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in both soul and body, and that for ever- communicateth influences, and actually bemore: by one man's offence death reigned. stowech the fruits of his death and mediaSce Eph. ii. 2. 3. 12. Tit..iii. 3:
tion, are only such as receive him and his II. 'The children of the family whereof righteousness by faith; and so the benefits Christ is head are delivered from that state of his death redound not to all and every of death, and thall never be destroyed in individual person, nor did he represent them their fouls for ever, and bodily death hall all, but only such as were in time to renever harm them at all; they win to life ceive aburdance of grace and of the gift by one, Jesus Christ.
of righteousnes:: therefore it is said, I bey III. The lite which the children of which receive abundance of grace, and of Christ win to thro' him, in grace here, the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life and glory hereafter, is a noble royal life, by one, Jesus Christ. iho' fools in a world do much undervalue VIII. Whatever doubts and difficulties the same ; and the change which they poor believers may meet with, and howmeet with is great, for whereas before ever they may be long wrestling with fears they were llaves, and flaves to the worst of never reaching the crown; yet all fuch of tyrants, even to fin and Satan, now they as have indeed laid hold on the rightecusreign in iife.
ness of Christ by faith, and received that IV Before any can win to this excelleat gift, shall certainly enjoy communion with Kingly life, and to reign in grace and glo- Christ in glory, and be saved for ever; ry, there must be a righteousness had, for and the certainty of their lost estate by the Lord will not dwell with the unrighte- Adam may put it out of all question: therecus, and sinners will not stand in his fight, fore says he, much more they who receive for he abhorech all the workers of ini- abundance of grace ---fhall reign in life, &c. quity: it is only such as have the gift of IX. As Christ is a most rich treasure righteousness that Mall reign.
and store-house of all necessaries for his V. This righteousness which must be own, and is an inexhaustible fountain unto had ere we can be brought out of the wo- his own; fo doth he communicate of his ful state wherein we are by nature, is none fulness, and that very liberally and abundof our own, nor none of our own pur- antly; so that believers may blame themchase; it must come from some other airth felves if they want: so they are said to re-than from ourselves, and is the free gift ceive the abundance of grace. of God, and is therefore called, the gift of righteousness.
VERSES 18. 19. Therefore as by the offence VI. There are none delivered from this
of one, judgment came upon all men to natural state of fin and death, and brought condemnation : even so by the righteoufinto a state of salvation, until once they ness of one, the free gift came upon all be made partakers of the grace of God, men unto 'justification of life. and of his gift of righteoulve's
, and that For as by one man's disobedience mang is by faith alone; for faith only lays hold were made finners : ro by the obedience: on this offered gift of righteousness, and of one, Jhall many be made righteous. puts it on; and this is the only way carved out by God for this effect: they that receive abundance of grace, and of the gift
Aving thus cleared the difference be
twixt the iwo heads of families, he of righteousness, Jall reign in life. comes now more plainly to hold for the
VII. All those who are truly in Christ comparison, and thereby to clear the doubt as branches, and do actually fuck sap from which might arise from his doctrine of bir for life, and to whom as a head he justification, viz. How could it be, thar
by one one min's righteousness so many not to be so universally taken, but with should be justified and accounted righie. a restriction thus; all the men that are in ous, thus: By one man's righteouinels Chriit as members, and to whom he is a many may be accounted righteous, jullisi- head; or all thele who are his, whatever ed, and adjudged to life, as well, as by condition or quality they be of elfe. Ani one man's fia and difubedience many were this is clear, 111, Fron ihe scope, whici accounied guilty and adjudged to condem- | is, as we fhewed, to clear how any can be racio:1, being finners: I berefore, says he, justified by the righteousness of another; as by tre offence of one, judgment came upon but it we take all men, for all and every all men to cold.mnation : 'eten so by the individual perion wiihout any limitation or rig 40:lfines of ore, the free gift came upon exceprion, the apoitle's fimilitude should all 4,92 10 jurification of life: that is, as come far short; yea, it should be no finility Adan's tranigreffion all bis pofterity tude at all: For, 1. Adain's fin was really lay under the tentence of death, ani were imputed unto his poiterity; so that hence condemned by law; lo by the righteous- they are called and constituted finners in rets of Crit all his are justified, and de- God's account, not only for the original clared heirs of life eternal. And for the pravity which all haye naturally, as flowfurther confirmation of this, he fheweth in, froin that guilt, but even tor the very the ground of both, verse 19. as if he breach of the covenant which Adam coniwere answering this doubt, How could mited; and upon this they were really either one man's fault make