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faculties of foul and body, and chiefly the head of that great family, his guilt is im
. soul; yet it is not any substance, fubftantial puted unto them, and they, being then in image of Satan, or any part of the man's his loins, are accounted transgreffors; all subitance, but sticks to him as an accident which was done by the good pleasure of to its subject; and so it is said to have en God; and therefore it is added, For that tered into the world, that is, into men in- all have finned. habiting the world, so as their eflence is XI. The confideration of this, that we not therefore changed : Sin entered into finned in Adam, and have that guilt imthe world.
puted to us, should fatisfy us concerning VII: Howbeit we should suppose, that the equity of God, in Jaying on upon us Adam in the state of integrity, in regard the fad consequences of that fin, viz, oriof his body, which was made of corruptible ginal pravity, separation from God, death, elements, was naturally corruptible; yet with all its antecedents and concoinitants, if he had stood in the state in which he and should abundantly stop our mouths; was created, he should never have died, therefore he addech this as a reason to but have lived continually, free of all dan- clear it,. For that all bave Jinned, or alb ger of death ; for death entered into the have sinned in him.. world by sin, and so unless sin had been, man had never actually died: And death VERSES 13. 14. For until the law fin was by fin.
in the world: but sin is not imputed. VIII. Albeit our first parents did not when there is no luw. immediately die, and return to the dust, Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to upon their transgressing of the covenant ; Moses, even over them that had not finyet immediately did they pass into a state
ed after the fimilitude of Adam's tranfof death, becoming subject to the mise grelion ---ries of this life, as labour, Gen. iii. iy.
iii. 16. fick. ness, Matth. ix. 2. John v. 14. and death itself, Heb. ix. 27. Rom. viii. 10. yea, and ing the imputation of Adam's guilt
, and the pains of hell for ever; for death enter- spreading of the contagion of original cored by fin.
ruption, viz. that it reacherh all without IX. All men of whatsoever rank, qua- exception, by clearing it as to one instance lity or condition, are, by nature, subject to which would be most questioned, or doubt. all the miseries in this world, liable to ed of; for it might be faid, that no body God's curse and wrath, being enemies to could be guilty of any sin before there was him, and without his favour and good a law promulgated, and that was not until will, and to hell for evermore ; yea, and the days of Moses, and fo at least from all must taste of death, and all because of Adam to Moses people were free of ihis, fin, which only hath procured all these seeing where there is no law, fin is not inAnd death by fin, and to death passed on puted. To this he answereth, and faith,
1. It is true, where there is no law fin canX. Albeit the posterity of Adam was not be imputed; that is, folk cannot be not then in being when the covenant was punished for the breach of a law which is broken; ye:- 'eeing it seemed good in the not; but, 2. there was a law by which fin eyes of him who is only wise,.to transact and guilt was bound over upon the back with Adam, not as a single person for him- of people; and by this he doch not mean self alone, but as a common person re- the law of nature, because that could not presenting all mankind, as the root and reach infants, of whom he is mainly speak
ing here; but the law given to all mankind pointed that all (except whom God singuin Adam : and that there was such a law larly exeemeth, as Enoch and Elias, and he proveth by this argument; Where sin such as shall be in life at the last day) mujt is impured, and death (which is the wages die, Heb. ix. 27. of fin) reigneth, there there was a law; but IV. Though infants be not capable of death reigned from Adam to Moses, (as a yielding obedience unto any command ; most cruel enemy, sweeping away young yet are they guilly of the breach of that and old) even over them that had not finned law which God gave to Adam, and they after the fimilitude of Adam's tranfgreffion; were bound to yield obedience thereunto; that is, such as never did commit any ac- nor as if they themselves could have done tual lin, nor offended God by their own it, being not yet born, but in Adam their proper transgression, as Adam did; and nature was bound, for he was bound not so he meaneth infants. And by this argu- only to personal obedience, but unto oment also he proveth, that sin was in the bedience of the whole nature; and this is world even until the law; that is, that clear from their being subject unto death, Adam's fin was imputed unto them, and for, says he, fin is not imputed where there they were found guilty of original fin, is no law: and so they had not born the because if they had not been guilty, God punishment of sin, if there had not been would never have punished them with a law above their heads; and so the very death; death would not have reigned as natural contagion, wherewith they are init did.
fected, is prohibited by the law, other
ways it would not be imputed unto them. OBSERVATIONS.
