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faculties of foul and body, and chiefly the head of that great family, his guilt is imsoul; yet it is not any substance, fubstantial puted unto them, and they, being then in image of Satan, or any part of the man's his lovos, are accounted. tranfgreffors; all substance, but sticks to him as an accident which was done by the good pleasure of to its subject; and so it is said to have en God; and therefore it is added, For that. tered into the world, that is, into men in- all have finned. habiting the world, so as their essence is XI. The confideration of this, that we not therefore changed : Sin entered into linned in Adam, and have that guill inthe world.
puied to us, should fatisfy us concerning VII: How beit we should suppose, that the equity of God, in Jaying on upon us Adam in the state of integrity, in regard the fad consequences of that sin, viz, oriof his body, which was made of corruptible ginal pravity, separation from God, death, elements, was naturally corruptible; yet with all its antecedents and concomitants, if he had stood in the state in which he and should abundantly stop our mouths; was created, he should never have died, therefore he addeth this as a reason to but have lived continually, free of all dan clear it,. For that all bave finned, or, alb ger of death; for death entered into the have finned in him. world by sin, and so unless (in had been, man had never actually died: And death. VERSES 13: 14. For until the law fin was by fin.
in the world: but fin is not imputed. VIII. Albeit our first parents did not when there is no luw. immediately die, and return to the dust, Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to upon their transgressing of the covenant ; Moses, even over them that had not finyet immediately did they pass into a state ed after the fimilitude of Adam's transof death, becoming subject to the mise. | grellion,.... ries of his life, as labour, Gen. iii. Ty. Mname, Gen iv. 7. pain, Gen. iii. 16. fick. D Efore the apostle proceeds farther, he nefs, Maith. ix, 2. John v. 14. and death ID confirmeth what he had laid touchitself, Heb. ix. 27. Rom. viii. 10. yea, and ing the imputation of Adam's guilt, and the pains of kull for ever; for death enter- spreading of the contagion of original cored by fin.
ruption, viz. that it reacherh all without IX. All men of whatsoever rank, qua- exception, by clearing it as to one instance lity or condition, are, by nature, subject to which would be most questioned, or doubę. all the miseries in this world, liable to ed of ; for it might be said, that no body God's curse and wrath, being enemies to could be guilty of any sin before there was him, and without his favour and good a law promulgated, and that was not until will, and to hell for evermore; yea, and the days of Moses, and fo at least from all must taste of death, and all because of Adam to Moses people were free of his, fin, which only hath procured all these seeing where there is no lau, fin is not inze And death by fin, and so death passed on puted. To this he answereth, and faith, all nien.
1. It is true, where there is no law fin cane X. Albeit the posterity of Adam was not be imputed; thai is, folk cannot be not then in being when the covenant was punished for the breach of a law which is broken; ye - Ceeing it seemed good in the not; but, 2. there was a law by which fin ejes of him who is only wise,. to transact and guilt was bound over upon the back with Adam, not as a single perfon for him- of people, and by this he doth not mean self alone, but as a common person re- the law of nature, because that could not presenting all mankind, as the root and reach infants, of whom he is mainly speak
ing here; but the law given to all mankind pointed that all (except whom God singuin Adam : and that there was such a law larly exeemerh, as Enoch and Elias, and he proveth by this argument; Where sin such as shall be in life at the last day) must is impured, and death (which is the wages die, Heb. ix. 27. of fin) reigneth, there there was a law; but IV. Though infants be not capable of death reigned from Adam tô Mofes, (as a yielding obedience unto any command ; most cruel enemy, sweeping away young yet are they guilly of the breach of that and old) even over them that had not finned | law which God gave to Adam, and they after the fimilitude of Adam's tranfgrellion; were bound to yield obedience thereunto; that is, such as never did commit any ac- not as if they themselves could have done tual lia, nor offended God by their own it, being not yet born, but in Adam their proper transgression, as Adam did; and nature was bound, for he was bound not so he meaneth infants. And by this argu- only to personal obedience, but unto 0ment also he proveth, that sin was in the bedience of the whole nature; and this is world even until the law; that is, that clear from their being subject unto death, Adam's fin was imputed unto them, and for, says he, fin is not imputed where there they were found guilty of original fin, is no law: and so they had not born the because if they had not been guilty, God punishment of fin, if there had not been would never have punished them with a law above their heads; and so the very death; death would not have reigned as natural contagion, wherewith they are init did.