others viable under God's curse and the sentence of to condemnation, or one man's righteoul- condemnation, and liable to the tire of hell: nels procure heaven and happiness to o- but all men have not the righteousness of thers? He answers both, and .fo confirm- Christ imputed to them in such fort as eth the comparison; saying, For as by one they may be called righteous, and are reman's disobedience many were made finners; ally justified, and have real and undoubted that is, as by Adam's guilt, which was dis righi to happiness and life eternal, as none obedience, many were accounted finners, can deny. Now, if the comparison agree having the same fin in puted to them, and not in this, it agreeth in nothing; For, so legally constituted trai.fgreffors; fo by 2. this is the main thing, viz. That as the obedience of one, many shall be made Adam was a public person and represearighteous; that is, so by the righteousness tative, and so his deed, who was but one of Christ, which was had by his acts of man, wronged many; fo Christ a Second obedience, not only in suffering but in do Adam, (whereof the first was a type) is ing, many are clothed with righteousness called one man allo, to sew that he was and put into a righteous state, and Mall be to be looked on as a public person; and to in all time coming. Christ's righteousness his deed helped many: and if we take act being alwais effectual for this end; and up. Christ as a head, representative, or a therefore the verb is put into the future public person, we dhall never make sense time. The strength of the argument lieth of the apostle's arguing here; now sure I here, As all sinners are liable to condem- am, he cannot be looked on as a head but nation, so all righteous persons are to en- to his members, nor as a rcot but to joy life. The only doube to be cleared branches, nor as a common perion tut for here, is anent these all mentioned, verse 18. such only for whom he undertook, and the free gift came ufon all men; whether whom he represented; and this I am sure this be meant of every individual person cannct be meant of all and every one in without exception or rot ? for answer particular, without excep:ion. 2dly. It whereunto, we think it crcar, that all ist crosseth the text also many ways; For, 1.
the apostle says, verses 15. and 17. chat, vidual person. So then these all men Christ is more able to communicate good must be Christ's fpiritual heirs and seed, than Adam was to communicate evil; and and all of these not one excepted. therefore he addeth a much more; but if this were true, the first Adam should have
From verse 18. OBSERVE. been strongest; for thro' the first Adam 1. As Adam's sin was really imputed all that were his, were really in a dead unto all his carnal posterity, so as we are condition, and death reigned over them, not only made sinful, but sinners thereby, none excepted; but all mankind do not and there is special mention made of one really receive the grace of God, and the particular act of iniquity, and that one so gift by grace, but many notwithstanding imputed as thereby they are made liable of all that Christ did, perish, and are ne- to condemnation ; so the righteousness of ver delivered from under the dominion of Jesus Christ is imputed unto us, and made death; and to the Second Adam should ours, so that we are thereby accounted have been weakest. 2. These all men righteous: for it is said, as by the offence have the grace of God, and the gift by of one, judgment came upon all men to congrace, which is Christ's righteousness and demnation; so by the righteousness of one, what floweth therefrom, abounding unto the free gift came upon all men, &c. them, verse 15. ; but all and every man 11. The righteousness by which we are hath not this. 3. These all men have accepted of God, and justified before him, received the free gift unto justification, is not a righteousness of our own, but the verfe 16.; but all and every man fhall righteousness of our head and husband: never be justified. 4. These all men have even so, by the righteousness of one, the free received ihe free gift unto justification of gift came upon all men to justification. many offences, verse 16. and so not only III. This righteousness of Christ being get original fin pardoned, but all their the righteousness of God, Rom. i. 17. and actual uns also, and that at once; for we x. 3. 2 Cor. v. 21. is able to cover all his hear not of two distinct justifications, one own, and to do all their turns fufficiently, whereby original fin is only pardoned, (which, so that none fhall lack : by the righteouswith some is a benefit common to all) and nefs of one, the free gift came upon all men. another whereby their actual fins are for- IV. Tho' Christ's death and sufferings given ; but this cannot agree to all and were a ransom fufficient to satisfy justice every man. 5. Those all men receive ao for the fins of the elect; yet could not bundance of grace, verse 17.; but I am they have inherited life eternal, if they fure, all men whatsoever have not faith, had not been cloached with a complete and fo never received grace, even though robe of righteousness, seeing the law said, offered; and so grace was never bellowed Do this, and live: for it is said here, that on all. 6. Those all men receive also the by the righteousness of one, the free gift came gift of righteousness, verse 17. and all men upon all to justification of life. whatsoever are not, nor never shall be, clothed with the righteousness of Chriit.
