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minded them of all that had passed : how the salvation. He also desired that he would forEgyptians were destroyed when they at give what necessity had forced the people to tempted to detain them, contrary to the com do: since such was the nature of mankind, mand of God; and after what manner the very hard to please, and very complaining under same river was to the others bloody, and not adversities. Accordingly God promised he fit for drinking, but was sweet and potable
would take care of them, and afford the sucto them; and how they went a new road cour they were desirous of. Now when Mothrough the sea, which fed a long way from ses had heard this, he came down to the multhem: by which means they were themselves titude; and as soon as they saw him joyful at preserved, but saw their enemies destroyed; the promises he had received from God, they and that when they were in want of weapons, changed their sad countenances into gladness. God gave them plenty of them. Thus he re So he placed himself in the midst of them, counted all the particular instances, when and told them he came to bring them from they were in appearance, just going to be de God a deliverance out of their present disstroyed, but God had saved them in a sur tress. Accordingly a little time after came a prising manner: that he had still the same vast number of quails, (which birds are more power, and that they ought not even now to plentiful in this Arabian Gulf than any where despair of his providence over them, and ac else) flying over the sea, and hovered over cordingly he exhorted them to continue quiet, them, till wearied with their laborious flight, and to consider that help would not come too and indeed, as usual, flying very near to the late, though perhaps not immediately, if it earth, they fell down among the Hebrews, were present with them before they suffered who caught them, and satisfied their hunger any great misfortune. “ You ought,” said he, with them, supposing this was the method 6 to reason thus, that God delays to assist whereby God meant to supply them with food. you, not because he has no regard to you, but Hereupon, Moses returned thanks to God for because he will first try your fortitude, and affording them assistance so suddenly, and the pleasure you take in your freedom; that sooner than he had promised. he may learn whether you have souls great But soon after this first supply of food, they enough to bear want of food, and scarcity of received a second; for, as Moses was lifting water on its account; or whether you really up his hands in prayer, a dew fell down, and love to be slaves, as cattle are slaves to such Moses, when he found it adhere to his hands, as own them, and feed them liberally, but supposed this was also come for food from only in order to make them more useful in God; he tasted it, and perceiving that the their service. As for myself, I shall not be so people knew not what it was, but thought it much concerned for my own preservation, snowed, and that it was what usually fell at for if I die unjustly, I shall not reckon it any that time of the year, he informed them, that affliction; but I am concerned for you, lest this dew did not fall from heaven after the by casting stones at me, you should be thought manner they imagined, but came for their to condemn God himself.”
preservation and sustenance; so he gave them By this means Moses pacified the people, some of it, that they might be satisfied about and restrained them from stoning him, and what he had told them. They also imitated brought them to repent of what they were their conductor, and were pleased with the going to do. And because he thought the food, for it was like honey in sweetness, and necessity they were under made their passion in substance like to bdellium, one of the sweet less unjustifiable, he thought it needful to ap spices, but in bigness equal to coriander seed. ply to God by prayer and supplication; and The people were now very earnest in gathergoing up to an eminece, he requested some ing it; but they were enjoined to gather it succour for the people, and some way of de equally,* the measure of a homer for every liverance from the want they were in; because one every day, because this food should not in God, and in him alone, was their hope of come in too small quantity, lest the weaker
* It seems to me from what Moses, Exod. xvi. 18, not putrefy was jus so much as come to a homer a piece Paul, 2 Cor. viii. 15, and Josephus here says, compared through the whole i ost of Israel, and no more. together, that the quantity of manna that fell daily, and did
might not be able to get their share, by rea did not expect any; so he commanded Moses son of the overbearing of the strong in col to smite the rockg which they saw lying there lecting it. However, these strong men, when with his rod, and out of it to receive plenty they had gathered more than the measure in what they wanted; for he had taken care appointed for them, they had no more than that drink should come to them without
any others, but only tired themselves more in labour or exertion. When Moses had regathering it; for they found no more than a ceived this command, he came to the people homer a piece, and the advantage they got by who waited for and looked upon him, for they what was superfluous was none at all, as it saw already that he was coming apace from corrupted, both by worms breeding in it, and his eminence. As soon as he was come, he by its bitterness. So divine and wonderful a told them, that God would deliver them from food was this! It also supplied the want of their present distress, and had granted them other sorts of food to those that fed on it; an unexpected favour, and informed them that and even now,* in all that place, this manna a river should run for their sakes out of the comes down in rain, according to what Moses rock; but they were amazed at that hearing, then obtained of God, to send it the people supposing they were of necessity to cut the for their sustenance. Now the Hebrews call
rock in pieces now they were distressed by this food manna,t for the particle man in our their thirst, and by their journey. Moses, language is the asking of a question, what is however, by only smiting the rock with his this? So the Hebrews were very joyful at rod, opened a passage, and out of it burst what was sent them from heaven, and they water in great abundance, and very clear; made use of this food for forty years, or as while they were astonished at this wonderful long as they remained in the wilderness. effect, and as it were quenched their thirst
As soon as they removed thence, they came by the very sight of it: so they drank this to Rephidim,|| distressed to the last degree | pleasant, this sweet water, and such it seemed by thirst: for, though in the foregoing days to be, as might well be expected where God they had met with a few small fountains, they was the donor. They were also in admiranow found the earth entirely destitute of wa tion how Moses was honoured by God, and ter, and were in an evil case. They again they made grateful returns of sacrifices to turned their anger against Moses; but he at God for his providence towards them. Now first avoided the fury of the multitude, and that scripture which is laid up in the temple** then betook himself to prayer, beseeching informs us how God foretold to Moses, that God, that as he had given them food when water should in this manner be derived out they were in the greatest want of it, so he of the rock. would give them drink, since the favour of
CHAP. II. giving them food was of no value to them while they had nothing to drink. God did not long delay to grant this request, but
THE AMALEKITES, AND OF THEIR COMPLETE DEFEAT.
