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12 I both know to be 12 I both know to be humbled by humbled, and I know to living in poverty, and I know to abound. Every where, abound in riches. Every where, and and in all things, I am on all occasions, I am well instructed, instructed' both to be both to bear fulness of bread, and to be filled and to be hungry, hungry; both to abound in the conveboth to abound and to' niencies of life, and to be deprived of suffer want.

them, without being elated in the

one cafe, or deprefled in the other. 13 I am able to BEAR 13 In one word, I am able to bear all things through Christ, all fituations through the affiftance of who strengtheneth me.' Christ who strengtheneth mie.

14 Notwithstanding, ye 14 Notwithstanding I am able have done well, when ye through Christ to bear every state, jointly communicated TO ME Je have done well when ye jointly comin my affliction.

municated a supply to me in niy impri

fonment. 15 And know ye alfo O 15 Now to shew


how seafonPhilippians, that in the able your present was, and that I beginning of the gospel, honoured you by accepting it, Know when I went forth (ano, ye also O Philippians, that after I firf 86. 2.) in Macedonia, preached the gospel to you, when I went no church communicated forth in Macedonia to preach, no with me, in the matter of church communicated with me in the giving and receiving, but matter of giving me money, and of y'e only.

my receiving money from them, but ye only: I received money from no church but yours.

2. Both to abound and to fuffer want. As the apostle in the preceding clause bad mentioned food, we may suppose that in this he meant cloathing, lodging, &c.

Ver. 13. Through Jesus Chril who strengtheneth me. This is not arrogant boasting. For the apottle glories not in his own itrength, but in the strength of another. The fathers, as Whitby informs us, observed three things things on this passage. 1. That the virtue of contentment requires much exercise, learning, and meditation. 2. That it is as difficult to learn how to be full, as to be hungry; abun. dance having deltroyed more men than penury, and exposed them to more pernicious lufts. 3. That our proficiency in this or in any other virtue, is to be ascribed, not to ourfelves, but to the divine assistance. Ver. 14. Notwithstanding ye have done well.

Here the apostle teaches us that the servants of Christ are not to be neglected in their afflictions, because they have learned to bear them patiently. Ver. 15. When I went forth in Maccdonia. Οτε εξηλθον απο Μακεδο.

In our bible this is translated, When I departed from Macedonia. VOL. III.



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16 For even in Theffalo- 16 'Οτι και εν Θεσσαnica ye fent once and again λονικη και απαξ και δις εις unto my neceflity.

την χρειαν μοι επεμψατε: : 17 Not because I defire a

17 Ουχ ότι επιζητω το gift: But I desire fruit that

δομα, αλλ' επιζητω τον καρmay abound to your account.

πον τον πλεοναζοντα εις λο

γον υμων. .

18 But I have all, and a- 18 Απεχω δε TT OLYTA, bound: I am full, having received of Epaphroditus

και περισσευω πεπληρωμαι, , the things τυbich were /ent δεξαμενος παρα Επαφροδιτε an odour of a

τα παρ υμων, οσμην ευωδιας, sweet smell, a facrifice ac- Justav dextny, evæge5ov TW ceptable, well-pleafing to God.

from you,

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But that translation is wrong, as appears from ver. 16. where the apostle faith, the Philippians fent once and again to his neceffity in Thessalonica. For, Thessalonica being the chief city of Macedonia, their communicating with him in the matter of giving and receiving, was not after he departed from Macedonia, but whilft he was in that country.-Some are of opinion, that the translation should be, avhen I was departing, or about to depart from Macedonia. But although the Greek may bear this tranflation, it will not remove the dificulty. For, as the Philippians fent money twice to the apostle, their first present, at least, could not be received when he was departing. I there

. fore think ebna dor ato Maxedovsæs must be translated, went forth in Mace. donia, namely to preach; agreeably to the signification of ato in the phrase arto meges, in part. See Eff. iv. 86. 2.

