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and were not wanting in diligence according | cubits broad, and a hundred long, he set up to their ability; but they brought silver, and brazen pillars, five cubits high; twenty on gold, and brass, and the best sorts of wood, each of the longer sides, and ten pillars for and such as would not at all decay by putre the breadth behind. Every one of the pillars faction; camels' hair also, and sheep-skins; also had a ring. Their chapiters were of some of them dyed of a blue colour, and some silver, but their bases were of brass; they of a scarlet: some brought the flower for the resembled the sharp ends of spears, and were purple colour, and others for white, with wool of brass, fixed into the ground. Cords were dyed by the aforementioned Howers; and fine also put through the rings, and were tied at linen, and precious stones, which those that the farther ends to brass nails of a cubit long, use costly ornaments set in ounces of gold: which at every pillar were driven into the they brought also a great quantity of spices. floor, and would keep the tabernacle from For of these materials did Moses build the being shaken by the violence of winds. But tabernacle: which did not at all differ from a a curtain of fine soft linen went round all moveable temple. Now when these things the pillars, and hung down in a flowing manwere brought together with great diligence, ner from their chapiters, and enclosed the (for every one was ambitious to further the
whole space, forming a kind of wall about it. work, even beyond their ability,) he set ar Such was the structure of three of the sides chitects over the works, and this by the com of this enclosure: but as for the fourth side, mand of God: and indeed the very same which was fifty cubits in extent, and was the which the people themselves would have front of the whole; twenty cubits of it were chosen, had the election been allowed to for the opening at the gates, wherein stood them. Now their names are set down in wri two pillars on each side, after the resemting in the sacred books; and they were these, blance of open gates; these were made wholly Bazaleel, the son of Uri, of the tribe of Judah, of silver, and polished all over, excepting the the grandson of Miriam, the sister of their bases, which were of brass. Now on each conductor; and Aholiab, the son of Ahisa side of the gates there stood three pillars, mach, of the tribe of Dan. Now the people which were inserted into the concave bases went on with what they had undertaken with of the gates, and were suited to them; and so great alacrity, that Moses was obliged to round them was drawn a curtain of fine linen. restrain them, by making proclamation, that But to the gates themselves, which were what had been brought was sufficient, as the twenty cubits in extent, and five in height, artificers had informed him: so they fell to the curtain was composed of purple, and work upon the building of the tabernacle. scarlet, and blue, and fine linen; and emMoses also informed them, according to the broidered with divers sorts of figures, exceptdirection of God, both what the measures ing the figures of animals. Within these were to be, and its dimensions; and how gates was the brazen laver, for purification, many vessels it ought to contain, for the use having a bason beneath of the like matter: of the sacrifices. The women also were in which the priests might wash their hands,* ambitious to do their parts about the garments and sprinkle their feet. And this was the of the priests, and about other things that ornamental construction of the enclosure would be wanted in this work, both for orna about the court of the tabernacle, which was ment, and for the divine service itself.
exposed to the open air. When all things were prepared, the gold, As to the tabernacle itself, Moses placed it and the silver, and the brass, and what was in the middle of that court, with its front to woven, Moses having previously appointed the east; that when the sun rose, it might that there should be a festival, and that sacri send its first rays upon it. Its length, when it fices should be offered according to every was set up, was thirty cubits, and its breadth one's ability, reared up the tabernacle. And was ten cubits. One of its walls was on the when he had measured the open court, fifty | south, and the other was exposed to the north, cripts, omitted here the heinous sin of the Israelites, in about it. See Isaiah xl. 19, 20. Jer. x. 3, 4, and Habmaking and worshipping the golden calf, or the Egyptian ii. 19. Apis, made of wood, but covered over with cast gold round * Exod. xxx. 19.
