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him that had the next; as supposing that the general would die among them immediately: for they thought death, if Josephus might but die with them, sweeter than life: yet was he with another left to the last, whether we must say it happened so by chance, or whether by the providence of God. And as he was very desirous, neither to be condemned by the lot, nor, if he had been left to the last, to imbrue his right hand in the blood of his countryman, he persuaded him to trust his fidelity to him, and to live as well as himself.

8. Thus Josephus escaped in the war with the Romans and in this his own war with his friends, and was led by Nicanor to Vespasian. But now all the Romans ran together to see him; and as the multitude pressed one upon another about their general, there was a tumult of a various kind; while some rejoiced that Josephus was taken, and some threatened him, and some crowded to see him very near; but those that were more remote cried out to have this their enemy put to death, while those that were near called to mind the actions he had done, and a deep concern appeared at the change of his fortune. Nor were there any of the Roman commanders, how much soever they had been enraged at him before, but relented when he came to the sight of him. Above all the rest, Titus's own valour, and Josephus's own patience under his afflictions, made bim pity him, as did also the commiseration of his age, when he recalled to mind th but a little while ago he was fighting, but lay now in the hands of his enemies, which made him consider the power of fortune, and how quick is the turn of affairs in war, and how no state of men is sure : for which reason he then made a great many more to be of the same pitiful temper with himself, and induced them to commiserate Josephus. He was also of great weight in persuading his father to preserve him. However, Vespasian gave strict orders that he should be kept with great caution, as though he would, in a very little time, send him to Nero.

9. When Josephus heard him give these orders, he said that he had somewhat in his mind that he would willingly say to himself alone. When, therefore, they were all ordered to withdraw, excepting Titus and two of their friends, he said, “ Thon, () Vespasian, thinkest no more than that thou hast taken Josephus himself captive; but I am come to thee as a messenger of greater tidings; for had not I been sent by God to thee, I knew what was the law* of the Jews in this case, and

* I do not know where to find the law of Moses here mentioned by Josephus, and afterward by Eleazar, B. vii. eh. viii. sect. 7 ; and almost implied in B. i. ch. xiii. sect. 10, by Josephus's commendation of Phasaelus for doing so; I mean whereby Jewish generals and people were obliged to kill themselves, tather than go into slavery under heathens. I doubt this would have been no better than self-murder; and I believe it was rather some vain doctrine, or interpretation of the rigid Pharisees, or Essens, or Herodians, than a just consequence from any · law of God delivered by Moses.

how it becomes generals to die. Dost thou send me to Nero? For why? Are Nero's successors till they come to thee still alive! Thou, O Vespasian, art Cæsar and emperor, thou and this thy son. Bind me now still faster, and keep me for thyself; for thou, O Cæsar, art not only lord over me, but over the land and the sea and all mankind; and certainly I deserve to be kept in closer custody than I now am in, in order to be punished, if I rashly affirm any thing of God.” When he had said this, Vespasian at present did not believe him, but supposed that Josephus said this, as a cunning trick, in order to his own preservation; but in a little time he was convinced, and believed what he said to be true, God himself erecting his expectations, 80 as to think of obtaining the empire, and by other signs foreshowing his advancement. He also found Josephus to have spoken truth on other occasions : for one of those friends that were present at that secret conference said to Josephus,—“I cannot but wonder how thou couldest not foretel to the people of Jotapata that they should be taken, nor couldest foretel this captivity which hath happened to thyself, unless what thou now sayest be a vain thing, in order to avoid the rage that is risen against thyself.” To which Josephus replied, " I did foretel to the people of Jotapata, that they would be taken on the forty-seventh day, and that I should be caught alive by the Romans.”. Now when Vespasian had inquired of the captives privately about these predictions, he found them to be true, and then he began to believe those that concerned himself. Yet did he not set Josephus at liberty from his bands, but bestowed on him suits of clothes, and other precious gifts; he treated him also in a very obliging manner, and continued so to do, Titus still joining his interest in the honours that were done him,

CHAP. IX. How Joppa was taken, and Tiberias delivered up. § 1. Now Vespasian returned to Ptolemais on the fourth day of the month Panemus [Tamuz], and from thence he came to Cæsarea, which lay by the seaside. This was a very great city of Judea, and for the greatest part inhabited by Greeks: the citizens here received both the Roman army and its general with all sorts of acclamations and rejoicings, and this partly out of the good will they bore to the Romans, but principally out of the hatred they bore to those that were conquered by them; on which account they came clamouring against Josephus in crowds, and desired he might be put to death. But Vespasian passed over this petition concerning him, as offered by the injudicious multitude, with a bare silence. Two of the legious

also he placed at Cæsarea, that they might there take their winter-quarters, as perceiving the city very fit for such a purpose; but he placed the tenth and the fifth at Scythopolis, that he might not distress Cæsarea with the entire army. This place was warm, even in winter, as it was suffocating hot in the summer-time, by reason of its situation in a plain, and near to the sea [of Galilee).

2. In the mean time there were gathered together as well such as had seditiously got out from among their enemies, as those that had escaped out of the demolished cities, which were in all a great number, and repaired Joppa, which had been left desolate by Cestius, that it might serve them for a place of refuge; and because the adjoining region had been laid waste in the war, and was not capable of supporting them, they determined to go off to sea. They also built themselves a great many piratical ships, and turned pirates upon the seas near to Syria, and Phoenicia, and Egypt, and made those seas unnavigable to all men. Now as soon as Vespasian knew of their conspiracy, he sent both footmen and horsemen to Joppa, who entered the city, which was unguarded, in the nighttime; however, those that were in it perceived that they should be attacked, and were afraid of it; yet did they not endeavour to keep the Romans out, but fled to their ships, and lay at sea all night out of the reach of their darts.

