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ON ACCOUNT OF THE FAMINE.

tion for the preservation of the life of Ben brother seemed to leave among them no room jamin.

for fear, lest they should be punished on acJoseph being now overcome with his affec count of what they had consulted and acted tion, and no longer able to personate an angry against him. And they were then feasting. man, commanded all that were present to Now the king, as soon as he heard that Jodepart, that he might make himself known to seph's brethren were come to him, was exhis brethren, when they were alone.* And ceeding glad of it, as if it had been part of when the rest were gone out, he discovered his own good fortune; and gave them waghimself, and said, “I commend you for your gons full of corn, and gold, and silver, to be virtue, and for your kindness to your brother; conveyed to their father. Now when they I find you better men than I could have ex had received more of their brother; part to pected from what you contrived about me. be carried to their father, and part as free gifts Indeed I did all this to try your love to your to every one of themselves, Benjamin having brother. So I believe you were not wicked still more than the rest, they departed. by nature, in what you did in my case: but that all has happened according to God's will;

CHAP. VII. who has thereby procured our enjoyment of what good things we have; and if he continue OF THE REMOVAL OF JACOB AND ALL HIS FAMILY INTO EGYPT, in a favourable disposition, of what we hope for hereafter. Since, therefore, I know that S soon as Jacob came to know by his our father is safe, and well, beyond expecta

sons' returning home, in what state Jotion; and I see you so well disposed towards seph was; that he had not only escaped death, your brother, I will no longer remember what but that he lived in splendour and happiness, guilt you seem to have had about me; but and ruled over Egypt, jointly with the king; rather return you my thanks, that you have and had intrusted to his care almost all his concurred with the intentions of God to bring affairs, he did not think any thing he was told things to their present state. I would have to be incredible, considering the greatness of you also forget the same, since that impru the works of God, and his kindness to him: dence of yours is come to such a happy con although that kindness had, for some time clusion, rather than to be uneasy and blush at past, been intermitted. So he immediately those your offences. Do not therefore, let and zealously set out upon his journey to him. your evil intentions, when you condemned When he came to the well of the oath, me, and that bitter remorse which might fol Beersheba, he offered sacrifice to God, and low, be a grief to you now: because those being afraid that the happiness there was in intentions were frustrated. Go your way, re Egypt might tempt his posterity to fall in love joicing in what has happened by the divine with it, and settle in it, and no more think of providence, and inform your father of it, lest removing into the land of Canaan, and poshe should be spent with tears for you, and de sessing it as God had promised them; also, prive me of the most agreeable part of my being afraid, lest if this descent into Egypt felicity; I mean lest he should die before he were made without the will of God, his family comes into my sight, and enjoys the good might be destroyed there, and out of fear lest things that we now have. Take therefore, he should depart this life before he came to with you our father, and your wives and chil the sight of Joseph, he fell asleep, revolving dren, and all your kindred, and remove your these doubts in his mind. habitation hither; for it is not proper that the But God stood by him, and called to him persons dearest to me should live remote from twice by his name: and when he asked who me, now my affairs are so prosperous; espe

he was? God said, “ Is it not just that thou cially when they must endure five more years Jacob shouldest be acquainted with that God of famine.” When Joseph had said this, he who has ever been a protector and a helper embraced his brethren, who were in tears and to thy forefathers, and after them to thysell sorrow; but the generous kindness of their For when thy father would have deprived

* Gen. xly, 1.

+ Gen. xlvii. 1.

VOL. 1.NO. 2.

Q

thee of the dominion, I gave it thee; and by | Opphis, and Arad. These fourteen added to my kindness it was that when thou was sent the thirty-three before enumerated, amount into Mesopotamia alone, thou obtainedst good to forty-seven: and this was the legitimate wives, and returnedst with many children, posterity of Jacob. He had beside by Bilha, and much wealth. Thy whole family, also, the handmaid of Rachael, Dan and Naphthali, has been preserved by my providence; and which last had four sons, that followed him; it was I who conducted Joseph thy son, whom Jesel, Guni, Issari, and Sellim. Dan had an thou gavest up for lost, to the enjoyment of only begotten son, Usi. If these be added to great prosperity. I also made him lord of those above-mentioned, they complete the Egypt, so that he differs but little from a king. number fifty-four. Gad and Aser were the Accordingly I come now as a guide to thee sons of Zilpha, who was the handmaid of in this journey, and foretel to thee that thou Leah. Gad had these seven sons; Saphoniah, shalt die in the arms of Joseph, and that thy | Augis, Sunis, Azabon, Aerin, Ereod, and posterity shall be many ages in authority and Ariel. Aser had a daughter, Sarah, and six glory; and I will settle them in the land male children, whose names were Jomne, Isus, which I have promised them.'

