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15 And having your 15 And, like soldiers who defend feet Thod (storpasis) with their legs and feet with greaves, the preparation' of the have your feet food with the preparagospel of peace.

tion necessary for preaching the gospel

of peace. 16 Over all, take up 16 As soldiers have their shields, the shield of faith, with which they turn every way, for the which


will be able to defence of their whole body, so, extinguish all the fiery over your whole body, take up the shield darts' of the wicked one of faith: the firm belief of the (See 1 Pet. v. 9.)

doctrines and promises of the gofpel: with which ye will be able to extinguish all the fiery darts, that is, the most deadly temptations of the

devil. 17 And receive

the 17 And as foldiers have helmets helmet of salvation,' (see to secure their heads against strokes, 1 Theff. v. 8. note 2.) and and swords to annoy their enemies, the sword of the Spirit, receive the helmet of the hope of falwhich is the word of vation, which will defend you God.'

against the fear of death. And the Spiritual sword, which is the word of God, that therewith ye may put your enemies to flight.

promises, and precepts of the word of God, are the most effectual means of putting our spiritual enemies to fight. Of this efficacy of the word of God, we have an illustrious example in our Lord's temptation in the wilderness, who put the devil to flight by quotations from the scriptures of the Old Testament.--Beza observes, that all the parts of the complete armour of the ancients, are elegantly introduced in the apostle's account of the Christian's complete armour. For there is first the military belt, called by the Greeks swang, and by the Latins balteus. This covered the two parts of the breaft-plate where they joined. - The breaf-plate was the second article of the complete armour, and consisted of two pieces; the one reaching from the neck to the navel, and the other hanging from thence to the knees. The former was called Sweat, the latter w... Accordingly, in the parallel palfage, 1 Theff. v. 8. the breaft-plate is said to consist of two parts; faith and love.--- Next to the breast-plate were the

greaves, which made the third article of the complete armour. They were called by the Greeks xunpusdes, and by the Latins ocrea, and were made of gold, or filver, or brass, or iron, and were designed to defend the legs and feet against the strokes of stones and arrows. Thus Goliath had

greaves of brass upon his legs, 1 Sam. xvii. 6.-The fourth article of the complete armour was the helmet, which likewise was made of metals of different sorts, and was used to defend the head against the strokes of A a 2


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18 Praying always with

18 Δια πασης προσευall prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching χης και δεήσεως, προσευχοthereunto with all perfeve- μενοι εν παντι καιρώ εν πνευrance, and fupplication for ματι, και εις αυτο τετο αall faints ;

γρυπνοντες εν παση προσκαρτερησει και δεησαι περι πανων

των αγιων, 19 And for me, that ut

19 Και υπερ εμε, ίνα μοι terance may be given unto δοθειη λογος εν ανοιξει τες me, that I may open my mouth boldly, to

make ματος με εν παρρησια, γνωknown the mytery of the ρισαι το μυςηριον τα ευαίγεgospel :

λιε, 20 For which I am

20 Υσερ και πρεσβευω εναambassador in bonds: that

λυσει, ένα εν αυτω παρρησιtherein I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak.

ασωμαι, ως δει με λαλησαι.


swords and missile weapons.-Add in the fifth place, the fbield, and the whole body is completely covered. The shield was sometimes round, and sometimes square, and was made of strong thick leather. Thus the shield of Ajax confifted of seven folds of bulls hides. Sometimes the field was made of wood, covered with plates of brass or teel. .

But besides the defensive armour just now described, offenfive weapons were likewise necessary to render the soldiers armour complete; particularly the sword, which was ufed with the right hand, while the Thield was held on the left arm. They had darts likewise, or javelins, mentioned ver. 16.

Ver. 18.-1. With all fupplication and deprecation. The words rappoo Evxns and dengaws, which I have translated supplication and depreca. tión, seem naturally, as Chandler remarks, “ to denote the asking of what is good, and the deprecating what is evil, from their two roots ; “ the first of which fignifies withing, and the latter fearing. And as this they were to do in the Spirit, that is, either with their heart “ and mind, fincerely and fervently, (Ef. iv. 56.) Or, according as " the Spirit of God should excite and move them.”