fected, is prohibited by the law, other
ways it would not be impured unto them. OBSERVATIONS,
V. We may be sure that there is no sin I. The posterity of Adam are not guilty so small, but it deserveth death at the before God, of Adam's fault, by way of hands of God, seeing he punisheth infants imitation; that is not the way how Adam's with death, for that sin to which they nefin is made over to them, and they become ver gave any personal consent, but only in tainted with original pravity; for we find their nature, and for that which they did that such are said to be guilty thereof, by not personally commit, but was only imthe apostle, who were not in a capacity of puted to them; yet, according to justice imitating any, viz. infants, who never fin- and equity, death reigned even over those ed after the finulitude of Adam's tranfgref that had not finned after the fimilitude of fion, for death reigned over such.
Adam's transgression, II. External judgments, and death, in-1 VI. Carnal reason, which is always an ficted upon any, young or old, do abund. enemy, to God and his ways, can hardly antly evidence them to be guilty of origi. digest this, that infants, (whom ordinaridal fin at least; for this is the apostle's ly people count innocents) who never comargument, whereby he would prove, that mited any actual transgression, should be children had original sin upon them, be- | bound oyer unto punishment, but Christicause dear's reigned over such.
ans should be captivated unto obedience to, III. Since Adam fell, however the gods and helief of, the revealed mind of God; ly be freed from the curse and sting which and therefore doth Paul particularize inis in death, yet all without exception must fants, and shew, that seeing decis reigned Itrike fail thereto, or to something equiva- over bem, therefore sin was in them, and lent, this being unavoidably annexed unto they were guilty before God; for death transgression ; therefore says he, death reigned even over such as l_ad not finned af. reigned. It has a kind of dominion and ter the fimilitude of Adam's tranfgreflion. ; dathority over all breathing; it being ap-1
VersĖS 14. 15. 16. 17. ---..Who is t.be. Hence of one', many be dead; much more the fsuit of him that wisito coille':
grite of God, and the gift by grace, which But not as the offince, po ajo is the free is by one main, jesus Chrili, buth abounded
gift. For if through ti e offence of one, unto marry ; that is, if io be tha: one man's many be dead; much more the grace of office ad fail, culd hurt tore than God, ani the gift by grace, which is by hinself, and fut them under tie curie one man, Hefus Cüriit, hatiabounded and sentence'ct deatli, by involviu. them. unto m:iny.
in the fame : uili, cerrainly much more And not as it was ly one that finned, fo is will more be made pariakers of God's
the gift : for the judgment was by one to grace and free love, and be put into a state condemnutiw; but tie free gift is of ma- of grace. and get pardou and reconciliation ny-tences unto jullificution.
by Jesus Christ, that one Man; fo that the For if by one man's offene, death reigned bij avantage is on Girit's side: For, (1 ) he
one ; ich more they which receive a fecond Ada:n, being Jesus Christ the Sun) bundance of grace, and of the gift of of God, is stronger tha!), the full; and, righteousness, full reign in life. by one, (2.) God's free grace is strongeriban man's Fifus Chirit.
