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founder of the feat was the Shiek Mahomed Jbn Abduhl Vehab. This doctrine has been brooding, it is faid, near fixty years, and its advocates now fupport their opinion by force of arms. They have adherents both fecret and revealed among the Arabians in general. They are reported to poffefs the greater part of the country from Medina to Baffora, on the Euphrates, and beyond it, and 40,000 men have been found infufficient to overpower them. The Porte is pursuing measures for their reduction, and we must wait the iffue before we can form any certain opinion; but it is probable that Mahometanifm, as well as Popery, will owe its fall to the prevalence of infidelity. The fecond great enemy which is to contribute to the deftruction of the Turkish empire, is to come from the north, and this feems at prefent the moft formidable. Ever fince the time that we have fuppofed the rage of the fecond woe to have terminated, (the latter end of the laft century) the power of the Ruffians has been getting a head of that of the Qttomans, and at this moment Conftantinople trembles at the frown of the bee Stitcima.
But here a difficulty prefents itself. As the Turks came originally from the neighbourhood of Mount Caucafus, where the family of Gog was fettled, and as they have long been in possession of most of thofe countries mentioned by the prophet Ezekiel, (chap. xxxviii. 2—6.) as the invaders of Palestine, after the Jews' restoration, it has therefore been thought that the Turks are the people to whom the prophecy refers. But, if the Turkish empire is to be overthrown to make way for the restoration of the feed of Abraham, how is this to be reconciled with the prediction of the prophet, and the generally-received opinion? Were I to enter into a la-bored confideration of this fubject, it would carry me far beyond the bounds I have prefcribed myself. I fhall therefore but just -touch upon it, and refer the reader for farther information to Wells's • Geography of the Old Teft. vol. 1, chap. 3, sect. 2.
Respecting Gog and his affociates, mentioned by Ezekiel, it appears that Gog, or Magog, the fon of Japhet, fettled himself about Mount Caucafus, and is esteemed the father of the Scythians, who - dwelt on the caft and north-east of the Euxine or Black Sea; Gomer and his fon Togarmah peopled the northern tract of the leffer
Afia; Mefhech fettled to the eastward of Gomer, in part of Cap. padocia and Armenia, to the fouth and fouth-eaft of the Black Sea; Tubal fettled ftill farther to the eastward, towards the Cafpian fea. These two latter were the near neighbors of Gog. From a colony of Tubal fprung the Ruffians; and the Muícovites owe their origin to a colony of Mefhech. Dr. Wells, (vol. 1, p. 158) treating on the origin of the Mufcovites and Ruffans, fays, "That the Mofcovites or Mafcovites in Europe were a colony originally of Mefhech or Mofoch, called by the Greeks Mostlā, is very probable, not only on account of likeness of names, but also of the refpective fituations of the Afiatic and European Mofchi one to the other, Add to this another confideration, that whereas in our and fome other tranflations the Hebrew text, Ezek. xxxviii. a, is rendered thus; The chief prince, or (as it is in the margin of our Bibles) the prince of the chief of Mefhech and Tubal; in other tranflations, and particularly in the Septuagint, it is thus rendered; The prince of Rosh, Mefhech, and Tubal. The thing is, the Hebrew word way Roh, by fome is taken to be an appellative, by others a proper name. The learned Bochart has observed from the Nubian geographer, that the river in Armenia, called by the Greeks Araxes, is by the Arabians called Rofh. And hence he not only probably jufers, from other inftances of the like nature, that the people that lived in the country about that river were alfo denominated Roh, but allo proves from Jofephus Bengorion, that there were a people in thefe parts named Rhoffi. Now the Mofchi and Roffi being thus neighbors in Afia, their colonies kept together in Eu, rope, thofe of the Mofi feating themselves in the province of Mufcovy, properly fo called, that is, the parts about the city of Mofow: thofe of the Reff feating themfelves in the parts adjoining on the fouth. For the learned Bochart has obferved from Tzetzes, that the people called Tauri, and from whom the Taurica Cherfonefus took its name, were, in the days of Tzetzes, better known by the name of Ros than of Tauri. Upon the whole, therefore, it may be very probably believed, that the Muscovites and Ruffians in Europe were colonies of Mefhech, or elie of Mefnech and Tubal jointly." Treating on the fituation of Gog, as north of Tubal, &c. he fays, "This fituation is confirmed by the fcripture itself, Ezek. xxxviii. 2. Set thy face against Gog, in, or of, the land of Magog, the prince of Rofh, Mefheck, and Tubat; &c. For hence we learn,
that the land of Magog must be near to that of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal; and it could be fo only on the north. The learned Mr Mede has obferved, that the name Gog fignifies the very fame with Magog, the letter mem being but an heemantick letter, i. e. not a radical, but an additional letter to the radix or primitive word. And he conceives that it pleafed the Spirit of God to distinguish thus between the land and the people of the land, by calling the people Gog, and the land the land of Magog,"
Thus the Ruffians and Mufcovites themselves appear to be in cluded in the enumeration of Ezekiel, and we may obferve that they have already extended their conquests into the neighbourhood of the Black and Cafpian Seas, and of those parts originally fettled by Gog and their ancestor Tubal. The probability is that they will extend their conquefts ftill farther, and be distinguished inftruments in the overthrow of the Turkifh empire. And having: effected this, it is likely that, with the affiftance of their newly acquired fubje&ts or allies from the Cafpian to the Propontus, with the Perfians, &c. (the people enumerated by Ezekiel) they will be the invading multitude marked out by the Spirit of Prophecy.