promised that he would procure them a fountain, (HE name of the Hebrews began already and plenty of water from a place where they to be every where renowned, and ru* This supposal that the sweet honey dew, or manna, so divide, i. e. a dividend, or portion allotted to every one,
it celebrated in ancient and modern authors, as falling usu is uncertain. I incline to the latter derivation. This ally in Arabia, was of the very same sort with the manna manna is called angels' food, Ps. lxxviii. 25. and by our sent to the Israelites, savours more of Gentilism than of Saviour, John vi. 31. as well as by Josephus here and elseJudaism or Christianity. It is not improbable that some where, said to be sent to the Jews from heaven. ancient Gentile author, read by Josephus, thought so, nor † Exod. xvi. 15. would he here contradict him, though just before, and IV. | From an. 1532 to 1429, B, C. 3, he seems directly to allow that it had not been seen pre l Exod. xvii. 1. viously. However, this food from heaven is here described § This rock is here at this day, as modern travellers by the word vipeodou, that it fell like snow; and in Artapa agree, and must be the same that was there in the days of nus, a heathen writer, it is compared to meal, like to oat Moses. meal, in colour like to snow, rained down by God Essay ** Note here, that the small book of the principal laws on the Old Test. Appendix, page 239. But as to the deri of Moses is ever said to be laid up in the holy house itself, vation of the word manna, whether from man, which Jose but the larger Pentateuch somewhere within the limits of phus says then signified, what is it? or from manah, to the temple and its courts only. See V. 1. VI. 4. X. 4. VOL. 1.-NO, 3.
OF THE HOSTILITIES COMMITTED AGAINST THE HEBREWS BY
their own army
mours about them ran abroad, which excited || in great disorder, and in want of all necesgreat fear in the inhabitants of those coun saries, and yet were to make war with men tries: accordingly they sent ambassadors to who were well prepared for it. Then it was, one another, and exhorted each other to de therefore, that Moses began to encourage fend themselves, and to endeavour to destroy them, and to exhort them to have a good these men.
Those that induced the rest to heart, and rely on God's assistance by which do so, were such as inhabited Gobilitis and they had been advanced into a state of freePetra; they were called Amalekites,* and dom, and to hope for victory over those who were the most warlike of the nations that were ready to fight with them in order to delived thereabout, and whose kings exhorted prive them of that blessing. He said they one another, and their neighbours, to engage
to be numein this war against the Hebrews, telling them rous, wanting nothing, neither weapons, nor that an army of strangers, who had ran away money, nor provisions, nor such other confrom slavery under the Egyptians, lay in wait veniences as when men are in possession of, to ruin them; which army they were not in they fight undauntedly, and that they were to common prudence, and regard to their own judge themselves to have all these advantages safety, to overlook, but to crush them before in the Divine assistance. They were also to they should gather strength, and come to be suppose the enemies' army to be small, unin prosperity: and perhaps attack them first armed, and weak, and such as want those in an hostile manner, as presuming upon their conveniences which they know must be indolence in not attacking them before; and wanted when it is God's will that they should that they ought to avenge themselves for what be beaten. He reminded them that they had had been done in the wilderness; but that experienced the value of God's assistance in this could not be so well done when the He abundance of trials, and those such as were brews had once laid their hands on their more terrible than war; for that is only against cities and goods; that those who endeavoured men, but these were against famine and thirst, to crush a power in its first rise, were wiser things that were in their own nature insuthan those that attempted to stop its progress | perable; as also against mountains, and that when it became formidable; as these last sea which affording them no way for escaseem to be angry only at the flourishing of ping; yet had all these difficulties been conothers, but the former do not leave any room quered by God's gracious kindness: so he for their enemies to become troublesome to exhorted them to be courageous at this time, them. After they had sent such ambassages and to consider their entire prosperity to deto the neighbouring nations, and among each pend on the present conquest of their eneother, they resolved to attack the Hebrews mies. in battle.