fin. The next difference is fet down,
verle 16 and is taken from the nearest IN the latter end of this fourteenth verse, effects of boih; therefore lays he, And
the apostle ciucheth up the other part not as it was by one that linnet, fo is the of the compar fon betwixt Adam and gift; that is, there is a differe: ce bitwixo Cbrist, or the first and fi cond Adam, in that condition which we are into by Chriit, these words: Who is the figure of him who and that which we are inro by Adain ; or was to come ; that is, vas a type of Christ beiwixs guilt, which came in by Adam, who fo ne ime wa to corne, but now is and righteousness, which caire in by come : rota- if. Ad im were in all his Christ. And what is that? For the juugo actions a type of Christ, but only in that ment, or guilt, was by one to condemnation, particular which he no v mer ioneth, viz: but the free gift is of many offences, unto That as by the firit Ada:n fin entered in'o jurification; that is, the fiuit and effect of the world, and death by fima; fo by the the one is conden nation, and that is all second Adam righteousliels entered, and which we get by Adam ; but that which life by righteousness.
we get out of God's free grace in Christ, But now, left it should have been is juftification, full and free pardon of our thought that these two Adams did agree fins, and freedom from condemnation; and in all points, because he called the one withal, he sheweth, how the advantage is a type of the other, and that he may on Christ's fide, in saying, that the free make way for the more full illustration of gift is of many offences, whereas the judgthis busines, he sers down leveral particu- ment is for or by one fon, (for so one may Jars, verses 15. 16. 7. wherein they do be taken as meant of one sin, as well as differ, and how the advant:ge is on Christ's of one Adamn); by Christ Jesus we are not fide. 1. Then, says he, Nor as the offence, freed from one only guilt, but from all fo also is the free gift ; that is, there is a o!r other transgressions, and so he became difference betwixt Adam's guilt. which the au hor of many good things. The was imputed unto his posteriov, and the third difference is fet down, verle 17. and righteousness of Cirit which is a free which confirmech the former, and is taken gift of grace, bestowed freely on Christ's' from the more remote end of both; for issue, in that the one is more efficacious ijf by one man's offence, death reigned by one thạn the other; for be fays, If through the i much more they which receive abundance o
grace grace, and of the gift of righteo less, hall, and the certainty of the one in die cer. ruijn in life, by one, 7esus Christ: The tainty of the o'her: for as in Adan who fruit and elet of sidun': o Fince is death, was a public perfin, we may see the way and dearl reining; d-ath reigns over all of our perdition; fo hereby we fee, chal the poteriiy of ida n; but the efect of our falvation must be by one, even Chriit, Christ's righteoufieis is life, and a reign a public person allo: for this cause the ing life; all his shall reign in life. ini I first Adam is said to have been a type of the advaa:age here is o.Chriit's tide also: | the: Second. For, (1.) Jesus Christ is itrenger ihar min; III. Tho'man at the begining, when i and, (2.) Gd's grace, and the gift of first created, was highly in favour wila rizhteousness, is stronger than fim; and, God, and advanced to great dignity and(3.) abundance of grace is more itron honour; yer by his tranf. refling of the than one offence, (tor so one may be un. covenant, he fell from that excellen: ftale: derfood in the lait place) and 10 seeing hence his fin is here called an vince or full, they that have but one offence inpured to as the word inporis, signitying falling then are subject unto the dannion of occafioned through stumbling; not as the of. death, much more fhill they live, and fence: reign in life, who have received abundance IV. Whatever befling or privilege we of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, enjoy in and thro’ Christ, all is of free by Jelus Christ.
and undeserved grace; and however Christ
paid dear for any thing we get, yet to us . From Verses 14. 15. OBSERVE, it is a free gift and so that which is here
I. As Alam was a public person, repre. opposed 10 the fall of Adam, is here callsenting all mankind, and undertaking fured the free gift. then; so that his engaging in covenant V. Ada n by his fall not only broke his and his breach were not personal acts, but own neck; but l e neck of inany more, and done by hiin as a representative and public | puc his poterity into a state of deuh and perlon: so Jesus Christ who is now co ne damnation ; ihe covenant runing thus, in the fesh is a public person, trantacting I hou (that is, chou, as now engaging tur and acting with the Father, as a com non all thy poteriy) Malt die that day tbuur representative of all his own; so thar as it eateit: so, through the offence of oe many was God's good-will and pleasure tha the are dead first Adam thuld engage for, aud stand Vi. Jifu CH ist ihe only Son of Gol, and fall as the head of the family, for the is true and real man, being like us loss or a vantage of all the reit; and God in all things except in and is he he.d tranfaétel and covenanted with him as luch of a family, and the root of an exceik nt a head, and not as a single person, as he planting, and therefire is called here one might have done; so it was God's good man, as opposed to the fiiit Adam, who, will, that Chritt should act as another head was also one inan.. of a family, and with hin as a head did : VII. As Christ Jesus is a fappy root." God make the covenant of grace, so that I in himself, havin the fulness of the God-:. his standing should redound to many: for head dwelling in him bodily Col. ii. 9. and thus Adam is called the type of him who all fulness, Col. i. 19.; fó is he communi. was to come, that is of Christ.