2. Pray at all seasons in Spirit. In confirmation of the interpreta: tion in the commentary, I observe that our Lord himself directed Ananias to distinguish Saul as his disciple, by the watch word or token of his praying, Acts ix. 1. Enquire in the house of Judas, for one called Saul of Tarsus, for behold he prayeth in my name.

3. For this very purpose watch, with all perseverance and prayer, for all the saints. The first Christians constantly prayed for each other. Thus when Peter was cast into prison, Prayer was made without ceafing,


18 (Asd, 119.) With 18 And as soldiers distinguish all supplication and depre- each other by watch-words, let your cation, pray at all seasons token of diftin&tion, as fellow-fol(EV TveuMati, 36.) in spirit; diers of Christ, be prayer in the and for this very purpose, name of Christ. Therefore, with watch (naon mapoonapten all supplication for what is good, and 08) with all perseverance deprecation of evil, pray at all seasons and prayer for all the with earnestness: and for this very saints, (See Col. iv. 2.) purpose, watch, like soldiers on guard,

with the greatest perseverance in prayer,

for all the faithful, 19 (Kai, 220.) Especi- 16 Especially for me, that when I ally for me, that (107) open my mouth in my own defence eloquence may be given me before my judges, eloquence may be in the opening of my mouth, given me with boldness, to make known with boldness, to make the mystery of the gospel, (chap. i. 8. known the mystery of the note,) the doctrine of the gospel gospel ;

hitherto a secret; namely, that men are to be saved through faith, without obeying the law of Moses as

necessary to salvation. 20 For which I exe- 20 For publishing which mystery, cute the office of an ambas- I execute the office of an ambassador of fador, (EV aaugs in a Chrift chained: I say that I may chain,' that I may speak speak boldly, concerning the divine oriboldly (sv, 168.) concerning ginal of the gospel, and concerning

it, as it becometh me to the salvation of mankind through speak. (See Col. iii. 4.) faith; as it becometh me to speak, who

am the ambassador of so great a Prince.

of the church unto God for him, Acts xii

. 5. And their prayer was answered; for he was miraculously delivered by an angel. This, with other inftances, led the disciples to expect great benefit from the prayers of the faithful. Hence Paul himself often begged the brethren to pray for him, as in ver. 19.

See Col. iv. 2. note. Ver. 20. For which I execute the office of an ambassador in a chain, The apostle being accused of no crime against fociety, but only of herefy in the Jewish religion, Acts xxiv. 5. xxvi. 31. he was allowed at Rome to live in his own hired house, with a soldier who kept him, Acts xxviii. 16. To this soldier he was tied with a chain, fixed on his right wrist, and faftened to the soldier's left arm; and the chain being of a convenient length, the two could walk together with ease, whithersoever the apostle's affairs called him. The foldiers who were thus employed, no doubt rcaped great benefit from the apostle's conversation and preaching

Ver. 21

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21 But that ye also may 21 Ινα δε ειδητε και υknow my affairs, and how

εμε, τι πρασσω, I do, Tychicus, a beloved usis ta xat' brother and faithful minifter πανα υμιν γνωρισει Τυχικος in the Lord, hall make και αγαπητος αδελφος και πιknown to you all things : 5ος διακονος εν Κυριω 22 Whom I have sent

22 Ον επεμψα προς υyou for the same purpofe, that ye might know μας εις αυτο τετο, ένα γνωσε our affairs, and that he τα σερι ημων, και παρακαmight comfort your hearts. λεση τας καρδιας υμων. 23 Peace be to the bre

23 Ειρηνη τους αδελφοις, , thren, and love with faith from God the Father, and

και αγαση μετα πιςεως απο the Lord Jesus Christ. Θεε πατρος και Κυριε Ιησε


Ver. 21.-1. That ye also may know the things relating to me, &c. Τα κατ' '


We have this expression likewise, Philip. i. 12. The apostle means, that he wished the Ephesians as well as the Philippians and Coloffians, to know what success he had had in preaching at Rome, what opposition he had met with, what comfort he enjoyed under his sufferings, what converts he had made to Christ, and in what manner the evidences of the gospel affected the minds of the inhabitants of Rome.

