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he settled his abode : where he also had was alive, the posterity of Cain became exchildren. However, he did not accept of his ceeding wicked; every one successively dypunishment in order to amendment, but to in- ing one after another more wicked than the crease his wickedness; for he only aimed to former. They were intolerable in war, and procure every thing that was for his own vehement in robberies, and if any one were bodily pleasure, though it obliged him to be slow to murder people, yet was he bold in injurious to his neighbours. He augmented his his profligate behaviour in acting unjustly household substance with much wealth by ra and doing injuries for gain. pine and violence; he excited his acquaint Now Adam, who was the first man, and ance to procure pleasure and spoils by rob made out of the earth (for our discourse must bery; and became a great leader of men into now be about him,) after Abel was slain, and wicked courses. He also introduced a change Cain fled away on account of his murder, was in that way of simplicity wherein men lived solicitous for posterity, and had a vehement before, and was the author of measures and desire for children, he being two hundred and weights. And whereas they lived innocently thirty years old, after which time he lived and generously while they knew nothing of other seven hundred, and then died. He had such arts, he changed the world into cunning indeed, many other children, but Seth in and craftiness. He first of all set boundaries particular. As for the rest it would be tedious. about lands; he built a city, and fortified it to name them: I will therefore only endeawith walls, and he compelled his family to vour to give an account of those that
procome together to it: and called that city ceeded from Seth. Now this Seth, when he Enoch, after the name of his eldest* son. Now was brought up, and came to those years in Jared was the son of Enoch, whose son was which he could discern what was good, beMalaliel, whose son was Mathusela, whose son came a virtuous man; and as he was himself was Lamech, who had seventy-seven children of an excellent character, so did he leave|| by two wives, Silla and Ada. Of those chil children behind him who imitated his virtues. dren by Ada, one was Jubal: he erected tents, All these proved to be of good dispositions ; and loved the life of a shepherd. But Jubal, they also inhabited the same country without who was born of the same mother with him, dissensions, and in happy condition, without exercised himself in music,t and invented the any misfortunes falling upon them, till they psaltery and the harp. Tubal, one of his died. They also were the inventors of that children by the other wife, exceeded all men peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned in strength, and was very expert and famous with the heavenly bodies, and their order. in martial performances; he procured what And that their inventions 'might not be lost tended to the pleasures of the body by that before they were sufficiently known, upon: method, and first invented the art of making Adam's prediction that the world was to be brass; Lamech also was the father of a daugh-destroyed at one time by the force of fire, ter whose name was Naamah. And because and at another time by the violence and. he was so skilful in matters of divine revela quantity of water, they made two pillars :S tion, that he knew he was to be punished for the one of brick, the other of stone; they inCain's murder of his brother, he made that scribed their discoveries on them both, that in known to his wives. Nay, even while Adam case the pillar of brick should be destroyed * Gen. iv. 17.
son of Adam, for Seth or Sesostris King of Egypt, the † From this Jubal not improbably came Jobel, the erector of these pillars, in the land of Siriad, see Essay on trumpet of Jobel, or Jubilee : that large and loud musical the Old Testament, Appendix, page 159-160. Although instrument used in proclaiming the liberty at the Year of the main of this relation might be true, and Adam might Jubilee.
foretel a conflagration and a deluge, which all antiquity wit# The number of Adam's children, as says the old tra nesses to be an ancient tradition ; and, Seth's posterity dition, was thirty-three sons, and twenty-three daughters. might engrave their inventions in astronomy on two such:
| What is here said of Seth and his posterity, that they pillars ; yet it is no way credible that they could survive were very good and virtuous, and at the same time very the deluge, which buried all such pillars and edifices far happy, without any considerable misfortunes for seven ge under ground, in the sediment of its waters; especially nerations, is exactly agreeable to the state of the world, since the like pillars of the Egyptian Seth or Sesostris were and the conduct of Providence in all the first ages.
extant, after the flood, in the land of Siriad, and perhaps & Of Josephus's mistake here, when he took Seth the l in the days of Josephus also.