Isoui, Baris, Abar, and Melchiel. If we add Encouraged by this dream, Jacob went on these, which are sixteen, to the fifty-four, the more cheerfully for Egypt, with his sons, and afore-mentioned number, seventy, is comall belonging to them. Now they were in all pleted, Jacob* himself not being included. seventy. I once indeed thought it best not When Joseph understood that his father to set down the names of this family; espe was coming, for Judas his brother arrived cially because of their difficult pronuncia- | before him, and announced his approach, he tion by the Greeks. But upon the whole, I went out to meet him, and they met together think it necessary to mention those names; at Heroopolis. But Jacob almost fainted that I may confute such as believe that we away at this great and unexpected joy; howcame originally not out of Mesopotamia, but ever, Joseph revived him, though unable are Egyptians.

himself to refrain being affected in the same Now Jacob had twelve sons. Of these Jo manner.

Yet he was not wholly overcome seph was come thither before: we will there with his passion, as his father was. After fore set down the names of Jacob's children this he desired Jacob to travel on slowly, and grand-children. Reuben had four sons; whilst he himself took five of his brethren Anoch, Phallu, Assaron, and Charmi. Simeon with him, and hastened to the king, to tell had six; Jamuel, Jamin, Avod, Jachin, Soar, him that Jacob and his family were come. and Saul. Levi had three sons; Gersom, This was a joyful hearing to Pharaoh, who Caath, and Merari. Judas had three sons; bid Joseph tell him what sort of life his breSala, Pharez, and Zerab; and by Pharez, two thren loved to lead, that he might give them grand-children; Esrom and Amur. Isachar permission to follow the same. He said, they had four sons; Thola, Phua, Jasub, and Sa were good shepherds, and had been used to maron. Zabulon had with him three sons; follow no other employment: by which he proSarad, Helon, and Jalel.

So far is the pos

vided for them, that they should not be sepaterity of Leah, with whom went her daughter || rated, but live in the same place, and take care Dinah. These are thirty-three. Rachel had of their father; as also hereby he provided, two sons; one of whom, Joseph, had two sons that they might be acceptable to the Egypalso; Manasseh and Ephraim. The other, tians, by doing nothing that would be common Benjamin, had ten sons; Bolau, Bacchar, to them with the Egyptians; for the EgypAsabel, Geras, Naaman, Jes, Ros, Momphis, tians are prohibitedt from feeding sheep.

* All the Greek copies of Josephus have the negative she be not reckoned, Jacob himself must be one, to comparticle here, that Jacob himself was not reckoned one plete the number. of the seventy souls that came into Egypt. But the old N. B. The LXXII. add Machir, and Gilead, and SateLatin copies want it, and directly assure us he was one of laam, and Taom, and Edem, who were born in Egypt, and them. It is, therefore, hardly certain which of these was so have in all seventy-five souls : as Act. vii. 14. Josephus's true reading: since the number of seventy is † Josephus thought that the Egyptians hated or despised made up without him, if we reckon Leah for one ;, but if the employment of a shepherd in the days of Joseph..

a

When Jacob was come to the king, and sessed alone, and alone enjoyed the fruits of had saluted him, and wished all prosperity to

it. He also exhorted them to look on it as his government, Pharaoh asked how old he their own possession; to resume their labours was? Upon whose answer, that he was a of husbandry with cheerfulness; and to pay hundred and thirty years old, he admired as a tribute to the crown, the fifth partt of Jacob on account of the length of his life. the fruits of the land which the king, when it And when he had added, that still he had was his own, restored to them. These men not lived so long as his fore-fathers, he gave rejoiced upon their becoming unexpectedly him leave to live with his children in Heli owners of their land, and diligently observed opolis; for in that city the king's shepherds what was enjoined them. And by this means had their pasturage.

