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more chearfully: I speak to you Gentiles, and delivering of them out of a state of
says he; and why? in as much as I am death and damnation, be the work of the : pnapostle of the Gentiles: upon this ground,
ground, right-hand of Omnipotency; yet for his as he was free with them, so he would own holy ends he thinks fit to use men as have them take his freedom and faithful inftruments under him therein, holding nels, well, off his hand.
forth his mind in his word, and declaring IV. All of us by nature, being under the same in season and out of season: there. the curse of a broken covenant, are in a fore says he, If by any means I might save state of death ; and however we please Some of them : Hence ministers are called, our condition very well, yet are we in the workers with God, 1 Cor.iii.9. See Tim. greatest danger of destruction and ruin ;
iv. 16. maginable, and so stand in great need to be IX. Ministers of the gospel, in the dissaved: Save some of them.
charge of their office and duty, should, in V. The only means which God hath subordination to God's glory, propose the appointed, whereby poor undone fouls salvation of such as they are sent unto, as are delivered from their hazardous condi- their end; and should lo carry themselves, tion, and brought out of the paths lead in all the parts of their ministration, as ing to death, is the preaching of the go- may most tend to the saving and delivering spel; for thus the apostle was seeking to of poor fouls: If by any means I might fave save his own countrymen : Save some of some of them. them.' See Rom. i. 16.
X. Tho' ministers should labour mainly VI. The Lord hath appointed a special in that part of the vineyard which God ia and particular function for the preachhis providence hath sent them into; yet ing of the gospel, and thereby seting all that they do there should have a tenfome, in a peculiar manner, apart, and dency to the good of the whole body, of installing them in that office and function Christ and church universal ; such a pubto carry the gospel; therefore says he, lic spirit becomes all the ministers of the mine office; which word in the original is gospel; for tho' the apostle Paul was petaken ordinarily for such an office, which culiarly set apart for the Gentiles, yet he men in ecclefiaftic public places have, and so did his duty among them, as he had an so is used of the apostles, Acts i. 17. 25. eye always unto others, even to the Jews: and other ministers, Col. iv. 17, 2 Tim. iv. if by any means I might provoke them to 5. or of such as had a charge of the poor, emulation. Acts vi. 3. and however many look upon
XI. Ministers should fo walk in every this office as altogether unnecessary, yet it piece of their ininisterial calling, as may is as necessary as life, and without it there bę gaining and convincing, even to the is no expectation of life, in God's ordina- most wicked profane wretch, and such as ry dispensation.
wickedly oppose the truth; and they lould VII. Howbeit many take a light burden so handle the truth as may most prevail of this office; yet in itself, and when it is with such, and -not give over the marier conscientiously discharged, it will be found as desperate : there was no way to gain the to be a most painful and laborious piece Jews, but to provoke them to emulation; of service, exercising the whole man: and therefore Paul so 'preached to the Mine office ; the word office imports a pain- Gentiles, and did his dury in the miniltry ful and laborious work, as working in fand among them, as might beft provoke them , and clay, or as runing so fast, till the dust thus: If by any means I might provoke them rise again.
to emulation. VIII, Tho' the saying of poor souls, XII. The best way whereby we can ter
tify our love and respect to any whom we much privileged, and favoured of God as carry affection unto, is to seek to gain them his peculiar people; yer' all that will not in to Christ; and the stronger our affection fave them from shame and loss, if inney re- . be, the more thould it ftir us up to the bel against the Lord, and abuse his gooilvse of means for this; and therefore says ness; for the Jews are said to be cast away; he, If by any means I might provoke to emit- the word imporrs a flinging away with conlation them which are my flesh.
tempt : If the calling away of them, &c. XIIL. As the office of the ministry is II. By reason of the fall of Adam all creditable and honourable in itself, Heb. maukind are in a state of enmity with God, V. 4. fo a faithful and honest-hearted ser- they living like rebels without God in a vant of God will account it the greatest world, refuting subje&tion unto his laws, piece of honour he can meet tvith in the Rom. v. 1o. Col. i. 21. and God carrying ditcharge of his duty the lv las gained himself as a provoked enemy to them, and pag iuuls to God; that is his crown and so need to be reconciled and made one joy, Phil
. iv. 1. i Thell. ii. 19. 20. I mag. again; there is a woful outcast and discord : nify mine office, if I may save some of them. betwixt God and man, therefore there is
mention here made of the reconciling of VERSE 15. For if the casting away of the world. See Eph. v. 2.