V. We may be sure that there is no sin 1. The posterity of Adam are not guilty fo small, but it deserveth death at the before God, of Adam's fault, by way of hands of God, seeing he punisheth infants imitation; that is not the way how Adam's with death, for that fin to which they nefin is made over to them, and they become ver gave any personal consent, but only in tainted with original pravity ; for we find their nature, and for that which they did that such are said to be guilty thereof, by not personally commit, but was only imthe apostle, who were not in a capacity of puted to them; yer, according to justice imitating any, viz. infants, who never fin- and equity, death reigned even over those ed after the simulitude of Adam's transgref that had not finned after the fimilitude of fion, for death reigned over fuch. Adam's transgression
II. External judgments, and death, in- VI. Carnal reason, which is always an flicted upon any, young or old, do abund. enemy, to God and his ways, can, hardly antly evidence them to be guilty of origi. digest this, that infants, (whom ordinarinal fin at least; for this is the apostle's ly people count innocents) who never comargument, whereby he would prove, that mited any actual transgression, should be children had original fin upon them, be-bound over unto punishment, but Christicause dea' reigned over such.
ans should be captivated un'o obedience to, III. Since Adam fell, however the gods and belief of, the revealed mind of God; ly be freed from the curse and sting which and therefore doth Paul particularize inis in death, yet all without exception must fants, and thew, that feeing deab reigned Atrike fail thereto, or to something equiva- over them, therefore fin was in them, and lent, this being unavoidably annexed unto they were guilty before God; for death transgression; therefore says he, death reigned even over such as l_ad not finned af. reigned. It has a kind of dominion and ter the fimilitude of Adum's tranfgreffion. authority over all breathing; it being ap
A a 2
VERSES 14. 15. 16. 17. -...Who is te offence of one, many be dead; much more the
figure of him that was to colle': giulie of Grt, and the gift ly grace, which But not as the offince, so also is the free is by one min, jesus Chrilt, buth abounded
gift. For if tirour's te offence of one, unto many; thu is, if to be tha: ore man's many be dead; much more the grace of office ad tail, could hurt sore than God, ani the gift by grace, which is by himself, and put thein under the curie one man, Jefus Cüriit, hati abounded and sentence'ct death, by involvia them
in the fame au.lt, cerraicly much more And not as it was ly one that finned, so is will more be made par akers of God's
the çift: for the judgment was by one to grace and free love, and be put into a staté condemnitiu; but tie free gift is of ma- of grace, and get pardou and reconciliation 12y. Hencesunto julli ficution.
by Jesus Christ, that one Man; fo that the For if by one man's offenue, death reigned bij alvantage is on Carit's side: For, (1) the one; mich more they which receive a: fecond Adan, being Jesus Christ ihe Sun bundance of grace, and of the gift of of God, is ftronger than the fiul; and, righteousifs, full reign in life. by one, (2.) God's free grace is stronger than man's Fcjus Chorito
fin. The next difference is fet down,
verle 16 and is taken from the neareit IN N the latter end of this fourteenth verse, effects of toih; therefore fays he, And
the apostle coucheth up the other part not as it was by one that lineet, pis tle ef the compar fon betwixt Adam and gift; that is, there is a differece bitwixo Christ, or the first ani si cond Adam, in that condition which we are into by Chrilt, these words: Who is the figure of him who and that which we are into by Adam ; or was to come ; that is, vas a type of Christ beiwixt guilt, which came in by Adam, who fo ne ime wa to corne, but now is and righteousness
, which caire in by coine : 101.a. if Adim were in ail his Chrift: Anu! vi har is that? For the juagactions a type of Christ, but only in that ment, or guilt, was by one to condemnation, particular which he no v mersioneth, viz: but the free gift is of many offences, unte That as by the firit Ada:n fin entered in'o jurification; chat is, the fiuit and effect of the world, and deah bv fm; fo by the the one is conden nation, and that is all fecond Adam righteoufiefs entered, and which we get by Adam; but that which life by righteousness..