From verse 19. OBSERVE, 7. Those all men shall reign in life, and 1. By Adam's transgression of the law receive justification of life, verses 17. 18. of God, his posterity not only contracted and that po less certainly and infallibly, a vitious nature and disposition, so that than the first Adain's posterity were really they were prone to all wickedness whatand undeclinably under the power of death foever, but were really engaged in guilt, and fentence of condemnation; but this I and made formally finners before God, as hope will not agree to all and every indi | if they had broken the law themselves : NO III.
therefore it is said, by one man's disobedi | us, Marth. V. 17. 18. Rom. viii. z. and x. ence many were made finners,
Gal. iv. 4. 5. and we are said to be made II. Tho' Christ in respect of his divine righteous in hin, 2 Cor. v. 21. he is callnature was equal with the Father, anded our righteousness, Jer. xxiii. 6. and xxxiii. could not, without a contradiction, be said 16. 1 Cor. 1. 30.: for here it is faid, that to obey; yer in respect of his human na- by the obedience of one, many are made ture, which had not an infinite eflential ho. righteous. liness, Match. xix. 17. he may be said to VI. The efficacy and influence of Christ's obey; and while he was in the fleih, obedience will not be foon drawn out, but Heb v. 7. did actually subject himself to will be of force to all believers, and effeca the law, and gave practical obedience both tual for their use in all time coming, thro' to the moral and ceremonial law, Phil. / all generations to the end of the world; ii. 8. Matth. v. :7. and therein as in all therefore the time is changed here, for other duties laid on him by the Father, the comfort of believers in all time coming, as our Mediator and Cautioner, John xv. and instead of saying, by one man's cbedi10. Pfal. xl. 7. 8. 9.; therefore we hear ence many were or are made righteous, he. of the obedience of one.
says, many shall be made righteous. III. As Christ was not made man for himself, but took upon him our nature VERSES 20. 21. Moreover, the law enterfor our good; so neither was he under ed, that the offence might abound: but the law, and yielded obedience thereto where fin abounded, grace did much more for himself, as if fimply and absolutely he abound: had been obliged by the law, as a crea- That as fin hath reigned unto death, eten fure, but all his obedience was for us, as fo might grace reign through righteoul. he was born for us, Isa. ix. 6. so was he ness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ made under the law for us, Gal. iv. 4. 5.:
our Lord. for here his obedience is useful for us, not only for imitation, but also to constitute us righteous; by the obedience of one the doctrine of justification by comJhall many be made righteous.
paring the two Adams together, the aIV. Howbeit believers have no ivhe. poftle further proceeds in clearing the fame rent qualitative righteousness of their own, 1 doctrine, by answering some objections, that is fufficient to clothe them in the fight which men of corrupt minds would be of God, their best righteousness being but ready to make against it. And the first rotten raggs; yet are they legally consti) objection is here preoccupied, and it may tuted righteous, really and in truth before be thus taken up, If we be justified by God, and so have some righteousnets up faith, without the works of the law, why on them: for here it is said, many are then did God give a law? what use was made righteous.