Joseph procured to himself a greater authoThe famine now increased among the rity among the Egyptians, and a greater love Egyptians, and this heavy judgment grew to the king from them. Now this law, that more oppressive to them, because neither did they should pay the fifth part of their fruits the river overflow the ground, for it did not as tribute, continued until the time of their rise to its former height; nor did God send

later kings. rain* upon it. Nor did they, indeed, make the least provisions for themselves, so igno

CHAP. VIII. rant were they what was to be done. But Joseph sold them corn for their money; and

OF THE DEATH OF JACOB AND JOSEPH. when their money failed them, they bought HEN Jacob had lived seventeen years corn with their cattle and their slaves; and if

in fell into any of them had a small piece of land, they died in the presence of his sons; but not till gave up that to purchase them food. By which he had made his prayers for their prosperity; means the king became the owner of all their and had foretold prophetically how every one substance; and they were removed some to of them was to dwell in the land of Canaan. one place, and some to another; that so the But this happened many years afterwards. possession of their country might be firmly He also enlargedf upon the praises of Joseph; assured to the king; excepting the lands of how he had not remembered the evil doings the priests; for their country continued still of his brethren to their disadvantage: nay, in their own possession. And indeed this on the contrary, was kind to them; bestowing sore famine made their minds as well as their

upon them so many benefits, as seldom are bodies slaves; and at length compelled them bestowed on men's own benefactors. He to procure a sufficiency of food by such dis then commanded his own sons that they honourable means. But when this, misery should admit Joseph's sons, Ephraim and ceased, and the river overflowed the ground, Manasseh, into their number; and divide the and the earth brought forth its fruits plenti land of Canaan in common with them; confully, Joseph came to every city, and gathered cerning whom we shall treat hereafter. Howthe people thereto belonging together, and ever, he made it his request, that he might gave them back entirely the land which, by be buried at Hebron. So he died; when he their own consent, the king might have pos

had lived a hundred and forty-seven years ;|| Whereas Bishop Cumberland has shewn, that they rather Egyptians their lands again, upon the payment of a fifth hated such Phænician or Canaanite shepherds as had long

part as tribute. It seems to me rather that the land was enslaved the Egyptians of old time. See his Sanchoniath, now considered as Pharaoh's ; and this fifth part as its page 361-362,

rent, to be paid to him, as he was their landlord, and they * Reland here puts the question, how Josephus could his tenants; and that the lands were not properly restored, complain of its not raining in Egypt during this famine, and this fifth part reserved as a tribute only, till the days while the ancients affirm that it never does naturally rain of Sesostris. there? His answer is, that when the ancients deny that | As to this encomium upon Joseph, as preparatory to it rains in Egypt, they only mean the upper Egypt, above Jacob's adopting Ephraim and Manasseh into his own the Delta, which is called Egypt in the strictest sense ; family, and to be admitted into his two tribes, which Josebut that in Delta, and consequently in the lower Egypt phus here mentions; all our copies of Gen. omit it, c. adjoining to it, it did not hold, and still does rain sometimes. xlviii. nor do we know whence he took it ; or whether it See the note on III. 1.

be his own embellishment. † Josephus supposes that Joseph now restored the 1 Gen xlvii 28.

having not been inferior to any of his ances hundred and ten years ;f having been a man tors in piety towards God; and having such of admirable virtue; who conducted all his a recompence for it as it was fit those should affairs by the rules of reason, and used his have, who were so good as these were. Jo

authority with moderation; which was the seph, by the king's permission, carried his cause of his great felicity among the Egypfather's dead body to Hebron, and there tians, even when he came from another counburied it, at a great expense.* But his bre try, and that in such ill circumstances as we thren were at first unwilling to return back have already described. At length his brewith him; because they were afraid, lest now thren died, after they had lived happily in their father was dead, he should punish them Egypt. Now the posterity and sons of these for their secret practices against him; since men after some time carried their bodies, and he was now gone, for whose sake he had buried ||them at Hebron. But as to the bones been so gracious to them. He persuaded of Joseph, they carried them into the land of them, however, to fear no harm, and to en Canaan afterwards,9 when the Hebrews went tertain no suspicions of him ; so he brought out of Egypt; for so had Joseph made them them along with him, and gave them great promise him upon oath. **But what became possessions, and continually evinced the most of every one of these men, and by what toils particular concern for them.

