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in both soul and body, and that for ever- , communicateth influences, and actually bemore: by one man's offence death reigned. Itowech the fruits of his death and media. 1.5ce Eph. ij. 2. 3. 12. Tic.ii. 3:
tion, are only such as receive him and his II. The children of the family whereof righteousness by faith; and so the benefits Christ is head are delivered from that state of his death redound not to all and every 1 of death, and shall never be destroyed in individual person, nor did he represent them their souls for ever, and bodily death thall all, but only such as were in time to renever harm them at all; they win to life ceive aburdance of grace and of the gift by one, Jesus Christ.
of righteousness: therefore it is said, I bey II. The lite which the children of which receive abundance of grace, and of Christ wint to thro' him, in grace here, the gift of righteousness, Mall reign in life and glory hereafter, is a noble royal life, by one, Jesus Christ. to' fools in a world do much undervalue VIII. Whatever doubts and difficulties the same; and the change which they poor believers may meet with, and howmeet with is great, for whereas before ever they may be long wrestling with fears, they were llaves, and Naves, to the worst of never reaching the crown; yet all fuch of tyraats, even to fin and Satan, now they as have indeed laid hold on the righteousRign in iife.
ness of Christ by faith, and received that IV Before any can win to this excellent gift, shall certainly enjoy communion with Binzly life, and to reign in grace and glo- Christ in glory, aod be saved for ever; Ty, there must be a righteousness had, for and the certainty of their lost estate by Die Lord will not dwell with the unrighte- | Adam may put it out of all question: thereD:, and finners will not stand in his figlit, fore says he, much more they who receive for he abhorech all the workers of ini abundance of grace,---fhall reign in life, &c. quiry : it is only such as have the gift of IX. As Christ is a most rich treasure nighteousness that Mall reign.
and store-house of all necessaries for his ". This righteousness which must be own, and is an inexhaustible fountain unto at ere we can be brought out of the won his own; so doth he communicate of his fal state wherein we are by nature, is none fulness, and that very liberally and abund
our own, nor none of our own pur- antly; so that believers may blame themcale; it must come from some other airth selves if they want: so they are said to re-term from ourselves, and is the free gift ceive the abundance of grace.
God, and is therefore called, the gift , .. righteousness.
VERSES 18. 19. Therefore as by the offence: Vl. There are none delivered from this
of one, judgment came upon all men to Taral state of fin and death, and brought condemnation : even fo: by the righteouf07 a state of salvation, until once they nefs of one, the free gift came upon all
made partakers of the grace of God, men unto “justification of life. 1st of his gift of righteoulve's, and that | For as by one man's disobedience mang $b faith alone; for faith only lays hold were made finners : fo by the obedience: artis offered gift of righteousness, and of one, ball many be made righteous..
it on; and this is the only way carvat by God for this effect: they that I Aving thus cleared the difference be* abundance of grace, and of the gift I wixt the iwo heads of families, he zoteousness, all reign in life.
I comes now more plainly to hold forch the T'IL All those who are truly in Christ comparison, and thereby to clear the doubt branches, and do actu illy suck fap from which might arise from his doctrine of for life, and to whom as a head he justification, viz. How could it be, that
by one one min's righteousness so many, not to be so universally taken, but with should be justified and accounted righie a restriction thus; all the men that are in ous, thus: By one man's righteousness Chritt as members, and to whom he is a maay may be accounted righteous, justifi- head; or all chele who are his, whatever ed, and adjudged to life, as well, as by condition or quality they be of else. Ani onu man's fin and disobedience many were this is clear, 111, Fre'n the scope, which accounied guilty and adjudged to condem. is, as we shewed, to clear how any can be nacio!, being finners: I berefore, says he, justified by the righteousness of another; as by the offence of one, judgment came upon but it we take all men, for all and every all meil to corld. mination : 'een so by the individual perion without any limitaiion or rigt o:frei of ore, the free gift came upon exceprion, the apoitle's fimilitude should all 10 juifcation of life: that is, as come far thorr; yea, it should be no fin.iliLy Adam's tranigreffion all his pollerity tude at all: For, 1. Adain's fin was really lay under the sentence of death, and were imputed unto his posterity; so that hence condemned by law; so by the righteouf- they