham as a natural father, nor with his which is the prine promise of the new co. illise as his narural children, otherways all venant, is applied by faith ; this is the narural parents and children should be in way how it is appropriate and made ours, covenant; but as a believing head, not onfor it is neither wrought by us, nor inhe- ly of children, but also of fervants and reut in us, and so it must be made over to strangers, and so as accepting of God's us, and faith is only that which gives us a call for him and his that profets the faith: title to, and intereit in it; and as the righ for it is faid, that he might be the father teousness by which all are justitied, is the of all them that believe.. lane, both under the law, and under the XXI. The privileges of ordinances degospel, being the righteousness of Christ, scends to posterity, by virtue of a covewho is the faine yesterday, to-day, and for nant, and fathers and children are comever; to the way of applying this righte- prehended in the same covenant, so long ouluess is the fame under both testaments, as they do not openly renousce the same; viz. faith; therefore this righteousness otherways there should be no grounded sealed, is called the righteousness of faith.. hope of their salvation, if they were with..

XVIII. Hence we have a complete de- out the covenant when their fathers were finition of a facrament, viz. That it is a rin it; for Abraham is here called a father,

holy sign, instirured of God, whereby as in covenant; yea, he entered into cove

Christ, and the benefits of the new cove- naat, or received the seal, that he might " nant, are represented, sealed, and ap- be a father, which could not be if his fuc

plied unto believers.” See Gen. xvii. 7. cessors were not in covenant with him, 10. Exod. xii. 1 Cor. xi. 13. 26. Match. and fo bis children as in covenant; hence xxvi. 26. 27. 28.

God owned their children as his, Lev. xxv. XIX. Howbeit in respect of priority of 39.40.41. 42. Ezek. xvi. 20. 21. Pfalm. recciving this fign and seal, there is some- cxvi, 16.. thing peculiar to Abraham, who is made XXII. The natural issue of Abraham, . the father, the first with whom God cove. by Isaac and Jacob, were taken into covenapted, as head of the family, seeing all nant with himself, and therefore, verse 12. could not be first; yet circumcision was not he is called the father of circumcision; and an individual feal of Abraham's individual as he was a father unto them, even as in faith; but seeing father and child are com- covenant with God, so they received the prehended in the same covenant, Abra- feal of the covenant, and were circumcisham and his seed, who are also hence called ed, and hence called the circumcision; and fathers, Luke i. 72. 1 Cor. x. I. and so fo of necessity they behoved to be in cohaving interest in Christ, and right to the venant; for to whomsoever God gives the kingdom of heaven, circumcision must be seal, these are in covenant, and hence God an universal feal of faith; therefore is he owns them as his, Exod. xx. 2. Deut. v. 6. called father, and other ways he should and xiv. 1. 2. and thereupon they ground cross his own intention, which is to prove their suits often, Deut. ix. 26. 27. Ifa. justification to be by faith, and for this Ixiv. 9. cause bringeth in the instance of Abra- XXIII. All that seriously profess faich : bam, which would be a mere inconsequence;' in Jesus Christ are comprehended in the

fame

T

same covenant which God made with Ab. VersES 13. 14. 15. For the promise, that raham, tho’they be not lineally descended he should be the heir of the world, was from him; for he is the father of all them not to Abraham or to his feed through the that believe, though they be not circumcised; law, but through the righteousness of even Gentiles must reckon kindred to Ab- faith. raham, as his feed, viz. by promise. For if they which are of the law be heirs,

XXIV. Being externally in covenant faith is made void, and the promise made with God, though it entitles to external of none effect. privileges and ordinances belonging to co- Because the law worketh wrath: for where venanters, as to the seals, Acts ii. 38. 39. no luw is, there is no transgression. and givech a remote right unto salvation, that is, falvation offered unto them upon His is brought to prove what the aterms, and fo salvation is of such, John i. 22. yet

such have not a real and near right spiritual feed, viz. that in respect of merunto the spiritual mercies and blessings of cies of special note, saving and spiritual the covenant, until they perform the con- mercies, he was a father only to such as ditions required, and believe savingly, and walked in the steps of his faith; and hereso walk in the steps of the faith of Abra by allo is farther confirmed, that Abraham; for righteousness is not imputed but ham was justified by faith. His argument to fuch as believe, and walk up to Abra- may be thus taken up: If the promise ham's faith, which he had yet being uncir- which was made to Abraham, was made cumciferi; so that external.privileges, and upon the confideration only of the righche enjoyment of ordinances will not serve teousness of Christ, laid hold on by faith, the turn, for they must not only be of the then it doth only belong to his spiritual circumcision, but also walk in the lteps of feed, or such as believe: the reason is, bethat faith of our father Abraham, &c. cause, as the promise was made to the fa.

XIV. As the righteousness by which ther, fo must it be to the children; so believers are justified is a righteousness im- that if it was made to the father, through puted, and so none of their own; fo it is faith laying hold on another's righteousone and the same righteousness by which ness, it must be so made out to the childAbraham and all believers, circumcised ren : But so it is that the promise, that or uncircumcised, are justified before he should be the heir of the world, was made God : and that this righteousness hall be to him thro' the righteousness of faith. And imputed to all that believe, is made sure in that hereby he might clear how Abraham that covenant made with Abraham; there- was justified by faith, and not by works, fore it is said, that righteousness might be he amplifies this by adding, Not through imputed to them also.

the law. This promise, that he lould be XXVI. That faith itself, as our act, is the heir of the world, is not to be found in not counted to us for our righteousness, express terms amongst all those promises and that faith is not to be taken properly, which we find have been made to Abrawhen it was said to be counted for righte ham, and therefore some take it for one 0:sness, verses 3. 5. is clear from thence, promise, some for another, and thus it is that the apostle's argument says, that that diverly interpreted; but this I think cerwhich was imputed to Abraham was the tain, it must be such a promise as agreeth righteousness of another; for in{tead of not to Abraham alone, but to all his believ. saying, that faith may be imputed to them, ing seed; for it is added, in this verse 13. he says, that righteousness may be imputed. or to his feed; and particularly it is faid,

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