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but from Javan and Jonia all the Grecians parts, and keeping them as their own. Some, are derived. Thobel founded the Thobelites, indeed, of its names are utterly vanished: now called Iberes: and the Mosocheni, now others of them being changed, and another called Cappadocians, were founded by Mo sound given them, are hardly to be discoversoph. There is also a mark of their ancient ed; yet there are a few which have kept denomination still to be shewn, for there is their denominations entire; for of the four even now among them a city called Mazaca, sons of Ham, time has not at all hurt the name which may inform those who are able to un of Chus; for the Ethiopians, over whom he derstand, that so was the nation once called. reigned, are even at this day, both by themThiras also called those whom he ruled over selves and by all men in Asia, called ChuThirasians, but the Greeks changed the name sites. The memory also of the Mesraites is into Thracians; and so many were the coun preserved in their name, for all we who intries that had the children of Japhet for their habit the country of Judea cali Egypt Mestre, inhabitants.

and the Egyptians Mestrians. Phut also was Of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanax the founder of Libya, and called the inhabifounded the Aschanaxians, who are now tants Phutites, from himself; there is also a called by the Greeks Rheginians; Riphath river in the country of the Moors which bears founded the Ripheans, now called Paphlago that name, whence the greatest part of the nians; and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, Grecian historians mention that river, and the who, as the Greeks resolved, were named adjoining country, by the appellation of Phut; Phrygians. Of the three sons of Javan also, but the name it has now is derived from one the son of Japhet. Elisa gave name to the of the sons of Mestraim, who was called Eliseans, who were his subjects; they are Lybyos. We will inform you presently what now the Æolians. Tharsus to the Tharsians, has been the occasion why it has been called for so was Cilicia of old called; the sign of Africa also. Canaan, the fourth son of Ham, which is, that the noblest city they have, and inhabited the country now called Judea, and a metropolis also, is Tausus, the letter Tau called it from his own name Canaan. The being by change put for Theta. Cethimus children of these four were, Sabas, who possessed the island Cethima. It is now called founded the Sabeans: Evilas, who founded Cyprus, and from that all islands, and the the Evileans, now called Getuli; Sabathes, greatest part of the sea-coasts, are named who founded the Sabathens, called by the Cethim by the Hebrews; and one city there Greeks Astoborans; Sabactas, who settled the is in Cyprus that has been able to preserve Sabactens: and Ragmus, who founded the its denomination; it is called Citius by those Ragmeans. This latter had two sons, one of who use the language of the Greeks, and has whom, Judadas, settled the Judadeans, a nanot, by the use of that dialect, escaped the tion of the western Ethiopians, and left them name of Cethim; and so many nations have his name; as did Sabas, to the Sabeans. But the children and grand-children of Japhet Nimrod, the son of Chus, stayed and tyranpossessed. Now when I have premised some nized at Babylon, as we have already obwhat which, perhaps, the Greeks do not know, served. I will return and explain what I have omitted; Now all the children of Mesraim, being for such names are pronounced here after the eight in number, possessed the country from manner of the Greeks, to please my readers, Gaza to Egypt, though it retained the name for our own language does not so pronounce of one only, the Philistim, for the Greeks call them; but the names in all cases are of one part of that country Palestine. As for the and the same ending; for the name we here rest, Ludieim, Enemim, and Labim, who alone pronounce Noeus, is there Noah, and in every inhabited Libya, and called the country from case retains the same termination.

himself; Nedim and Phethrosim, and ChesThe children of Ham possessed the land loim and Cephthorim, we know nothing of from Syria and Amanus, and the mountains them besides their names: for the Ethiopic of Libanus, seizing upon all the maritime war, which we shall describe hereafter,

* One observation ought not here to be neglected, with regard to that Ethiopic war, which Moses, as General of

was the cause that those cities were over city Ninive, and named his subjects Assyrians, thrown.

who became the most fortunate nation beyond The sons of Canaan were these; Sidonius, others.. Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who built a city of the same name, but called who are now called Chaldeans. Aram had by the Greeks Sidon; Amathus inbabited the Aramites, whom the Greeks call Syrians; Amathine, which is even now called Amathe as Lud founded the Ludites, who are now by the inhabitants, although the Macedonians called Lydians. Of the four sons of Aram, named it Epiphania, from one of his pos Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus; this terity; Arudeus possessed the island Aradeus; country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Arucus possessed Arce, which is in Libanus. UI founded Armenia; and Gather the BacBut of the seven others, Chetteus, Jebuceus, trians; and Mesa the Mesaneans: it is now Amorreus, Gergesseus, Eudeus, Sineus, and called Charax Spasina. Sala was the son of Samareus, we have nothing in the sacred Arphaxad: and his son was Heber, from books but their names; for the Hebrews whom they originally called the Jews Heoverthrew their cities, and their calamities brews.f Heber begat Joctan and Phaleg. came upon them on the occasion following. He was called Phaleg because he was born |