are called and constituted finners in nets of Crit all his are justified, and de- God's account, not only for the original clared heirs of life eternal. And for the | pravity which all haye naturally, as flowfurther confirmation of this, he theweth ing from that guilt, but even tor the very the ground of both, verse 19. as if he breach of the covenant which Adam conwere answering this doubt, How could mited; and upon this they were really either one man's fault make others viable under God's curse and the fentence of to condemnation, or one man's righteoul condemnation, and liable to the tire of heil: nefs procure heaven and happiness to o but all men have not the righteousness of thers? He answers both, and 'fo confirm- Christ imputed to them in such sort as eth the comparison; saying, For as by one they may be called righteous, and are reman's disobedience many were made finners; ally justified, and have real and undoubted that is, as by Adam's guilt, which was dis righi to happiness and life eternal, as none obedience, many were accounted sinners, can deny. Now, if the comparison agree having the sime sin imputed to them, and not in this, it agreeth in nothing; For, so legally constituted transgressors; fo by ! 2. this is the main thing, viz. That as the obedience of une, many fhall be made | Adam was a public person and represenrighteous; that is, so by the righteousness | tative, and so his deed, who was but one of Christ, which was had by his acts of man, wronged many; fo Christ a Second obedience, not only in suffering but in do Adam, (whereof the first was a type) is ing, many are clothed with righteousness called one man allo, to Mew that he was and put into a righteous state, and shall be to be looked on as a public person; and to in all time coming, Christ's righteousness his deed helped many: and if we take not being alwais effectual for this end; and up Christ as a head, representarive, or a therefore the verb is put into the future public person, we shall never make sense time. The itrengih of the argument lieth of the apostle's arguing here; now sure I here, As all sinners are liable to condem- am, he cannot be looked on as a head but nation, so all righteous persons are to en- to his members, nor as a root but to joy life. The only doube to be cleared branches, nor as a common perion but for here, is anent these all mentioned, verse 18.) such only for whom he undertook, and the free gift came ufon all men; wherher whom he represented; and this I am sure this be meant of every individual person cannot be meant of all and every one in without exception or rot ? for answer particular, without excep:ion. 2dly. It whereunto, we think it clear, that all ist croftech the text also many ways; For, 1.
therefore it is said, by one man's disobedi- ùs, Marth. v. 17. 18. Rom. viii. 3. and X. ence many were made finners,
| 3. Gal. iv. 4. 5. and we are said to be made II. Tho' Chrifl in respect of his divine righteous in hin, 2 Cor: v. 21. he is callnature was equal with the Father, 'anded our righteousness, Jer. xxiii. 6. and xxxiii. could not, without a contradiction, be said 16. i Cor. 1. 30.: for here it is faid, that to obey; yer in 'respect of his human na- 1 by the. obedience of one, many are made lure, which had not an infinite effential ho- righteous." liness, Match. xix. 17. he may be said to 1 VI. The efficacy and icfluence of Christ's obey; and while he was in the fleih, obedience will not be foon drawn out, but Heb v: 7. did actually subject himself to will be of force to all believers, and effecthe law, and gave practical obedience both tual for their use in all time coming, thro to the moral and ceremonial law, Phil. all generations to the end of the world; ii. 8. Matth. v.' :7. and therein as in all tlierefore the time is changed here, for other duiies laid on him by the Father, the comfort of believers in ail time coming, as our Mediator and Cautioner, John xv. and instead of faying, by one man's cbedia 10. Psal. xl. 7. 8. y.; therefore we hear | ence many were or are made righteous, he of the obedience of one.
says, many shall be made righteous. III. As Christ was not made man for himself, but took upon him our nature Verses 20 21. Moreover, the law enterfor our good; so neither was he under ed, that the offence might abound: but the law, and yielded obedience thereto where sin abounded, grace did much more. for himself, as if fimply and absolutely he abound :. had been obliged by the law, as 'a crea- That as fin hath reigned unto death, eten cure, but all his obedience was for us, as so might grace reign through rightcoulhe was born for us, Isa. ix. 6. so was he ness unto eternal life, by Jesus Chrift made under the law for us, Gal. iv. 4. 5.: our Lord. for here his obedience is useful for us, not only for initation, but also to consti ITAving thus cleared and illustrated tute us righteous; by the obedience of one 11 the doctrine of justification by comJhall many be made rigtiteous.