and on the back part of it remained the west. proportion of the measures of the tabernacle It was necessary that its height should be proved to be an imitation of the system of the equal to its breadth, ten cubits. There were world; for that third part which was within also pillars made of wood, twenty on each the four pillars, to which the priests were not side; they were wrought into a quadrangular admitted, is, as it were, a heaven, peculiar to figure, in breadth a cubit and a half, but the God; but the space of the twenty cubits, is, thickness was four fingers: they had thin as it were, sea and land, on which men live: plates of gold affixed to them, on both sides, and so this part is peculiar to the priests only. inwardly and outwardly: they had also each At the front, where the entrance was made, of them, two silver tenons, inserted into their they placed seven pillars of gold, that stood bases; in each of which was a socket to re on bases of brass; and they spread over the ceive the tenon. But the pillars on the west tabernacle veils of fine linen, and purple, and ern wall were six. Now all these tenons and blue, and scarlet colours, embroidered. The sockets accurately fitted one another, inso first veil was ten cubits every way; and this much that the joints were invisible; and both was spread over the pillars which parted the seemed to be one united wall: it was also temple, and kept the most holy place concovered with gold, both within and without. cealed within: and this veil was that which The number of pillars was equal on the op made this part not visible to any. Now the posite sides, and there were on each part whole temple was called the Holy Place; but twenty; and every one had the third part of that part which was within the four pillars, a span in thickness: so that the number of and to which none were admitted, was called thirty cubits were fully made up between the Holy of Holies. This veil was very ornathem. But as to the wall behind, where the mental, and embroidered with all sorts of fine six pillars made up together only nine cubits, flowers; and there were interwoven into it a they made two other pillars, and cut them out variety of ornaments, excepting only the forms of one cubit, which they placed in the cor of animals. Another veil, which covered the ners, and made them equally fine with the five pillars at the entrance, was like the forothers. Now every one of the pillars had mer in its magnitude, texture, and colour; rings of gold affixed to their fronts outward, and at the corner of every pillar a ring reas if they had taken root in the pillars, and tained it from the top downwards, half the stood one row over against another round depth of the pillars; the other half affording about; through which were inserted gilded an entrance for the priests, who crept under bars, each of them five cubits long, and these it. Over this was a veil of linen, of the same bound together the pillars; the head of one size with the former: it was to be drawn this bar running into another, after the nature of way or that way by cords, whose rings fixed one tenon inserted into another. But for the to the texture of the veil, and to the cords wall behind, there was but one row of bars also, were subservient to the drawing and unthat went through all the pillars: into which | drawing of the veil, and to the fastening it at row ran the ends of the bars on each side of the corner that it might be no hindrance to the longer walls; and all joined so fast toge the view of the sanctuary; especially on sother, that the tabernacle could not be shaken, lemn days; but that on other days, and espeeither by the winds, or by any other means; cially when the weather was inclined to snow, but remained firm, quiet, and immoveable. it might be expanded, and afford a covering
As for the inside, Moses divided its length to the veil of divers colours. Hence that into three partitions. At the distance of ten custom of ours is derived, of having a fine cubits from the most sacred end, he placed linen veil after the temple has been built, to four pillars; whose workmanship was the be drawn over the entrances. The ten other same with that of the rest, and they stood curtains were four cubits in breadth, and upon the like bases with them; each at a twenty-eight in length, and had golden clasps, small distance from his fellow. Now the room which joined the one curtain to the other, so within those pillars was the most holy place: | exactly, that they seemed to be one entire but the rest of the room was the tabernacle, curtain. These were spread over the temple, which was open for the priests. However this and covered all the top, and part of the walls, VOL 1.NO. 3,
on the sides and behind, within one cubit of which cover was every way evenly fitted to the ground. There were other curtains of it, and had no eminences to hinder its exact the same breadth with these, but one more in conjunction. There were also two golden number, and longer; for they were thirty cu rings, belonging to each of the longer boards, bits long: these were woven of hair, and and passing through the entire wood; and were extended loosely down to the ground, through them gilded bars passed along each appearing like a triangular front and elevation board; that it might thereby be moved, and at the gates; the eleventh curtain being used carried about as occasion should require; for for this very purpose. There were also other it was not drawn in a cart by yokes of kine, curtains made of skins above these, which but borne on the shoulders of the priests afforded covering and protection to those Upon this cover were two images, called that were woven, both in hot weather and cherubim. They are flying creatures, but when it rained. And great was the surprise their form is not like to that of any of the of those who viewed these curtains at a dis creatures which men have seen; though Motance; for they seemed not at all to disler ses said he had seen such beings near the from the colour of the sky. But those that throne of God. In this ark he put the two were made of hair, and of skins, reached tables whereon the Ten Commandments were down in the same manner as did the veil at written; five upon each table; and two and a the gates, and kept off the rain, and heat of half upon each side of them: and this ark he the sun: and after this manner was the taber-placed in the most holy place. nacle reared.
In the holy place he placed a table like There was also an ark* made, sacred to those at Delphi. Its length was two cubits, God, of wood that was naturally strong, and its breadth one cubit, and its height three could not be corrupted. This was called spans.
It had feet also, the lower half of Eron, in our own language. Its construction which were complete feet, resembling those was thus; its length was five spans,t but its which the Dorians put to their bedsteads; breadth and height was each of them three but the upper parts towards the table were spans. It was covered with gold, both within wrought into a square form. The table had and without: so that the wooden part was a hollow towards every side, having a ledge not seen.