by the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, || they had married, so he departed out of that and exhibit those discoveries to mankind; land. and also inform them that there was another Now God loved this man for his righteouspillar of brick erected by them. Now this ness, yet he not only condemned those other remains in the land of Siriad, to this day. men for their wickedness, but determined to CHAP. III.
destroy the whole race of mankind, and to
make another race that should be pure from OF THE DELUGE: NOAH'S PRESERVATION IN AN ARK, AND wickedness, and cutting short their lives, and HIS SUBSEQUENT DEBARKATION AND DEATH.
making their years not so many as they forTHE posterity of Seth continued to esteem merly enjoyed, but one hundred and twenty
God as the Lord of the universe, and to only, he turned the dry land into sea. And have an entire regard to virtue for seven ge thus were all these men destroyed. But Noah nerations; but in process of time they were alone was saved, for God suggested to him perverted, and forsook the practices of their the following contrivance and way of
of escape: forefathers, and did neither pay those honours -That he should make an ark of four stories to God which were appointed them, nor had high, three hundred cubits|| long, fifty cubits they any concern to justice towards men. But broad, and thirty cubits high. Accordingly for what degree of zeal they had formerly he entered into that ark, with his wife, and evinced for virtue, they now shewed by their his sons and their wives, and put into it, not actions a double degree of wickedness; only provisions to support their wants there, whereby they made God to be their enemy. but also sent in with the rest, all sorts of For many angels* of Godt accompanied with living creatures, the male and his female, for women, and begat sons that proved unjust, the preservation of their kinds: and others of and despisers of all that was good, on account them by sevens.
Now this ark had firm of the confidence they had in their own walls, and a roof; and was braced with cross strength; for the tradition is, that these men beams, so that it could not be'any way did what resembled the acts of those whom drowned, or overturned by the violence of the Grecians call giants. But Noah was very the water: thus was Noah, with his family, uneasy at what they did ; and being dis preserved. Now he was the tenth from Adam, pleased at their conduct, persuaded them to as being the son of Lamech, whose father change their dispositions and their actions was Methusela: he was the son of Enoch, the for the better. But seeing they did not yield son of Jared; and Jared was the son of Mato him, but were slaves to their wicked plea- laleel; who, with many of his sisters, were sures, he was afraid they would kill him, to the children of Cain, the son of Enos: now gether with his wife and children, and those Enos was the son of Seth, the son of Adam.
* This notion that the fallen angels were in some sense # A cubit is about twenty-one English inches. the fathers of the old giants, was the constant opinion of § The timber of which the Ark was framed, Moses calls antiquity.
Gopher wood; but what tree this Gopher was, is not a little † Gen. vi. 4.
controverted. Some will have it to be the cedar, others † Josephus here supposes, that the life of these giants, the pine, others the box, and others (particularly the Mafor of them only do I understand him, was now reduced hometans) the Indian plane tree. But our learned Fuller, to one hundred and twenty years; for as to the rest of in his miscellanies, has observed, that it was nothing else mankind, Josephus himself confesses their lives were but that which the Greeks call Kutapiocos, or the
cypress much longer than one hundred and twenty years, for many tree; for, taking away the termination, cupar and gopher difgenerations after the flood, as we shall see presently: and fer very little in the sound. This observation the great he says they were gradually shortened till the days of Mo Bochart has confirmed, and shown very plainly, that no ses, and then fixed for some time at one hundred and twenty. country abounds so much with this wood, as that part of Nor indeed need we suppose, that either Enoch or Jose Assyria which lies about Babylon. To this we may add the phus meant to interpret these qne hundred and twenty observation of Theophrastus, who speaking of trees that years for the life of men before the flood to be different are least subject to decay, makes the cypress the most durafrom the one hundred and twenty years of God's patience, ble ; for which Bitruvius gives this reason, that the sap, (perhaps while the Ark was preparing) till the deluge ; which is in every part of the wood, has a peculiarly bitter which I take to be the meaning of God when he threatened taste, and is so very offensive, that no worm or other corrothis wicked world, that if they so long continued impenitent, ding animal will touch it, so that such things as are made of their days should be no more than one hundred and twenty this wood, will in a manner last for ever. Universal Ilist. B. years.