cative of this his fulness, and diffuserh it II. It is a reinarkable token of God's unto many branches that grow in him+ for grelt and wonderful grace, that we should that which comes by one man 7efus Chrift, read the way of our delivery and falvarion hath abouided unto many. in the way of our ruin and destruction, VllI. That whicá this noble head of
the family communicateth unto the rest, is our first parents, viz. fin and condemnafar different from that which the first A- tion for fin; the judgment was by one to dam did communicate unto his family; for condemnation. whereas death was all the portion which III. There was no way imaginable how the first Adam did bestow, the Second any of the lost and condemned race of Adam procurerh the free grace and favour mankind could be freed therefrom but by of God, and all the fruits and effects that the Second Adam; and in and thro' him flow therefrom: grace, and the gift by it is that they are freed from the sentence grace, comes to us by that one man Jesus of the law, and of condemnation which hay Chrif.
upon them: there is no absolution or justiIX. The favour and good-will of God, fication but in and thro' the righteousness and all the fruits and effects thereof which of Christ, which is this free gift; the free believers meet with, are all purchased to gift is.---unto justification. them in and by Christ, and all flow down IV. Justification is not the infusing of to them in and thro' him: grace, and the righteoulness in us, but an act of God's gift by grace, is by that one man, and with- free grace, whereby we are pronounced out him there is none of God's favour, free of guilt, in so far as 'not to see connor any benefit therefrom, which any can demnation, or meet with the execution of meet with.
the sentence of the law which is violated : X. The doleful and lamentable condi- for justification is here opposed to condention which we have certainly fallen into | nation. by our forefather Adam, may ascertain all V. As believers, beside the guilt of believers in Christ, that they shall certain Adam's transgression, have contracted much ly enjoy God's favour and all the fruits guilt by their daily out-breakings; so in thereof, knowing that he is more able to justification they have pardon not only of communicate fap unto his branches than that one offence of Adam's, but also of all Adam was, he being stronger than Adam, their other iniquities, whereof they are and bestowing grace which is stronger guilty: therefore it is said, the free gift is than nature : for there is here a much of many offences to justification. more; much more the grace of God, and the | VI. This should serve much to hold gift by grace----hath abounded unto many. | forth and convince us of the transcendent
excellency of this Second Adam, in convey From verse 16. OBSERVE, ing what is his to all his own, beyond the 1. Though Adam had commited many first; while as the First makes all his pole more offences than one, yet it was by that rity liable to condemnation for one trans first only, whereby he broke the covenant gression, and the Second delivereth, no which God entered into with him, which only from that, but all other lips what was imputed unto his posterity, and where. foever; his blood is not only able to cleans by they were accounted guilty before God, / us from that one original fin, but als the rest of his transgressions being personal, from all other actual transgressions, i joh this was the fault and sin of the whole na- | i. 7. ture and species : for it is said, judgment From Verse 17. OBSERVE, (or the guilt) was by one, viz. offence.
II. As by this one transgression of A- I. By nature all are liable to death dam, guilt did lie upon all his posterity; dominion, and may in justice expect so were they all unavoidably liable to the other than to be separated from the pre fenience of the law and condemnation; and sence of the Lord, and the glory of by this is all to which we are served heirs by power for ever, and so meet with dear