2. Tychicuswill make known to you all things, &c. This paffage is a clear confutation of those who hold, that this epistle originally had a general infcription, and was directed to no particular church. For how could Tychicus be sent to the saints which are, and to the believers in Christ Jesus in all countries, to make them know the apostle's affairs, and thereby to comfort their hearts ? It is evident, therefore, that this epistle was sent to the saints of some particular place. And who should they be, but the saints at Ephesus, to whom, as Dr. Lardner has fhewed, by the consent of all the ancient MSS. and versions, it was inscribed?

Tychicus and Trophimus are mentioned Acts xx. 4. among those who accompanied Paul to Jerusalem. Wherefore, as he was then on his way thither with the collections, which he had received from the Gentile churches for the poor of the saints in Judea, we may suppose that Tychicus and Trophimus were of the number of the messengers, whom the churches had deputed to attend the apostle when he performed that ministry. In the above quoted passage these two are said to be of Asia. And of Afia Tychicus and Trophimus. - A&s xxi. 19. Trophímus is called an Ephesian. Perhaps Tychicus was of the fame city ; which may have been the reason why the apostle sent his letter to the Ephesians by him, that he might comfort their hearts by making known to them the things which had happened to him in Rome, and what he was doing there.—But whether he was an Ephe. fiạn, or not, the character giver of Tychicus, That he was a beloved

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21 Now that ye also 21 Now that ye Ephesians also may may know the things re- know the things which have happened lating to me,' AND what I to me, and what I am doing at present, am doing, Tychicus, a Tychicus, a Christian brother greatly beloved brother, and beloved by me for his many excellent faithful minister in the qualities, and who besides is a faithLord, will make known ful minister of Christ, will make known to you all things : 2 to you all things.

22 Whom I have sent 22 This person, so estimable on to you for this very pur

account of his character, I have sent pose, that ye may know to you for this very purpose, that ye mayour affairs, and that he know my affairs, and that he may commay comfort your hearts. fort your hearts, by the account he

shall give you of every thing relating

to me. 23 Peace to the bre- 23 After the manner of the thren,' and love with priests of old, I bless the church at faith, from God the Fa- Ephesus, Peace be to the brethren there, ther, and the Lord Jesus and mutual love with increasing faith Christ.

from God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Chrift.

brother and faithful minister in the Lord, sheweth that he was deservedly honoured with this commiffion. The same character Paul


of Tychicus to the Colossians, chap. iv. 7. All things concerning me, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister and fillow-fervant in the Lord, will make known to you. When the apostle, after being released from his first confinement in Rome, visited the churches of Asia, he desired Titus to come to him from Crete when he should send to him Artemas or Tychicus, to supply his place to the Cretian brethren, Tit. iij. 12. When I shall send Arlemas to thee or Tychicus, make haste to come to me at Nicopolis, for there I have determined to winter.-In like manner during the apostle's second imprisonment at Rome, when he desired Timothy to come to him from Ephesus, he wrote to him, 2 Tim. iv. 12. Tychicus I have sent to Ephesus, probably to direct the church there during Timothy's absence. These are all the particulars which the scriptures have mentioned concerning Tychicus. They are few in number, but they are fufficient proofs of the great confidence which the apostle placed in him, on account of his ability, faithfulness, and zeal in the cause of Christ.

Ver. 23. Peace to the brethren. It hath been said, that if this epifle was directed to the Ephesians, it is difficult to understand how the apostle contented himself with giving them a general falutation, with: out mentioning any of his numerous acquaintance and friends, with whom he had been intimate, during his long residence at Ephesus. But the answer is, there are no particular falutations in the apostle's first epistle to Timothy, notwithstanding Timothy was in Ephesus


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