** Gen. vii. 2,
This calamity happened in the six hun- || hundred and eighty-seven years of age; to dreth year of Noah's government or age, in
whom he delivered the government when he the second month,* called by the Macedo had retained it nine hundred and sixty-nine nians, Dius; but by the Hebrews, Marhesvan; years. Now Lamech, when he had governed for so did they order their year in Egypt.
seven hundred and seventy-seven years, apBut Moses appointed that Nisan, which is the pointed Noah his son to be ruler of the peosame with Xanthicus, should be the first ple; who was born to Lamech when he was month; so that this month began the year, as one hundred and eighty-two years old, and to all the solemnities they observed in honour retained the government nine hundred and of God: although he preserved the original fifty years. These years, collected together, order of the months as to buying and selling, make up the sum before set down. But and other ordinary affairs. Now he says, let no one inquire into the deaths of these that this flood began on the seventeenth day men, for they extended their lives all along, of the before-mentioned month; and this was together with their children and grandchilone thousand five hundred and fifty-six years dren: but let him have regard to their births from Adam the first man; and the time is only. written down in our sacred books, thoset When God gave the signal, and it began to who then lived having noted down, with great | rain, the water poured down forty intire days, accuracy, both the births and deaths of illus till it became fifteen cubitsf higher than the trious men.
earth; which was the reason why there were For indeed Seth was born when Adam was no greater number preserved, since they had in his two hundred and thirtieth year: who no place to fly to. When the rain ceased, the lived nine hundred and thirty years. Seth water did but just begin to abate after one begat Enoch in his two hundred and fifth hundred and fifty days, that is, on the sevenyear; who, when he had lived nine hundred teenth day of the seventh month. After this and twelve years, delivered the government the Ark rested on the top of a certain mounto Cain his son; whom he had at his hundred tain in Armenia; which, when Noah underand ninetieth year. He lived nine hundred stood, he opened it, and seeing a small piece and five years. Cain, when he had lived nine of land about it, he continued quiet, and conhundred and ten years, had his son Malaleel, ceived some hopes of deliverance. But a few who was born in his hundred and seventieth days afterward, when the water was decreased year. This Malaleel having lived eight hun to a greater degree, he sent out a raven, as dred and ninety-five years, died, leaving his desirous to learn whether any other part of son Jared, whom he begat when he was at his the earth was left dry by the water, and whehundred and sixty-fifth year. He lived nine ther he might go out of the Ark with safety; hundred and sixty-two years: and then his but the raven, finding all the land still overson Enoch succeeded him; who was born flowed, returned to Noah again. But after when his father was one hundred and sixty seven days he sent out a dove, to know the two years old. Now he, when he lived three state of the ground, which came back to him hundred and sixty-five years, departed and
covered with mud, and bringing an olive went to God. Whence it is that they have branch. Hereby Noah learned that the earth not written down his death. Now Mathusela, was become clear of the flood. So after he the son of Enoch, who was born to him when had stayed seven more days, he sent the living he was one hundred and sixty-five years old, creatures out of the Ark, and both he and had Lamech for his son, when he was one his family went out; when he also sacrificed
Josephus here truly determines, that the year at the alogies were first set down by those that then lived, and flood began about the Autumnal Equinox. As to what day from them were transmitted down to posterity : which ] of the month the flood began, our Hebrew and Samaritan, suppose to be the true account of that matter; for there is and, perhaps, Josephus's own copy, more rightly placed it no reason to imagine that men were not taught to read and on the 17th day instead of the 27th, as here ; for Josephus write soon after they were taught to speak; and perhaps agrees with them as to the distance of one hundred and all by the Messiah himself, who, under the father, was the fifty days to the 17th day of the seventh month, as Gen. creator or governor of mankind, and who frequently, in vii. ult. with vin. 3.
those early days, appeared to them. † Josephus here takes notice, that these ancient gene I Gen. vii. 20