we get out of God's free grace in Chrift, But now, left it should have been is juftification, full and free pardon of our thought that these two Adams did agree fios, and freedom from condemnation; and in all points, because he called the one withal, he dheweth, how the advantage is a type of the other, and that he may on Christ's fide, in saying, that the free make way for the more full illustration of | gift is of many offences, whereas the judgthis businets, he sers down leveral particu- ment is for or by one fon, (for so one may Jars, verses 15. 16. 7. wherein they do be taken as meant of one sin, as well as differ, and how he advant:ge is on Christ's of one Adam); by Christ Jesus we are not side. 1. Then, says he, Nor as the offence, freed from one only guilt, but from all ro also is the free gift ; that is, there is a our other transgressions, and fo he became difference betwixt Adam's guilt which the au hor of many good things. The was imputed unto his posterity, and the third difference is fet down), verle 17. and righteousness of Cirit which is a free which confirmech the former, and is rahan gift of grace, bestowed freely og Christ's' from the more remote end of both; for issue, in that the one is more efficacious if by one man's offence, death reigned by one ihan the other ; for be fays, If through the i much more they which receive abundance
grace and of the gift of righteousness, hall, and the certainty of the one in ihre cerruijn in life, by one, 7esus Crit: The tainty of the oher: for as in Alan who fruit and elet of adun's o.fince is death, was a public perfòn, we may see the way and death reizning; death reigns over all of our perdition; so hereby we see, that the puteriiy of Ida n; but the e fect of our salvation must be by one, even Chriit, Chriit's righ:eoafieis is life, and a reign- a public person allo: for this cause the ing life; all his ihall reign in life. 10] firit Adam is said to have been a type of the advantage here is oa Chriit's lide also: the Second. For, (1.) Jesus Christ is ítrenger ihar min; III. Tho'man at the beyining, when and, (2.) Gd's grace, and the gift of first created, was highly in favour will richteoufaess, is strong r than fin; and, God, and advanced to great dignity and(3.) abundance of grace is more itron honour; yer by his trant refling of the than one offence, (tor so one may be rin. covenant, he fell from that excellen: ftate: dersiood in the lait place) and 10 feeing hence his fin is here called an ounce or full, they that have but one offence inputed to as the word inports, figuitying falling then are subject unto the din ni »n of occafimed through stumbling; not as the of death. much more th:ll they live, and fence. reign in life, who have received abundance IV. Whatever b'esling or privilege we of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, enjoy in and thro’ Christ, all is of free by Jelus Christ.
and undeserved grace; and however Christ
paid dear for any thing we get, yet to us From Verses 14. 15. OBSERVE, it is a free gift and so that wbich is here I. As Adam was a public person, repre- opposed to the fall of Adam, is here call senting all mankind, and undertaking fured the free gift. thein; so that his engaging in covenant V. Adan by his fall not only broke his and his breach were not personal acts, but own neck; but l e neck of inany more, and done by hi:n as a representative and public puc his poterity into a state of death and perlon: so Jesus Christ who is now co ne damnation ; the covenant runing thus, in the flesh is a public person, tranlating I hou (that is, .chou, as now engaging for and acting with the Father, as a com non all thy poteri y) 2.!t die that day lua representative of all his own; so thar as it eateit: io, through the offence of o..e many was God's good-will and pleasure that the first Adam fhuid engage for, and stand Vi. Jisu Chi ist ihe only Son of God, and fall as the head of the family, for the is true and real man, being like us loss or a vantage of all the relt; and God in all things except tio and is he head tranfaétel and covenanted with him as luch of a family, and ine root of an exceii nt 2 head, and not as a single person, as he planting, and theref ire is called here one might have done; so it was God's good iman, as opposej to the fiiit Adam, who will, that Chritt fhould act as another head was also one inan. of a family, and with hin as a head did VII. As Chrit Jesus is a fappy root' God make the covenant of grace, so that in himlelf, havin the fulness of the God- . his standing should redound to many: for bead dwelling in him bodily. Col. ii. 9. and thus Adam is called the type of him who all fuluess, Co. i. 19.; fo is he communiwas to come, that is of Christ.