them be the reconciling of the world; III. The way how this enmity shall what all the receiving them be, but life be taken away, and God and man made from the dead?
good friends again, is only held forth in
the gospel of Jesus Christ, which is thereIN N this verse the apostle doth further fore called the word of reconciliation, 2 Cor.
explain and illustrate that argument V. 19. the only scope thereof being to fet down, verse r2. and useth other ex- bring rebels in to Crit, who is the peace. pressions to the fame purpose; If the call. maker, and so to enjoy a perfect peace ing away of them, that is
, If the flinging with God; for it was upon the account of away of the Jews, and casting them out of the gospel's coming unto the Gentile . the church, be the reconciling of the world, world, when the Jews rejected the same, that is, be the occasion whereby the gospel that it is said, The casting away of the hould be preached to the Gentile world, Jews was the reconciling of the world. that thereby they might be reconciled unto IV. Tho' now the Jews be forsaken, God, what fall the receiving of them be, afflicted with tempęsts, and not comforted, but life from the dead? Will there not be and driven out of the church and presence joyful days thro' the world, and among of God; yeť at length God will take them the Gentiles, when they shall be received into his favour again, and bring them with. iuto fatur again? will it not be like the in the pale of the church, and so assemble resurrection from the dead, when Jew and her that halteth, Micah iv. 6. 7. 8.; chereGentile shall both enjoy the fame felicity fore there is word of receiving them again, and happiness? Seeing out of the dead state W nat shall the receiving of them be? of the Jews, when cast without doors, V. Though now where ever the gospel God brought life to the Gentiles, will he cometh in power and life, there are fruits Dot much more do so out of their enliven following it, and souls brought to life el estace? will it not then be to the Gen- thereby, and so great ground of joy and tiles as the resurrection from the dead?
gladness upon that account; yet this joy
will not be fo full in the church, nor the OBSERVATIONS.
fruits of the gospel so universal, as it shall 1. Let a church or people be never so I be when the Jews are brought home; when
the eldest son, that has played the prodigal version, because they were not wholly and long, shall be saved, then there Thall be every way cut off, but in some respect were great joy and salvation thro' the whole holy, and therefore there were lome hopes church and family of God; it shall then of their conversion by the preaching of be to the world as a resurrection, or life the gospel. from the dead; even upon the occasion of Because there is some further difficulty the Jews conversion the gospel shall spread in the words; and some difficulty runing farther among the Gentiles, Zech. viii. 22. thro' this whole purpose which the apoftle 23.: What shall the receiving of them be, is upon : To fave us a labour in runing but life from the dead? See Ita. Ixvi. 18. thro' the rest of this chapter, and that the 19.20. xiv... and ii. 2. 3. Zech. xiv. 16. &c. whole purpose may be the more clear, we Micah. iy. 1. 2.
fhall here, once for all, endeavour the
ciearing of the whole business, by giving VERSE 16. For. if the forf-fruit be holy, some clear antwers to these ten quetrious
the lump is also holy : and if the root be following. boly, so are the branches.
First, When he says, If the root be boly,
fo are the branches; is not Christ here meant His verse containerh a third argument by the root?