they got the possession of the land of Canaan, Joseph also died when he had lived a shall be shewn hereafter; when I have ex

* Though there be something of a natural desire in nothing of them in the linen in which they were wrapped most men to be buried in the places where their ancestors but the bones, and those half rotten." (Letter vii. p. 281.) lie; yet Jacob's aversion to have his remains deposited in Antique coffins of stone, and sycamore wood, are still to be Egypt seems to be more earnest than ordinary, or other seen in Egypt. It is said that some were formerly made of wise he would never have imposed an oath upon his sons, a kind of pasteboard, formed by folding and glueing cloth and charged them all, with his dying breath, not to suffer together a great number of times; these were curiously it to be done. For he very well knew, that had his body plaistered and painted with hieroglyphics. Thevenot, part been buried in Egypt, his posterity, upon that very ac

i. p. 137. B. count, would have been too much wedded to the country, il Of the burying places of Joseph, and of the other paever to attempt the acquisition of the promised land; and triarchs, as they are here rightly stated, see Test. Simeon, therefore, to wean them from the thought of continuing in $ 8. and Test. Benjamin, § 12, with the Note, in Authent. Egypt, and to fix their minds and affections in Canaan, he Rec. Part 1, page 415, 416. ordered his body to be carried thither beforehand, in tes § Exodus, xiii. 19. Acts vii. 16. timony that he died in full persuasion of the truth of the ** There are several reasons which might induce Jopromises which were given to him and his ancestors : nor seph not to have his dead body immediately carried into was it inconvenient, that future generations, after their re Canaan, and buried as his father was. 1st, Because his turn into Canaan, should have before their eyes the Sepul brethren, after his decease, might not have interest enough chre of their forefathers, for a record of their virtues, and at court to provide theinselves with such things as were an incitement to the imitation of them. But the strongest necessary to set off the pomp and solemnity of a funeral motive of all for Jacob's desiring to be buried in Canaan, befitting so great a personage. 2dly, Because he might (supposing that he foreknew that our Saviour Christ was foresee, that the Egyptians, in all probability, as long as to live and die, and with some others, rise again in that their veneration for his memory was warm, would hardly country) was, that he might be one of that blessed number; have suffered his remains to have been carried into anoas it was indeed an ancient tradition in the church, that ther country. 3dly, Because the continuance of his reumong those, who came out of their graves ufter our Lord's mains among them might be a means to preserve the reresurrection, Mat. xxvii. 53, the patriarch Jacob was one. membrance of the services he had done them, and thereby Pool's Annotations, and Bibliotheca Bibl. B.

an inducement to them to treat the relations he had left † Gen. i. 21.

behind him with more kindness. 4thly, And chiefly, be| When Joseph died he was not only embalmed, but cause the preseuce of his body with the Israelites might put into a coffin. This was an honour appropriated to be a pledge to assure them, and a means to strengthen and persons of distinction, coffins not being universally used in confirm their faith, and hope in God's promises to their Egypt. Maillet, speaking of the Egyptian repositories of progenitors, that he would infallibly put their posterity in the dead, having given an account of several niches that possession of the land of Canaan : and accordingly, when are found there, says, “it must not be imagined, that the Moses delivered them out of Egypt, be carried Joseph's bodies deposited in these gloomy apartments were all en body along with him, (Exod. xiii. 19.) and committed it to closed in chests, and placed in niches; the greatest part the care of the tribe of Ephraim, who buried it near She-. were simply embalmed and swathed after that manner that chem, (Josh. xxiv. 32.) in the field which Jacob, a little every one hath some notion of; after which they laid before his death, gave to Joseph, as his peculiar property. them one by the side of another without any ceremony : Pereius, and Patrick's Commentary; Pool's Annotations, some were even put into these tombs without any en and Calmet's Dictionary under the word. B. balming at all, or such a slight one, that there remains

Ngrew

plained on what account it was that they left || hard labour: and four hundred years did they Egypt.

spend under these afflictions, for they strove

one against another which should get the CHAP. IX.