It had also a cover united to it, byl of four fingers depth, that went round about, golden hinges, after a wonderful manner: like a spiral; both on the upper and lower
* We meet with imitations of this divinely instituted In Lieutenant Cook's voyage round the world, pubemblem among several heathen nations, both in ancient and lished by Dr. Hawksworth, vol. ii. p. 252, we find that modern times. Thus Tacitus (de Mor. German. cap. 40.) the inhabitants of Huaheine, one of the islands lately disinforms us, that “the inhabitants of the north of Germany, covered in the South Sea, had “ a kind of chest or ark, the our Saxon ancestors, in general worshipped Herthum, lid of which was nicely sewed on, and thatched very neatly that is, the mother earth, and believed her to interpose in with palm-nut leaves. It was fixed upon two poles, and the affairs of men, and to visit nations ; that to her, within supported upon little arches of wood, very neatly carved : a sacred grove, in a certain island of the ocean, a vehicle, the use of the poles seemed to be to remove it from place covered with a vestment, was consecrated, and allowed to to place in the manner of our sedan chair: in one end of be touched by the priest alone, who perceived when the it was a square hole, in the middle of which was a ring goddess entered into this her sacred place, and with pro touching the sides, and leaving the angles open, so as to found veneration attended her vehicle, which was drawn form a round hole within, a square one without. The by cows. While the goddess was on her progress, days of first time Mr. Banks saw this coffer, the aperture at the rejoicing were kept at every place which she vouchsafed end was stopped with a piece of cloth, which, lest he to visit. They engaged in no war, they meddled not wih should give offence, he left untouched. Probably there arms, they locked up their weapons : peace and quiet was then something within : but now the cloth was taken ness only were then known, these only relished, till the away; and upon looking into it, it was found empty. The same priest reconducted the goddess, satiated with the con general resemblance between this repository, and the ark versation of mortals, to her temple.”
of the Lord among the Jews, is remarkable : but it is Among the Mexicans, Vitziputzli, their supreme god, still more remarkable, that upon enquiring of the boy was represented in a human shape, sitting on ö ihrone, what it was called, he said Ewharra no Eautau, the house supported by an azure globe, which they called heaven. of God; he could, however, give no account of its sigfour poles or sticks came out from two sides of this nification or
Parkhurst's Heb. Lex. p. 690, 4th globe, at the ends of which serpents' heads were carved, edit. B. the whole making a litter, which the priests carried on † A cubit was about twenty-one inches; and a span:1 their shoulders whenever the idol was shewn in public. half a cubit. Picart's Ceremonies, vol. iii. p. 146.
OF THE SACERDOTAL GARMENTS.
part of the body of the work. Upon every || longed rings and bars, by which the priests one of the feet was also inserted a ring, not carried it, when they journeyed. Before this far from the cover, through which went bars tabernacle there was reared a brazen altar, of gilded wood beneath, to be taken out upon but it was within made of wood, five cubits by occasion; there being a cavity where it was measure on each side, but its height was but joined to the rings: for they were not entire three; in like manner, adorned with brass rings; but before they came quite round, plates, as bright as gold. It had also a brathey ended in acute points; one of which was zen hearth of net work; for the ground uninserted into the prominent part of the table, derneath received the fire from the hearth, and the other into the foot; and by these it because it had no basis to receive it. Near was carried when they journeyed. Upon this this altar, lay the basons, the vials, the centable, which was placed on the north side of sers, and the caldrons, made of gold; but the the temple, not far from the most holy place, other vessels, made for the use of the sacriwere laid twelve unleavened loaves of bread, | fices, were all of brass. And such was the six upon each heap, one above another; they construction of the tabernacle, and the veswere made of two tenth deals, of the purest sels thereto belonging. flour, which tenth* deal is a measure of the Hebrews, containing seven Athenian cotyla.
CHAP. VII. Above those loaves were put two vials full of frankincense. Now after seven days, other loaves were brought in their stead on the seventh day, which is by us called the sab THERE were peculiar garments apbath; but for the occasion of this invention
pointed for the priests, and for all the of placing loaves here, we will speak of it in rest, which garments they call cahanææ, or another place.