When, after the deluge, the earth was re at the dispersion of the nations to their sesettled in its former condition; Noah set veral countries, for Phaleg among the Heabout its cultivation, and planted it with brews signifies division. Now Joctan, one vines; and when the fruit was ripe, and he of the sons of Heber had these sons, Elmohad gathered the grapes in their season, and dad, Saleph, Asermoth, Jera, Adoram, Aizel, the wine was ready for use, he offered sacri Decla, Ebal, Abimeal, Sabeus, Ophir, Euilar, fice, and feasted; and being inebriated, he and Jobab: these inhabited from Cophen, an fell asleep, and lay naked in an unseemly Indian river, and in part of Asia adjoining to manner.* When his youngest son saw this, it; and this may suffice concerning the sons he came laughing, and shewed him to his of Shem. brethren, but they covered their father's I will now treat of the Hebrews. The son nakedness; and when Noah was made sen of Phaleg, whose father was Heber, was Rasible of what had been done, he prayed for gau, whose son was Serug, to whom was born prosperity to his other sons; but for Ham, he Nahor; his son was Terah, who was the did not curse him by reason of his nearness father of Abraham, who accordingly was the in blood, but cursed his posterity, and when tenthŞ from Noah, who was born in the two the rest of them escaped that curse, God hundred and ninety-second year after the inflicted it on the children of Canaan. But of deluge: for Terah begat Abram in his seventhese matters we shall speak more hereafter. tieth year. Nahor begat Haran when he was

Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons,t one hundred and twenty years old : Nahor who inhabited the land that began at Eu was born to Serug at his hundred and thirtyphrates, and reached to the Indian ocean. second year; Ragau had Serug at one hunFor Elam left behind him the Elamites, the dred and thirty; at the same age also Phaleg ancestors of the Persians. Ashur lived at the had Ragau; Heber begat Phaleg in his hun

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the Egyptians, put an end to, II. 10. and about which modern writers seem very much unconcerned ; viz. that it was a war of that consequence, as to occasion the removal or destruction of six or seven nations of the posterity of Mesraim, with their cities, which Josephus would not have said, if he had not had ancient records to justify his assertions, though those records be now lost.

* Gen. ix. 21. † Gen. x. 21.

# That the Jews were called Hebrews from their progenitor Heber, our author Josephus here rightly affirms; and not from Abram the Hebrew, or passenger over Euphrates, as many of the moderns suppose. Shem is also called the Father of all the Children of Heber, or of all the

Hebrews in a history long before Abram passed over
Euphrates. Gen. x. 21.

ll If Phaleg were so called at his birth, as Josephus here
rightly asserts, it is plain the short Hebrew, or Masorete
chronology was not the chronology of Josephus, by which
the confusion of languages, and the dispersion of mankind
fell no later than the 100th year after the deluge, which is
impossible to be supposed, and is a great deal too soon for
such confusion of languages and dispersion of mankind,
which, by the best chronology, did not happen till 300
years later, or till 400 years after the flood.

§ Therefore the second Cainan is spurious. See Bernard's note.

dred and thirty-fourth year, he himself being || then to have concerning God; for he was the begotten by Sala when he was a hundred and first who ventured to publish this notion that thirty years old : whom Arphaxad had for his there was but one God, the creator of the son at the hundred and thirty-fifth year of his universe; and that as to other gods, if they age. Arphaxad was the son of Shem, and contributed to the happiness of men, that born twelve years after the deluge. Now each of them afforded it according to his apAbram had two brethren, Nahor and Haran; pointment, and not by their own power. This of these, Haran left a son, Lot: as also Sarai opinion was derived from the irregular pheand Milcha, his daughters; and died among nomena that were visible both at land and the Chaldeans, in a city of the Chaldeans sea; as well as those that happen to the sun called Ur, and his monument is shewn to this and moon, and all the heavenly bodies, thus : day. These married their nieces; Nahor - If,” said hé, " these bodies had power of married Milcha, and Abram married Sarai. their own they would certainly take care of Now Terah hating Chaldea on occount of his their own regular motions; but since they do mourning for Haran, they all removed to not preserve such regularity, they make it Haran of Mesopotamia, where Terah* died, plain that so far as they operate to our ad and was buried, when he had lived to be