Moses having thus encouraged the multiThese proceedings of the people of those tude, called together the princes of their countries occasioned perplexity and trouble tribes, and their chief men, both separately to Moses, who expected no such warlike pre and jointly. The young men he charged to parations: and when these nations were ready obey their elders, and the elders to hearken to fight, the multitude of the Hebrews were to their leader; so the people were elevated obliged to try the fortune of war; they were in their minds, and ready to try their fortune
* The Amalekites were a people descended from Ama ing the Israelites were pre-ordained by God to be put in lek, the son of Eliphaz, the son of Esau, by a concubine, possession of the land of Canaan, they came against them Gen. xxxvi. 12. And the ground of their enmity against with an armed force, in hopes of frustrating the designs of the Israelites is generally supposed to have been an innate Providence concerning them. And this is the reason which hatred, from the remembrance of Jacob's depriving their Moses himself assigns for this declaration of war; because progenitor, both of his birth-right and blessing. Their his (i. e. Amalek’s) hand is against the throne of God, (i. e. falling upon them, however, and that without any provo against God himself) therefore the Lord will wage war cation, when they saw them reduced to so low a condition against him from one generation to another. Exod. xvii. by the fatigue of their march, and the excessive drought 16. The injury done the Israelites was not so much as the they laboured under, was an inhuman action, and justly asfront offered to the divine Majesty ; and therefore God deserved the defeat which Joshua gave them. But then threatens utterly to extirpate the designers of it. Univer: the reason why God thought fit to denounce a perpetual sal History, 1. 1. c. 7. and Patrick's Commentary. B.. war against them, is to be resolved into this :-That know
in battle, and hoped to be thereby at length not being able to sustain his hands thus delivered from all their miseries. Nay, they stretched out (for as often as he let down his desired that Moses would immediately lead hands, so often were his own people worsted,) them against their enemies, without the least he bade his brother Aaron, and Hur, their delay, that no backwardness might be an hin sister Miriam's husband, to stand on each side drance to their present resolution; so Moses of him, and take hold of his hands, and not classed all that were fit for war into different to permit his weariness to prevent it, but to troops, and set over them Joshua, the son of assist him in the extension of his hands. Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim; one that was of When this was done, the Hebrews conquered great courage, and patient to undergo la the Amalekites by main force; and, indeed, bours; of great abilities to understand, and they had all perished, unless the approach of to speak what was proper, and very serious night had obliged the Hebrews to desist from in the service of God, and indeed, made like killing any more. So our forefathers obtained another Moses, a teacher of piety towards most signal and most seasonable victory; God. He also appointed a small party of the for they not only overcame those that fought armed men to be near the water, and to take against them, but also terrified the neighcare of the children and the women, and of bouring nations, and got great and splendid the entire camp; so that whole night they advantages, which they obtained of their eneprepared themselves for the battle, they took mies by their hard pains in this battle; for their weapons, if any of them had such as when they had taken the enemies' camp, they were well made, and attended to their com got great booty for the public, and for their manders, as ready to rush forth to the battle own private families, whereas till then they as soon as Moses should give the word of had not any plenty even of necessary food. command. Moses also kept awake, teach The afore-mentioned victory was also the ing Joshua after what manner he should order occasion of their prosperity, not only for the his camp; but when the day began, Moses present, but for future ages also; for they not called Joshua again, and exhorted him to ap only made slaves of the bodies of their eneprove himself in deeds sueh a one as his repu mies, but effectually damped their minds: and tation made men expect from him, and to after this battle became terrible to all that gain glory by the present expedition in the dwelt round about them. They also acquired opinion of those under him, for his exploits in a vast quantity of riches; for a great deal of this battle: he also gave a particular exhor silver and gold was left in the enemies' camp, tation to the principal men of the Hebrews, as also brazen vessels, which they made comand encouraged the whole army as it stood mon use of in their families; many utensils before him; and when he had thus animated also that were embroidered, there were of them, both by his words and works, and pre both sorts; that is, of what were woven, and pared every thing, he retired to a mountain, what were the ornaments of their armour and and committed the army to God and to other things that served for use to their family, Joshua.