There is another fign of the times alfo which ought not to be entirely omitted. More than two thousand five hundred years ago the ten tribes of Ifrael were carried captive into Affyria. About a hundred and fifteen years after this, Judah and Benjamin also were carried away to Babylon. Thefe returned, and fome few of the other tribes with them, but as a nation, Ifrael was never reftored. According to Efdras (book 2, chap. xiii. 41-50.) they took counsel among themselves and emigrated into a distant country, where never man dwelt; that the name of this country was Arfareth, at the distance of a year and a half's journey, where they are to dwell till the latter time, when God will bring them back with great wonders. The prophets abound with promiles, not only respecting the restoration of Judah, (the Jews) but of Ifrael alfo. From these tribes not having been heard of for fo many ages, and the improbability of fuch a people escaping the notice of all travellers, the generality have been induced to conclude that they no where exift, as a diftinét people, but have long ago been melted down among other nations, except those that united them
felves with Judah and Benjamin, at their return from Babylon. That they fhould still exift is certainly a very extraordinary circumftance; and should Providence bring them forward by and by to act a confpicuous part in the great scene which is now opening, it will doubtlefs excite great aftonishment; but both the event and the surprise were foreseen and predicted by the prophets. They forefaw that the re-union of Ephraim with Judah would not take place till after the great dispersion, and their refurrection from the long political death which they were to fuffer for their fins. Then are Ephraim and Judah to be one people again. (Ezek. xxxvii. 16-22.) And Judah fhall fay, "Who hath brought up these? Behold I was left alone, thefe, where have they been!" (Ifa. xlix. 21.)
Independent of the prophecies, there is reafon to conclude that this people do still exist distinct from other nations. The grounds for this conclusion may be seen in the Afiatic Refearches, vol. 2. That the reader may judge for himself, I shall take the liberty of quoting the extract which we find in the Monthly Review enlarged, vol. 10, p. 502. The account is whimsical enough; but considering the number of ages fince the carrying away Ifrael captive, their corrupt ftate at that time, their miserable condition fince, their ignorance of printing, &c. it affords as much proof as can be expected, at the first dawn of their existence. When we are better acquainted with them, their MSS. customs, &c. we may expect more light.
"On the defcent of the Afghans from the Jews...
“The Afghans call themselves the pofterity of Melic Tálút, or king Saul.—The descent of the Afghàns, according to their own tradition, is thus whimfically traced;
In a war which raged between the children of Israel and the Amalekites, the latter being victorious, plundered the Jews, and obtained poffeffion of the ark of the covenant. Confidering this the god of the Jews, they threw it into fire, which did not affect it; they afterwards endeavored to cleave it with axes, but without fiiccefs: every individual who treated it with indignity was pu
nifhed for his temerity. They then placed it in their temple, but all their idols bowed to it. At length they faftened it upon a cow, which they turned loofe in the wilderness.
When the prophet Samuel arofe, the children of Ifrael said to him, "We have been totally fubdued by the Amakelites, and have no king. Raife to us a king, that we may be enabled to contend for the glory of God." Samuel faid, " in cafe you are led out to battle, are you determined to fight ?" They answered, "What has befallen us, that we fhould not fight against infidels? That nation has banished us from our country and children.” At this time the angel Gabriel defcended, and delivering a wand, faid, "it is the command of God, that the perfon whofe ftature shall correspond with this wand, shall be king of Ifrael,” ́
Melic Tálút was at that time a man of inferior condition, and performed the humble employment of feeding the goats and cows of others. One day a cow under his charge was accidentally loft. Being difappointed in his fearches, he was greatly diftreffed, and applied to Samuel, faying, "I have loft a cow, and do not poffefs the means of fatisfying the owner. Pray for me, that I may be extricated from this difficulty." Samuel perceiving that he was a man of lofty ftature, afked his name. He anfwered, Tálút. Samuel then faid, “Measure Tálút with the wand which the angel Gabriel brought." His ftature was equal to it. Samuel then faid, "God has raifed Tálút to be your king." The children of Ifrael answered, “We are greater than our king. We are men of dig-' pity, and he is of inferior condition. How fhall he be our king?” Samuel informed them, they should know that God had constituted Tálút their king, by his restoring the ark of the covenant. He accordingly restored it, and they acknowledged him their sovereign.
After Tálút obtained the kingdom, he feized part of the territories of Jalút, or Goliah, who affembled a large army, but was killed by David. Tálút afterwards died, a martyr in a war against the infidels; and God conftituted David king of the Jews.