proving the future conversion of the I answer, Not: For, 1. the root and Jewish nation, where the apostle maketh the first-fruits must be meant of the same use of two similitudes, one taken from the perfons, both of them being Gmilitudes, levitical law, touching the first fruits, Lev. brought for the same end, to clear the same xxiii. 14. 17. by the offering whereof the point, and to make up one and the same whole lump was sanctified unto them ; see argument; bur by the first-fruits we canNumb. xv. 20. The other fimilitude is not understand Christ, for he was not the taken from nature; If the root be holy, so first-fruits in respect of the nation of the are the branches; and this he largely in. Jews. 2. The root here meant is such a fifteth upon, as being the more clear of root whose branches were cut off: but no the two, and most fitted for his purpose. foul who is really in Christ, or is as a The apostle's argument lieth thus; If branch graffed into him as a root, can be the Jewish nation be yet in some respect cut off. 3. Into this root the branches will holy, then they will be converted and made be graffed in again, but there is not a partakers of gospel-privileges : But so it being in Christ, and out of him. 4. That is, that the Jewish nation is in some re which is here called a root, is called ver. 24. spect holy; Therefore, &c. The propo- the Jews own olive, and so it cannot be sition the apostle pafseth as being clear with meant of Christ, who is not properly their out controversy; The assumption he con- own olive. 5. The Jews are called natufirmeth by a clear and undoubted axiom, ral branches of this root; Were they nathus; If the first.fruits be holy, fo is the tural branches of Chrift? no, in no ways; lump; and if the root be holy so are the but rather he was a branch of the same branches; that is, If Abraham, Isaac and stock with them, Rom. ix, 5. 6. This Jacob, the first-fruits and root be holy, root has some branches natural and some io are the rest of their succeffors and issue preternatural, ver. 24. which cannot agree holy also: But the former is uncontrovert
to Chrift. ed; Therefore, &'c. This verse may be Secondly, Who is then to be understood also looked upon as holding forth a ground here by the root? of that which the apostle faid last, viz. I answer: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, a ground of his endeavouring their con- were the first-fruits of the Jews, and these
were the first-fruits of the Jews, and whileas before, tho' the same corenant of these were the root of this stock; not A. grace was in being, (it being promulgated braham alone, for then the Ishmaelites to Adam after the fall,) yer did it not run should become branches ; nor Abrahain down so lineally as in Abraham's posterity, with Isaac, or else the children of Elau but rather was personal; nor was it enhould become branches; but Abraham, tered formally with any as head of a fa. Ifaac and Jacob, all three, as so many vines mily, but every man taken in for himself, making up this one root : hence we find Fourthly, What holiness is this that is them oftentimes mentioned all three to- here meant, which passerh from root to gether, when mention is made of covenant | branches, from Abrahan, Isaac and Jablemings, as Exod. sxxii.-13. Deut. ix. 27. cob, to their posterity ? 2 Kings xiii. 23. Micah vii. 20. and with 1 answer: It is not to be understood of all the three is the fame covenant, with inherent holiness, and true sanctification; the same proinises, made; see Gen. xv. 18. For, 1. this holiness is not propagated by xxvi. 3. 4. and xxviii. 13. 14. and hence, nature ; the believing parent conveyeth verse 28. they are called, fathers, which not his graces to his issue.
2. There are were not properly spoken of one alone; none born holy, and sanctified by nature; so what is said to Abraham, Gen. xii. 2. 3. for by nature, we are all children of wrath, and xxij. 18. 19. is said to Jacob, Gen. Eph. ii. 2. ; but it is to be understood of xxviii. 14. to shew us, that these made up a federal holioess; a holiness flowing to a one complete root, of which the posterity society, family, or nation, by virtue of a of all the three were only the natural covenant; a holiness agreeing to a stock branches.
by God's gracious estimation, whereby Thirdly, How, or upon what score is they are separated to himself for special it, that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are thus services, and admited to special privileges; called the root ?