3. Now Joppa is not naturally a haven, for it ends in a rough shore, where all the rest of it is strait, but the two ends bend towards each other, where there are deep precipices, and great stones that jet out into the sea, and where the chains wherewith Andromeda was bound have left their footsteps, which attest to the antiquity of that fable. But the north wind opposes and beats upon the shore, and dashes mighty waves against the rocks which receive them, and renders the haven more dangerous than the country they had deserted. Now as these people of Joppa were floating about in this sea, in the morning there fell a violent wind upon them; it is called by those that sail there the black north wind, and there dashed their ships one against another, and dashed some of them against the rocks, and carried many of them by force, while they strove against the opposite waves, into the main sea; for the shore was so rocky, and had so many of the enemy upon it, that they were afraid to come to land; nay, the waves rose so very high that they drowned them: nor was there any place whither they could fly, nor any way to save themselves, while they were thrust out of the sea by the violence of the wind, if they staid where they were, and out of the city, by the violence of the Romans. And much lamentation there was when the ships were dashed against one another, and a terrible noise when they were broken to pieces; and some

of the multitude that were in them were covered with waves. and so perished, and a great many were embarrassed with shipwrecks. But some of them thought, that to die by their own swords was lighter than by the sea, and so they killed themselves before they were drowned ; although the greatest part of them were carried by the waves, and dashed to pieces against the abrupt parts of the rock, insomuch that the sea was bloody a long way, and the maritime parts were full of dead bodies; for the Romans came upon those that were carried to the shore, and destroyed them; and the number of the bodies that were thus thrown out of the sea was four thousand and two hundred. The Romans also took the city without opposition, and utterly demolished it.

4. And thus was Joppa taken twice by the Romans in a little time; but Vespasian, in order to prevent these pirates from coming thither any more, erected a camp there, where the citadel of Joppa had been, and left a body of horse in it, with a few footmen, that these last might stay there and guard the camp, and the horsemen might spoil the country that lay round it, and might destroy the neighbouring villages and smaller cities. So these troops overran the country, as they were ordered to do, and every day cut to pieces and laid desolate the whole region.

5. But now, when the fate of Jotapata was related at Jerusalem, a great many at the first disbelieved it, on account of the vastness of the calamity, and because they had no eyewitness to attest the truth of what was related about it; for not one person was saved to be a messenger of that news, but a fame was spread abroad at random, that the city was taken, as such fame usually spreads bad news abont. However, the truth was known by degrees from the places near Jotapata, and appeared to all to be too true. Yet were there fictitious stories added to what was really done; for it was reported that Josephus was slain at the taking of the city, which piece of news filled Jerusalem full of sorrow. In every house also, and among all to whom any of the slain were allied, there was a lamentation for them; bůt the mourning for the commander was a public one, and some mourned for those that had lived with them, others for their kindred, others for their friends, and others for their brethren, but all mourned for Josephus; insomuch that the lamentation did not cease in the city before the thirtieth day, and a great many hired mourners *, with their pipes, who should begin their melancholy ditties for them.

6. But as the truth came out in time, it appeared how the * These public mourners, hired upon the supposed death of Josephus, and the real death of many more, illustrate soine passages in the Bible, which suppose the same customs, as Matt. xi. 17, where ihe reader may consult the notes of Grotius.

affairs of Jotapata really stood; yet was it found that the death of Josephus was a fiction; and when they understood that he was alive, and was among the Romans, and that the commanders treated him at another rate than they treated captives, they were as vehemently angry at him now as they had showed their good will before, when he appeared to have been dead. He was also abused by some as having been a coward, and by others as a deserter: and the city was full of indignation at him, and of reproaches cast upon him; their rage was also aggravated by their afflictions, and more inflamed by their ill success; and what usually becomes an occasion of caution to wise

men, I mean affliction, became a spur to them to venture on farther calamities, and the end of one misery became still the beginning of another; they, therefore, resolved to fall on the Romans the more vehemently, as resolving to be revenged on him in revenging themselves on the Romans. And this was the state of Jerusalem as to the troubles which now came upon it.

7. But Vespasian, in order to see the kingdom of Agrippa, while the king persuaded him himself so to do (partly in order to his treating the general and his army in the best and most splendid manner his private affairs would enable him to do, and partly that he might, by their means, correct such things as were amiss in his government), he removed from that Cæsarea which was by the seaside, and went to that which is called Casarea Philippi*; and there he refreshed his army for twenty days, and was himself feasted by King Agrippa, where he also returned public thanks to God for the good success he had in his undertakings. But as soon as he was informed that Tiberias was fond of innovations, and that Taricheæ had revolted, both which cities were parts of the kingdom of Agrippa, and was satisfied within himself that the Jews were every where perverted (from their obedience to their governors], he thought it seasonable to make an expedition against these cities, and that for the sake of Agrippa, and in order to bring his cities to reason. So he sent away his son Titus to [the other] Cæsarea, that he might bring the army that lay there to Scythopolis, which is the largest city of Decapolis, and in the neighbourhood of Tiberias, whither he came, and where he waited for his son. He then came with three legions, and pitched his canıp thirty furlongs off Tiberias, at a certain station easily seen by the innovators; it is named Sennabris. He also sent Valerian, a decurion, with fifty horsemen, to speak peaceably to those that were in the city, and to exhort them to give him assurances of their

* Of this Cæsarea Philippi (twice mentioned in our New Testament, Matthew, xvi. 13; Mark, viii. 27), there are coins still extant, as Spanheim here

informs us.

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