vantage, they do it of their own abilities bu two hundred and five years old ; for the life as they are subservient to him that commands of man was already, by degrees, diminished, them; to whom alone we ought justly to offer and became shorter than before, till the birtht our honour and thanksgiving." For which of Moses, after whom the term of human life doctrines when the Chaldeans and other was one hundred and twenty years, God de- people of Mesopotamia raised a tumult termining it to the length that Moses hap- || against him, he thought fit to leave that counpened to live. Now Nahor had eight sons try; and at the command and by the assistby Milcha; Uz and Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, ance of God, he came and lived in the land Azau, Pheldas, Jadelph, and Bethuel. These of Canaan.|| And when he was there settled, were all the genuine sons of Nahor; for Teba he built an altar, and performed a sacrifice and Gaam, and Tachas and Maaca, were to God. born of Reuma his concubine; but Bethuel Berosus mentions our father Abram withhad a daughter Rebecca, and a son Laban. out naming him, when he says, “ In the tenth

generation after the flood, there was among

the Chaldeans a man, righteous and great, CHAP. VII.

and skilful in the celestial science." But He

cateus does more than barely mention him; OF ABRAM'S REMOVAL FROM

for he composed and left behind him a book DEANS, TO THE LAND THEN CALLED CANAAN, BUT NOW

concerning him. And Nicolaus of Damascus,

in the fourth book of his history, says, “ Abram BRAM having no sons of his own, reigned at Damascus; being a foreigner, who

adopted Lot, his brother Haran's son, came with an army out of the land above and his wife Sarai's brother: he left the land

Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans. of Chaldea, when he was seventy-five years But after a long time he removed from that old; and at the command of Godt went into country also, with his people, and went into Canaan, and therein he dwelt himself, and the land then called the land of Canaan, but left it to his posterity. He was a person

of now the land of Judea: and this when his great sagacity, both for understanding all posterity were become a multitude; as to things, and persuading his hearers; and not which posterity of his we relate their history mistaken in his opinions, for which reason he in another work. Now the name of Abram is began to have higher notions of virtue than even still famous in the country of Damasothers had; and he determined to reform cus; and there is shewn a village named and change the opinion all men happened from him, The Habitation of Abram." An. 1962.

| Gen. xi. 1 † An. 1612.

Gen, xii. 5.

TIIE COUNTRY OF THE CHAL

JUDEA.

A

*

CHAP. VIII.

addicted to different customs, and despised

each others sacred and accustomed rites, and OF ABRAM'S DEPARTURE INTO EGYPT IN CONSEQUENCE OF A

were angry one with another on that account: FAMINE ; AND OF HIS SUBSEQUENT RETURN.

Abram conferred with each of them, and conTOW after this, when a famine* had in futing the reasonings they made use of for

vaded the land of Canaan, and Abram their respective practices, he demonstrated had discovered that the Egyptians were in a that such reasonings were vain, and void of flourishing condition, he was disposed to go truth. Whereupon he was admired by them down to them; both to partake of the plenty in those conferences as a very wise man, and they enjoyed, and to learn what their priest one of great sagacity, when he discoursed on asserted concerning the gods: designing any subject he undertook; and this, not only either to follow them, if they had better no in understanding it, but in persuading other Lions than he; or to convert them into a bet men also to assent to him. He communicated ter way, if his own notions proved the truest to them arithmetic, and delivered to them the Now as he was to take Sarai with him, and science of astronomy. For before Abram. was afraid of the madness of the Egyptians came into Egypt they were unacquainted with regard to women, lest the king should with some parts of learning; for that science kill him on occasion of his wife's great beauty, came from the Chaldeans into Egypt, and he contrived this device: He pretended from thence to the Greeks also. to be her brother, and directed her in a As soon as Abram returned into Canaan, he dissembling way to pretend the same: for he parted the land between him and Lot, upon said, it would be for their benefit. Now as account of the tumultous behaviour of their soon as they came into Egypt, it happened to shepherds,t concerning the pastures wherein Abram as he supposed. For the fame of his they should feed their flocks. However, he wife's beauty was greatly talked of; for which gave Lot his option, or leave to choose which reason Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, would not lands he would take; and he took, himself, be satisfied with what was reported of her, what the other left; which were tlre lower but would needs see her himself. But God grounds at the foot of the mountains: and he put a stop to his unjust inclinations, by send himself dwelt in Hebron, which is a city seven ing upon him a distemper, and a sedition years ancienter than Tanis of Egypt. But against his government. And when he en Lot possessed the land of the plain and the quired of his priests, how he might be freed river Jordan, not far from the kingdom of from those calamities, they told him, that his Sodom: which was then a fine city, but is now miserable condition was derived from the destroyed, by the will and wrath of God; as wrath of God, upon account of his inclination will be shewn in its proper place hereafter. to abuse the stranger's wife. He then, out of fear, asked Sarai, who she was, and who

CHAP. IX. it was that she had brought along with her? And when he had discovered the truth, he excused himself to Abram, that supposing the woman to be his sister, and not his wife, he T this time, when Assyrians had the

desiring an affinity dominion over Asia, the people of Sodom with him by marrying her, but not as incited were in a flourishing condition; both as to by lust to abuse her. He also made him a riches and the number of their youth. There large present in money; and gave him leave to were five kings that managed the affairs of enter into conversation with the most learned this country; Ballas, Barsas, Senabir, and among the Egyptians. From which conver Sumobor, with the king of Bela; and each sation his virtue and reputation became more king led on his own troops. And the Assyriconspicuous than they had been before. ans made war upon them, and dividing their

For whereas the Egyptians were formerly army into four parts, fought against them. * Gen. xii. 10.