paring the two Adams together, the aIV. Howbeit believers have no ivhepostle further proceeds in clearing the same rent qualitative righteousness of their own, y doctrine, by answering some objections, that is fufficient to clothe them in the fight which men of corrupt minds would be of God, their best righteousness being but ready to make against it. And the firi rotten raggs; yet are they legally consti: objection is here preoccupied, and it may tuted righteous, really and in truth before be thus taken up, If we be justified by God, and so have some righteousness up- faith, without the works of the law, wbt on them: for here it is said, many are | then did God give a law ? what use wa made righteous. : .
there thereof? feeing we are not justi V. It is not by any thing in them, or fied thereby, it would seem that the las done by themselves, that believers are le- | were needless allogether; but it is not to gally accounted righteous; but only by the therefore your doctrine is falfe. The o obedience of Jesus Christ, not only that casion of this objection may arise also fro which shined eminently in his death, but verse 13. where he said, that until the la also which appeared thro' his whole life, fin was in the world; and hence they mig! so that in his obeying we are accounted | fay, If so, why did the law enter ? Toth obeying, and his obedience is accounted objection he answereih in these two verfc ours; hence he is said to fulfil the law for ! .. By thewing how the law entered: and
omfortable unto luch as
cria the law
The ends wherefore the law entered. 1., ed by a law; and thus the law came that How the law entered; the word properly lin night abound, and men might see their fignifies, intervened, and so he would say, the own vileness and bafeness the more, and law came in after the promise, and inter- fo might be more willing to go out of Fened betwixt that promise and the clear themselves, and look for righteousnefs golpel; and this says, that the promise elsewhere. (2.) But where fin abounded, Stands in full force, and so the way of grace did much more abound; This is anojutitication by the free promise is not dis- ther end, and so propoied, as it may be annulled by the law; thus, this same a- comfortable unto luch as were troubled postle reasoneth, Gal. iii. 17. And this I with the abounding of fin: that is, the law far, that the covenant that was confirmed entered, that fin being discovered, and before of God in Christ, the law which thereby the grace of God in the gospel, was four hundred and thirty years after, pardoning, might appear to be great and cannot disannul, that it should make the pro- wonderful, and to abound much more, yea, mile of none effect. And so there is but to abound more than can be expressed, in one way of justification, viz. by faith, in that it drowns quite up the whole deluge all ages; both before the law, in the time of sin, however abounding and swelling. of the law, and after the law, the way is . (3.) This last remote end is more illustrated, full one and the fame, and the law inter- verse 21. That as fin hath reigned unto Fened, or came in, in the midst, for holy death, even ro might grace reign through eads; all this is imported in that the law righteousness unto eternal life, through eis said to have entered, or intervened, and sus Christ our Lord; that is, as fin hath lo it could not wrong the good old way. acted the part of a tyrant, and domineered Then 2. he Thews fome ends why the so as to manifest its force and power in Lord made the law to enter; (for he men- killing and destroying condemned souls ; tions no more than what maketh for his for the sting of death is fin, and death could present purpose) and (1.) The law entera | have no power over â man but because ed, that the ofence might abound; that is, of fin, and so fin reigneih; so the free batil che law came, lin lay in the dark, grace of the gospel, or of God in the goand was not well taken notice of; men spel, might reign also, that is, appear more were guilty of many things which they strong and excellent, in fubduing and abodid not understand to be fin, until the law. lishing fin the former tyrant, and bring in cme, which as a glass discovered many eternal life; but how? through righteousi foul spots which the dim light of nature ness; but whose righteousness? by 7efus
would pever have manifested; and fo by Christ our Lord; not our own, but his the law was the knowledge of sin, and, who is our Lord and Saviour: Now he hereby sin abounded, more of them being says, fin reigned, in the præterite time, not 2de known than formerly; next, fin ao as it were not yet reigning in the reproanded by the law, in that after the probate, but to thew, that fo foon as the grace :!ration of the law, disobedience did ar: of God in Christ begins to shine upon a te great contempt of the Law-giver, and foul, then the do ninion of fin and death o did discover great perverseness and stub- ceaseth, and not until then. "emanefs which would not have kythed batore; yea moreover fin abounded by the
OBSERVATIONS. nag of the law, in that thereby the I. It serveth not a little to illustrate and regth of inward corruption was disco clear the truth, to thew the groundlesness teed, in that it broke out with the greater of what objections adversaries thereunto srce, the more it was curbed and restrain- ! may make against the same, and therefore