mastery; the Egyptians desiring to destroy

the Israelites by these labours, and the IsraelOF THE AFFLICTIONS THAT BEFEL THE HEBREWS IN EGYPT, ites desiring to hold out to the end under DURING FOUR HUNDRED YEARS. *

them. Tow it happened that the Egyptians

While the affairs of the Hebrews were in grew delicate and indolent, and gave

this condition, there was this occasion offered themselves up to pleasure, and in particular itself to the Egyptians, which made them to the love of gain. They also became very more solicitous for the extinction of our naill affected towards the Hebrews, as touched tion. One of these sacred scribes, who are with envy at their prosperity; for when they very sagacious in foretelling future events saw how the nation of the Israelites flourished, truly, told the king, that about this time a and were become eminent already in plenty

child would be born to the Israelites; who, if of wealth, which they had acquired by their he were reared, would bring the Egyptian virtue and natural love of labour, they thought dominion low, and would raise the Israelites; their increase was to their own detriment; that he would excel all men in virtue, and and having in length of time forgotten the obtain a glory that would be remembered benefits they had received from Joseph, par through all ages; which thing was so feared ticularly the crown being now come into by the king, that, according to this man's another family,t they became very abusive to opinion, he commanded that every male child, the Israelites, and contrived many ways of which was born to the Israelites, should be afflicting them, for they enjoined them to cut cast into the river, and destroyed; that bea great number of channels for the river, and sides this, the Egyptian** midwives should to build wallst for their cities and ramparts,

watch the labours of the Hebrew women, and that they might restrain the river, and hinder observe what was born; for those were the its waters from stagnating, upon its running women who were enjoined to do the office of over its own banks; they set them also to midwives to them, and by reason of their rebuild pyramids,|| and by all this wore them lation to the king would not transgress his out, and forced them to learn all sorts of me commands.ft He enjoined, also, that if any chanical arts, and to accustom themselves to parents should disobey him, and venture to

* As to the aMiction of Abraham's posterity for 400 gical Table, and Authent. Rec. Part II. page 885, 886, years, see I. 10. and as to what cities they built in Egypt 837. Only if they be all built of stone, this does not so under Pharaoh Sesostris, and of Pharaoh Sesostris's drown well agree with the Israelites' labours, which are said to ing in the Red Sea, see - Essay on the Old Test. Append. have been in brick, and not in stone, as Mr. Sandys obpage 139—162.

serves in his Travels, page 127, 128. | Exodus, i. 8.

§ Dr. Bernard informs us here, that instead of this single I It is a common opinion, that the word pyramid is de priest, or prophet of the Egyptians, without a name in rived from the Greek Pyr or Pur, Fire; and that these Josephus, the Targum of Jonathan names the two famous structures were so called from their shape, which ascended antagonists of Moses, Jannes and Jambres. Nor is it at all from a broad basis, and ended in a point, like a flame of unlikely, that it might be one of these who foreboded so fire. Others, whose opinion Vossius seems to approve, much misery to the Egyptians, and so much happiness to say that the name comes from the word Pyros, which, in the Israelites, from the rearing of Moses. the same language, signifies wheat, because they suppose ** Josephus is clear that these midwives were Egypthem to have been the granaries of the ancient Egyptian tians, and not Israelites, as in our other copies, which is kings. But a late writer, versed in the Coptic tongue, has very probable, it being not easily to be supposed that Phagiven us another etymology from that language, wherein raoh could trust the Israelite midwives to execute so barPouro signifies a king, and Misi, a race, or generation ; and barous a command against their own nation. Consult, the reason why the Pyramids had this name given them, therefore, and correct hence our ordinary copies, Exod. was, as he tells us, because they were erected to preserve i. 15—22; and, indeed, Josephus seems to have had much he memory of the princes (who were their founders, and completer copies of the Pentateuch, or other authentic their families. Wilkins's Dissert. de ling. Copt. p. 108. records now lost, about the birth and actions of Moses, than

Il of this building of the pyramids of Egypt by the either our Hebrew, Samaritan, or Greek Bibles afford us, Israelites, see Perizonius Orig. Egyptiac. c. 21. It is not which enabled him to speak so largely and particularly impossible they might build one or more of the small ones, about him. but the large ones seem, much later. See my. Chronolo If It is generally supposed that the midwives upon this

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