Ver. 16. For even when I was in Thessalonica. Chryfoftom obferves, that the emphasis in this sentence, shews how much the inhabitants of so small a town as Philippi were to be commended, for contributing fo generously to the apostle's maintenance while in Theffalonica the me tropolis of Macedonia, that the gospel might be the more to the Thessalonians, being preached to them without any expence to them. Yet it must be remembered, that even in Thessalonica, the apostle maintained himself more by his own labour, than by the con. tributions of the Philippians, 1 Theff. ii. 5.-9. 2 Theff. iii. 7.

Ver. 17. Not because I earnestly feek. So emitaw properly fignifies The apostle's meaning, as Peirce expresfeth it, is, “ Nor do I men. « tion all this, because I am desirous of a gift from you now or at an “ time, for the sake of the gift itself. But what I desire on all fuck " occasions is, that your religion may produce such good fruits as may 66 turn to account to you."


Ver. 18.

16 For even WHEN I 16 For such was your love, that was in Thessalonica,' ye even when I was in Thessalonica, ya sent indeed once and again fent twice to supply my necessity; and I to my necessity.

accepted your present, that I might make the gospel free of expence to

the Thessalonians. 17 Not because I ear- 17 I mention your repeated prenestly seek' a' gift, but I fents, not because, I earnestly defire a earneftly seek fruit that may gift, but because I earnestly desire fruit abound to your account. among you, that may abound to your

account at the day of judgment. For by my gratitude I wish to encourage

you in doing good works. 18 Now I have all 18 Now I polless all things necesa things' and abound: I fary, and live in plenty : I am filled, am filled, having received so as to wish for nothing more, havfrom Epaphroditus the ing received from Epaphroditus the things · sent by you, a smell things sent by you : which work of of a sweet savour,i a facri- charity, done to 'me the apostle of fice acceptable, well- Christ suffering for the gospel, is a pleasing to God.

smell of a sweet savour, even a facrifice acceptable and well pleasing to God.

Here our

Ver. 18.-Ι. Now I have all things. Απεχω δε παντα. translators have followed the Vulgate, Habeo autem omnia. – Estius ob serves, that one of the meanings of anexesy is, to receive rent from lands, or wages for labour. If so, the clause might be translated, I have from you all things. And by using this word the apostle may have in

finuated, thai what he had received from the Philippians was due to him, on account of his having preached the gospel to them. 2: The things sent. Besides

Besides money, the Philippians may have fent to the apostle clothes and other necessaries.

3: A smell of a sweet favour, a sacrifice acceptable, well pleasing to God. These were the epithets anciently given to all the kinds of fa. crifices; not only to the peace and thank offerings, but to the burnt offerings and fin offerings. See Ephef. v. 2. note 2. Here they are given to the present which the Philippians sent to the apostle ; not be. cause that present partook of the nature of any facrifice or offering whatever, as is plain from this, that it was offered immediately to the apostle, and not to God; but merely to fhew how acceptable to God that work of charity was, which the Philippians had performed to the suffering apostle of Christ. -The fame observation may be applied to the exhortation, Heb. xiii. 16. But to do good and to communicate for.. get not, for with such sacrifices God is, well pleased. See allo i Pet. ii, 5. where the spiritual sacrifices of prayer and praise are mentioned.


Ver. 19.

19 But my God thall


Ο δε Θεος με πλη supply all your need, according to his riches in glo- ρωσει πασαν χρειαν υμων και ry, by Christ Jesus. τα τον πλετον αυτε, εν δοξη,

εν Χριςω Ιησο. 20 Now unto God and

20 Τω δε Θεω και παour Father be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

τρι ημων η δοξα εις τες αι.

ώνας των αιώνων. Αμην. 21 Salute every saint in


Ασσασασθε παντα Christ Jesus. The brethren which are with me greet

αγιον εν Χριςο Ιησε. Ασ

σαζονται υμας οι συν εμοι you.