there thereof? feeing we are not juftiV. It is not by any thing in them, or fied thereby, it would seem that the law done by themselves, that believers are le- were needless altogether; but it is not so, gally accounted righteous; but only by the therefore your doctrine is false... The ocobedience of Jesus Christ, not only that casion of this objection may arise also from which fined eminently in his death, but verse 1 3. where he said, that until the law also which appeared thro' his whole life, fin was in the world; and hence they might fo that in his obeying we are accounted say, If so, why did the law enter? To this obeying, and his obedience is accounted objection he answereih in ihese two verfes; ours; hence he is said to fulfil the law for ! 1.. By thewing how the law entered: and 2.
The ends wherefore the law entered.
| fin How the law entered; the word properly sin rnight abound, and men might see their
by a law; and thus the law cate that fignifies, intervened, and so he would fay, the own vileness and baseness the more, and law came in after the promise, and inter- fo 'might be more willing to go out of Fened betwixt that promise and the clear themselves, and look for righteousnefs gospel; and this says, that the promise elsewhere. (2.) But where fin abounded, Stands in full force, and so the way of grace did much more abound; This is anojurtification by the free promise is not diso | ther end, and so propoled, as it may be annulled by the law; thus, this same a- comfortable unto such as were troubled postle reasoneth, Gal. iii. 17. And this 1 with the abounding of fin: that is, the law Jay, that the covenant that was confirmed entered, that fin being discovered, and before of God in Christ
, the law which thereby the grace of God in the gospel, was four hundred and thirty years after, pardoning, might appear to be great and cannot disannul, that it should make the pro- wonderful, and to abound much more, yea, mise of none effect. And so there is but to abound more than can be expressed, in one way of justification, viz. by faith, in that it drowns quite up the whole deluge all ages;
both before the law, in the time of sin, however abounding and swelling. of the law, and after the law, the way is (3.) This last remote end is more illustrated, ftill one and the same, and the law inter- verse 21. That as fin hath reigned unto vened, or came in, in the midst, for holy death, even so might grace reign through ends; all this is imported in that the law righteousness”unto eternal life, through yeis faid to have entered, or intervened, and sus Christ our Lord; that is, as fin hath so it could not wrong the good old way. 'acted the part of a tyrant, and domineered Then 2. he shews fome ends why the so as to manifest its force and power in Lord made the law to enter; (for he men killing and destroying condemned souls ; tions no more than what maketh for his for the sting of death is fin, and death could present purpose) and (1.) The law enters have no power over a man but because ed, that the offence might abound; that is, of fin, and so fin reigncih; so the fred until the law came, sin lay in the dark, grace of the gospel, or of God in the goand was not well taken notice of; men fpel, might reign also, that is, appear more were guilty of many things which they trong and excellent, in fubduing and abodid not underítand to be fir, until the law. lishing fin the former tyrant, and bring in came, which as a glass discovered many eternal life; but how? through righteoulfoul spots which the dim light of nature ness; but whose righteousneis? by Fefits would never have manifested; and fo by Chrif our Lord; not pur own, but his the law was the knowledge of fin, and who is our Lord and Saviour : Now he hereby fin-abounded, more of them being says, fin reigned, in the præterite time, not made known thaù formerly; next, fin a- as it were not yet reigning in the reprobounded by the law, in that after the pro- bate, but to shew, that so soon as the grace mulgation of the law, disobedience did ar: of God in Christ begins to shine upon a que great contempt of the Law-giver, and soul, then the do ninion of fin aud death fo did discover great perverseness and stub- ceaseth, and not until then. bornnefs which would not have kythed before; yea inoreover fin abounded by the
OBSERVATIONS. coming of the law, in that thereby the I. It serveth not a little to illustrate and strength of inward corruption was disco- clear the truth, to fhew the groundlessness vered, in that it broke out with the greater of what objections adversaries thereunto force, the more it was curbed and restrain- may make against the same, and therefore