and for the furniture of their rooms; they got The armies having joined battle, soon came also the prey of their cattle and of whatsoto a close fight hand to hand, both sides shew ever uses to follow camps, when they remove ing great alacrity, and encouraging one ano from one place to another; so the Hebrews ther; and, indeed, while Moses stretched out now valued themselves upon their courage, his hands* towards heaven, the Hebrews and claimed great merit for their valour; and were too hard for the Amalekites; but Moses
they perpetually inured themselves to take * This eminent circumstance, that while Moses's hands of learning their prayers by heart, read them out of a were held up towards heaven, the Israelites prevailed ; book, which is in a great measure inconsistent with such and while they were let down towards the earth, the an elevated posture, and which seems to me to have been Amalekites prevailed; seems the earliest intimation we only a later practice under the corrupt state of the church. have of the proper posture, used of old, in solemn prayer, Though the constant use of divine forms of prayer, praise, which was the stretching out the hands and eyes towards and thanksgiving, appears to have been the practice of heaven, as other passages of the Old and New Testament God's people, Patriarchs, Jews, and Christians, in all the inform us. Nay, by the way, this posture seems to have past ages. continued in the Christian church till the clergy, instead
OF RAGUEL'S FRIENDLY SUGGESTIONS RESPECTING THE GO
VERNMENT OF THE HEBREWS, WHICH WERE ADOPTED BY
pains, by which they deemed every difficulty ance, and their freedom. They also praised might be surmounted: and this was the result their conductor, as him by whose virtue it of the battle.
was that all things had succeeded so well On the next day Moses stripped the dead with them. Raguel, also, in his eucharistical bodies of their enemies, and gathered to oration to Moses, made great encomiums gether the armour of those that were fled, upon
the whole multitude; and he could not and gave rewards to such as had signalised but admire Moses for his fortitude, and that themselves in the action, and highly com humanity he had shewed in the delivery of mended Joshua, their general, who was at his friends. tested to by all the army, on account of the great actions he had done; nor was any one
CHAP. IV. of the Hebrews slain, though the slain of the enemies' army were too many to be enumerated. So Moses offered sacrifice of thanksgiving to God, and built an altar, which he namedthe Lord the conqueror. also THE next day, Raguel saw Moses in the destroyed, and that hereafter none of them
determined the differences of those that reshould remain, because they fought against
ferred them to him, every one still going to the Hebrews when they were in the wilder him, and supposing they should then only ness, and in their distress. Moreover he re obtain justice, if he were the arbitrator; and freshed the army with feasting: and thus did
those that lost their causes thought it no great they fight this first battle with those that ven harm, while they thought they lost them justly, tured to oppose them, after they were gone and not by partiality. Raguel, however, said out of Egypt. But, when Moses had cele nothing at that time, as not desirous to be any brated this festival for the victory, he per
hindrance to such as had a mind to make use mitted the Hebrews to rest for a few days,
of the virtue of their conductor; but afterand then brought them out after the fight in ward he took Moses to himself; and when he order of battle; for they had now many sol
had him alone, he instructed him in what he diers in light armour, and going gradually on,
ought to do, and advised him to leave the he came to mount Sinai, and three months trouble of lesser causes to others, but himself after they were removed out of Egypt, at to take care of the greater, and of the people's which mountain, as we have before related, safety, for that others of the Hebrews might the vision of the bush, and the other wonder
be found that were fit to determine causes, ful appearances had happened.
but that nobody but a Moses could take care
of the safety of many thousands. CHAP. III.
therefore,” said he, “insensible of thine own
virtue, and what thou hast done by ministerOF RAGUEL'S ARRIVAL AND RECEPTION BY MUSES AT MOUNT ing under God to the people's preservation.
Leave, therefore, the determination of comTHEN Raguel, Moses's* father-in-law, mon causes to others: but do thou reserve
understood in what a prosperous con thyself to the attendance on God only, and dition his affairs were, he willingly came to look out for methods of preserving the multimeet him; and Moses took Zipporah his wife, tude from their present distress. Make use and his children, and pleased himself with his
of the method I suggest as to human affairs, coming: and when he had offered sacrifice, and take a review of the army, and appoint he made a feast for the multitude, near the chosen rulers over tens of thousands, and bush he had formerly seen; every one, accor
then over thousands; and then divide them ding to their families, partaking of the festi into five hundreds, and again into hundreds, val. But Aaron and his family took Raguel,
and into fifties, and set rulers over each of and sung hymns to God, as to him who had them, who may distinguish them into thirties, been the author and procurer of their deliver and keep them in order, and at last number
66 Be not,
* Exod. xviii. 1.
† Exod. xvii, 13. ,