and this is propagated from father to fon, I answer: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as freedom in a borough flowerh from are not to be accounted the root, merely father to son, and agreeth to whole naupou a physical or natural account, but tions, Deut. vii. 6. 7.; and this propagdrather upon a moral account, as covenant. tion floweth not from natural generation, ing, not as believing, fathers, so much as but is a fruit of grace and free love; for believing heads of families: Nor are they it is of God's free grace that he covenants the root in respect of their personal faith with any, and their feed, as he did with and holiness, but rather in respect of a co- Abraham, and to entail the children 10 venant made with them as the head of the privileges bestowed upon the parent. such fami ies; and hence their believing Fifthly, But how can the Jews who issue plead the covenant made with them, are now living be accounted holy upon as Exod xxxii. 13. Deut ix. 27. 2 Kings Abraham's account, seeing they are unxiii. 23. Lukei. 72. 73.; bence they be churches, and not admited to church-pri- , came, the radical means of conveying vileges; and secing they cannot be account. church privileges to their issue, and for ed holy, this day, the apostle's argument This cause are called the root, the covenant can have no weight, when he says, If the being made with them, and they accept- root be holy, so are the branches ? ing of the terms of the covenant from God, I answer : When the apostle says, If for themselves and their pofterity; and the root be Loly, so are the branches, he doh so from them this covenant-interest, and not mean, that the Jews are now actually privileges following thereupon, had a lineal. initated into that ftale of holiness, (I am descent, and ran down from father to fon ; l here speaking of the body and bulk of
them, which is as yet cut off,) but only | verse 25. and all Israel, verse 26. and of that they are holy intentionally in the de- whom there is an all, verse 32. free of God, and when they shall be call. Seventhly, Must we take the Gentiles ed in, they shall be federally holy actually, also collectively ? by virtue of the fame covenant inade with I apswer: Of neceffity we must, seeing this root, and thus he clearly pointeth 1. the one party opposed is taken colleétivethis forth, that when they shall be received ly, as we have town, the other must be in, and ingraffed in their own olive tree, fo taken likewise. 2. They are called the the same holy root (hall derive federal bio- world, verse 15. 3. The issue provech liness to them; the root being still frethit, feeing now we see nations taken in, and fappy, notwithstanding of their being and whole bodies of people. 4. We hear leng broken off it. Neither is it absurd also of the fulness of the Gentiles, verse 25. to say, that such Jews as are not yet con- Eighthly, What is it to be ingrassed? os, veried, yea, poslībly, not yet boro, are how are either Jews or Gentiles faid to be federally holy, and in some respect in co- iograffed? venant with God: God can make a cove- I answer, 1. The ingraffing is the obnant even with such as are not in a capaci- taining of an actual interest and state in the ty to restipulate, as we fee, Deut. xxix. visible church ; whence floweth an actual 14. 15. such as were not present, but fruition of church privileges. •* Whatpoflibly unborn, were entered into cove- ever way it can be made out, or made to hant with God; and fo the Jews, who in appear, that the Jews were cast off, the due time are to be converted, may be fe- fame way are we Gentiles graffed in, and derally holy, in a seminal respect.
the Jews shall be again graffed in; for the Sixthly, What are we to understand Genuiles come in amongit them, or instead by these branches? Whether are we to of them, verse 17. that is, in the room understand thereby particular believers, where they were: and they will be again considered personally, here and there, re- graffed in, that is, in their old place again. ceiving the offer of the Messias; or, is the Ninthly, Then it would feem that the word to be taken collectively ?
apostle meaneth, all alongst here, the visible 1 answer : We are to understand it in a church, and the ingraffing and casting cut, collective sense; For, 1. the apostle's pur. Thould be in and out of the visible church, pose being one in this later part of the and not the invigible, tho' many particulars chapter, by the branches here, which are in the text seem to point out an invisible 10 be graffed in, he must mean the same church; as, t. verse 15. the ingraffing is that fell, and were cut off, and whose fall called reconciliation, 2. It is said to be by and outcasting was the occasion of the com- faith; and, 3. the outcasting by unbelief, ing of the gospel unto the Gentiles, and verse 20. and hardening or blinding, verse these were the collective body of the
2.5 4. This ingraffing is faid to be an Jews. 2. He speaks of a body call out for
act of God's sole power, verse 2 3. many hundreds of years; 3. and of a body effect of it is salvation, verses 26. 27. which being once in, was cast out; and be. 6. It is a fruit of eliélion, verse 28. and, ing cast out, may be taken in again; 4. and I 7.' of God's miercy. whose iaking in will be to the Gentile I answer: He is principally here speak. world as life from the dead. And, 5. they ing of the church as visible; For, i. the are such as are opposed to the Gentile | ingraffing is in Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, world, and the Gentile world to them.
as the root. 2. The ingraffing is of a 6. They are such a body as are filed Ifrael, collective body, as we lhewed before.