αδελφοι. 22 All the faints falute

22 Ασπαζονται υμας you, chiefly they that are

παντες οι αγιοι, μαλιςα δε of Cæsar's household.

οι εκ της Καισαρος οικιας. 23 The

grace Lord Jefas Chrit δε with ημών Ιησε Χριςκαι μετα παν

23 Η χαρις τε Κυρια you all. Amen.

των υμων. Αμην.

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of our

Ver. 19. According to his riches in glory. Beza thinks ev dočn, here may be translated gloriously. Ver. 20. To God even our Father.

Θεα και πατρι ημων, may be rendered, 'To our God and Father. But the sense is the fame.

Ver, 21. The brethren who are with me. As the brethren are diftinguished from the faints, ver. 22. they are suppofed to be his fellow labourers in the gospel

, mentioned in the end of his epiltles to the Colossians and to Philemon; namely, Ariftarchas, Mark, Jesus called Justus, Epaphras, Luke, and Demas.

Ver. 22. And especially those of Cæfar's household. Kascope 018425. This may fignify either the members of Cefar's family, or his household fervants, or the officers of his court, or his guards. Some of the ancients pretend that Paul held an epistolary correspondence with See neca Nero's preceptor. But there is no evidence of this.-Among the emperor's domestics there were Jewish Naves, who having heard the apostle, or some other perfon preach the gospel at Rome, had embraced the Christian faith. Also, there may have been in Nero's family natives of Rome, who being impreffed with the truth of the gospel, had become Christians. Nay, the apostle may have been favourably regarded by Poppea the emperor's wife. For Josephus, who was introduced to her by fome of her Jewish flaves, (see Philip.i. 13. note 1.) and was acquainted with her character, tells us, Antiq. lib. XX. c. 7. Seos: Gns youę ny that she was a wershipper of the true God, or a Jewifla profelyte of the gate. This she might be, though in other

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19 (A:) But my God 19 But though I can make no rewill supply all your wants, turn to you in kind, ye shall feel no throChrist Jesus, accord- want through your liberality to me. ing to his riches in glory.' For God whom I serve will supply all

your wants through Christ Jesus, according to the greatness of the power which Christ, as governor of the world, exercises in his glorious state of

exaltation. 20 (4£, 106.) Where- 20 Wherefore let us join heartily fore to God even our Fa: in afcribing to God even our Father, ther,' Be the glory for who hath exceedingly loved us in ever and ever. Amen. Christ, the glory of infinite good

ness; and let us do so for ever and

Amen. 21 Salute every saint 21 Wish health in my name to every in Christ Jesus. The one in your city, who professeth to bebrethren' who are with lieve and obey Christ Jesus. The me falute you.

preachers of the gospel who are with me,

wish you health. 22 All the saints salute 22. All the Christians in Rome you, and especially those of wish you health, and especially the Cæfar's household. Christians in Cafar's family, who by

this teftify their esteem of you, as on account of your faith, so on ac

count of your affection to me. 23 The grace of

23 I now give you my apoftolical Lord Jesus Christ BE benediction : May that favour of our with you all. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, which he bestows (See Ephes, vi. 24. note.) on his faithful disciples, remain with

you all. Amen.



respects sufficiently blameable. Here, Beza remarks, what else wa's this, but that God reigned in the midst of hell. The falutation from the brethren in the emperor's family, must have been a great consolation to the Philippians. For when they heard that the gospel had got, footing in the palace, they would naturally presage the farther progress of it in Rome. And the respect which persons, such as the Christians in Cæsar's house, expressed for the Philippians, could not fail to fill them with joy:-To conclude, though the apostle hath not mentioned it in any of his letters, we may believe that not long after this epistle was written, he obtained, a fair hearing and an honourable release, through the good offices of the Christians in Nero's family, as well as on account of the justice of his cause.

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