+ Numbers xiii. 22. Gen. xiii 7

OF THE DESTRUCTION OF THE SODOMITES BY THE ASSYRIAN

WAR.

Now every part of the army had its own day, he drove them in a body unto Hoba, I a commander, and when the battle was joined, place belonging to Damascus; and thereby the Assyrians were conquerors, and imposed demonstrated that victory does not depend a tribute upon the kings of the Sodomites, on multitude, and the number of hands, but who subunitted to this slavery twelve years; that the alacrity and courage of soldiers overand so long they continued to pay their tri come the most numerous bodies of men: bute; but on the thirteenth year they re while he got the victory over so great an belled; and then the army of the Assyrians army with no more than three hundred and came upon them, under their commanders eighteen of his servants, and three of his Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer,* and Ti friends. But all those that fled returned home dal.f These kings had laid waste all Syria, ingloriously. So Abram, when he had saved and overthrown the offspring of the giants. the captive Sodomites, who had been taken And when they were come over against So by the Assyrians, and Lot, also, his kinsman, dom, they pitched their camp at the vale, returned home in peace. called the Slimepits; for at that time there Now the king of Sodom met him at a cerwere many pits in that place; but upon the tain place, which they called the King's Dale, destruction of the city of Sodom, that vale be where Melchisedec, king of the city of Sacame the lake Asphaltites, as it is called : lem, received him. That name signifies, the however, concerning this lake, we shall speak righteous king: and such he was without dismore presently. Now when the Sodomites pute, insomuch, that on his account, he was joined battle with the Assyrians, and the fight made the priest of God. However, they was very obstinate, many of them were killed, afierwards called Salem, Jerusalem. Now and the rest were carried captive; among this Melchisedec supplied Abram's army in which captives were Lot, who had come to a hospitable manner, and gave them proassist the Sodomites.

visions in abundance: and as they were feast

ing, he began to praise him, and to bless God CHAP. X.

for subduing his enemies under him. But

when Abram gave him the tenth part of his OF ABRAM'S SUCCESSFUL ENGAGEMENT WITH THE ASSYRIANS,

prey, he accepted of the gift. But the King

of Sodom desired Abram to take the prey; THEN Abram heard of their calamity, but intreated that he might have those men

he was at once afraid for Lot, his restored to him whom Abram had saved from kinsman, and pitied the Sodomites, his friends the Assyrians because they belonged to him. and neighbours; and thinking it proper to But Abram would not do so; nor would make afford them assistance, he did not delay it, any other advantage of that prey, than what but marched hastily, and the fifth night fell his servants had eaten; but still insisted that upon

the Assyrians near Dan; for that is the he should afford a part to his friends who had name of the other spring of Jordan; and be assisted him in the battle. The first of them fore they could arm themselves he slew them was called Eschol, and the others Enner and as they were in their beds; and others, who Mambre. were not yet gone to sleep, but were so in God commended his virtue and said, toxicated they could not fight, ran away, 6. Thou shalt not, however lose the rewards Abram pursued after them till, on the second thou hast deserved to receive by such glo

* We no where in profane history meet with the name deputy at Babylon in Shinar: and Arioch and Tidal his of Chedorlaomer, nor with any of those names of the kings deputies over some other adjacent countries. For it is who were confederate with him. The reason hereof is, remarkable, that Ninyas, was the first who appointed unthat Ctesias X. from whom the profane historians take the der him such deputies : nor is there any absurdity in Monames of these kings, did not use their original Assyrian ses to call them kings, since it is observable, from what names in his history, but rather such as he found in the Isaiah hinted afterwards, chap. x. 8. that the Assyrian Persian records. However, since the date of this trans boasted his deputy princes to be equal to royal governors. action falls four years before the death of Ninyas, there Are not my princes altogether kings? Shackford's Connecare good grounds to infer, that Ninyas, who then lived in tion, Vol. II. I. 6. B. Persia, was the Chedorlaomer of Moses, at that time the | Gen. xiv. 1. head of the Assyrian monarchy: that Amraphel was his Gen. xiv. 15.

AND HIS RESCUE OF THE SODOMITE PRISONERS.

WHEN

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