cative of this his fulness, and diffuserh it II. It is a re narkable token of God's unto many branches that grow in him+ for great and wonderful grace, that we should that which comes by one man Jesus Christ, read the way of our delivery and Calvarion hoth abouided unto mulany. in the way of our ruin and destruction, VIII, That whicia this poble head of
the family communicateth unto the rest, is our first parents, viz. fin and condemnafar different from that which the first A- tion for fin; the judgment was by one to dam did communicate unto his family; for condemnation. whereas death was all the portion which III. There was no way imaginable how the first Adam did bestow, the Second any of the loft and condemned race of Adam procurerh the free grace and favour mankind could be freed theretrom but by of God, and all the fruits and effects that the Second Adam; and in and ihro' him flow therefrom : grace, and the gift by it is that they are freed from the sentence grace, comes to us by that one man Jesus of the law, and of condemnation which lay Chrift.
upon them: there is no absolution or justiIX. The favour and good-will of God, fication but in and thro' the righteousness and all the fruits and effects thereof which of Christ, which is this free gift; the free believers meet with, are all purchased to gift is.--unto justification. them in and by Christ, and all flow down IV. Justification is not the infusing of to them in and thro' him: grace, and the righteousness in us, but an act of God's gift by grace, is by that one man, and with free grace, whereby we are pronounced out him there is none of God's favour, free of guilt, in so far as not to see connor any benefit therefrom, which any can demnation, or meet with the execution of meet with.
the sentence of the law which is violated : X. The doleful and lamentable condi- for justification is here opposed to condemtion which we have certainly fallen into nation, by our forefather Adam, may ascertain all V. As believers, beside the guilt of believers in Christ, that they shall certain. Adam's transgression, have contracted much ly enjoy God's favour and all the fruits guilt by their daily out-breakings; so in thereof, knowing that he is more able to justification they have pardon not only of communicate fap unto his branches than that one offence of Adam's, but also of all Adam was, he being stronger than Adam, their other iniquities, whereof they are and bestowing grace which is stronger guilty: therefore it is said, the free gift is than nature : for there is here a much of many offences to justification. more; much more the grace of God, and the VI. This should serve much to hold gift by grace----hath abounded unto many. forth and convince us of the transcendent From verse 16. OBSERVE,
excellency of this Second Adam, in convey
ing what is his to all his own), beyond the 1. Though Adam had commited many first; while as the First makes all his portemore offences than one, yet it was by that rity liable to condemnation for one transfiuft only, whereby he broke the covenant gression, and the Second delivereth, not which God entered into with him, which only from that, but all other ons whatwas imputed unto his posterity, and where foever; his blood is not only able to cleanse by they were accounted guilty before God, us from that one original sin, but also the rest of his transgreffions being personal, from all other actual transgressions, 1 Johu chis was the fault and sin of the whole na. ture and species : for it is said, judgment From Verse 17. OBSERVE, (or the guilt) was by one, viz. offence.
II. As by this one transgression of A- I. By nature all are liable to death's dam, guilt did lie upon all his pofterity; | dominion, and may in justice expect no so were they all unavoidably liable to the other than to be separated from the presenience of the law and condemnation; and fence of the Lord, and the glory of his this is all to which we are served heirs by power for ever, and so meet with dearlı