priestly garments, as also for the high-priests, Over against this table, near the southern which they call cahanææ rabbæ, and denote wall, was set a candlestick of cast gold, hol the high-priest's garment. Such was therelow within, and of the weight of one hundred fore the habit of the rest: but when the priest pounds, which the Hebrews call cinchares: approaches the sacrifices, he purifies himself which, if it be turned into the Greek language, with the purification which the law prescribes. denotes a talent. It was made with its knobs, And in the first place he puts on that which lilies, pomegranates, and bowls: which orna is called machanase, which means somewhat ments amounted to seventy in all. By this that is fast tied. It is a girdle composed of means the shaft elevated itself from a single fine twined linen, into which the feet are inbase, and spread into as many branches as serted, in the nature of breeches; but above there are planets, mcluding the sun among half of it is cut off, and it ends at the thighs, them. It terminated in seven hands, in one where it is tied fast. row, all standing parallel to each other; and Over this he wore a linen vestment, made these branches carried seven lamps, one by
of fine flax doubled, and called chethone, for one, in imitation of the number of the planets: we call linen by the name of chethone. This these lamps looked to the east and the south, vestment reaches to the feet, and sits close to the candlestick being situate obliquely. the body; and has sleeves that are tied fast
Between this candlestick, and the table, to the arms: it is girded to the breast a țittle which, as we said, were within the sanctuary, above the elbows, by a girdle often going was the altar of incense; made of wood in round, four fingers broad; but so loosely deed, but of incorruptible wood, and en woven, that it resembles the skin of a serpent. tirely crusted over with a golden plate. Its It is embroidered with flowers of scarlet, purbreadth on each side was a cubit
, but the ple, blue, and fine twined linen; but the warp height double. Upon it was a grate of gold, is nothing but fine linen. The beginning of above the altar, which had a golden crown
its circumvolution is at the breast: and when encompassing it round about; whereto be it has gone often round it is there tied, and
hangs loosely down to the ankles. I mean * A homer
this, all the time the priest is not about any
laborious service; for in this position it ap Such was the habit of the generality of the pears in the most agreeable manner to the priests. spectators; but when he is obliged to assist The high-priest is adorned with the same at offering sacrifices, and to do the appointed garments already described; but over these service, that he may not be hindered in his he puts on a vestment of a blue colour; this operations by its motion, he throws it to the also is a long robe, reaching to his feet: in left, and bears it on his shoulder. Moses calls our language it is called meeir, and is tied this belt abaneth; but we have learned, from round with a girdle, embroidered with the the Babylonians, to call it emia. This vest same colours and flowers as the former, inment has no loose or hollow parts any where terwoven with a mixture of gold: to the botin it, but only a narrow aperture about the tom are hung fringes, in colour like pomeneck: and it is tied with certain strings hang granates, with golden* bells,t by a curious ing down from the edge over the breast, and and beautiful contrivance; so that between over the back; and is fastened above each two bells hangs a pomegranate, and between shoulder. It is called massabazanes.
two pomegranates a bell. Now this vesture Upon his head he wears a cap, not brought was not composed of two pieces, nor was it to a conic form, nor including the entire head; sewed together upon the shoulders and the but still including more than the half of it. sides, but it was one long vestment, so woven It is named masnaemphthes, or a mitre, but as to have an aperture for the neck: not an its make is such that it seems to be a crown. oblique one, but parted all along the breast, It is made of thick swaths, but the contexture and the back; a border also was sewed to it, is of linen, and it is doubled round many lest the aperture should look too indecently; times, and sewed together; besides which, a it was also parted where the hands were to piece of fine linen covers the whole cap,
come out. from the upper part, and reaches down to Besides these, the high-priest put on a third the forehead, and hides the seams of the garment, called the ephod, which resembles swaths, which would otherwise appear in the epomis of the Greeks. It was woven to decently: this adheres closely upon the solid the depth of a cubit, of several colours, with part of the head, that it may not fall off du gold intermixed, and embroidered: but it left ring the sacred service about the sacrifices. the middle of the breast uncovered; it was
* The use of these golden bells, at the bottom of the high-priest's long garment, seems to bave been this ; that by shaking his garment at the time of his offering incense in the temple, on the great day of expiation, or at other proper periods of his sacred ministrations on the great festivals, the people might have notice of it, and might fall to their own prayers at the time of incense, or other proper periods; and so the whole congregation might at once offer those common prayers jointly with the high-priest to the Almighty. See Luc. i. 10. Nor probably is the father of Sirach to be otherwise understood, when he says of Aaron, the first high-priest, Ecclus. xlv. 9, God compassed Aaron with pomegranates, and with many golden bells round about; that as he went there might be a sound, and a noise made, that might be heard in the temple, for memorial to the children of his people.
† The bell seems to have been a sacred utensil of very ancient use in Asia. Golden bells formed a part of the ornaments of the pontifical robe of the Jewish high-priest, with which he invested himself upon those grand and peculiar festivals, when he entered into the sanctuary. That robe was very magnificent; it was ordained to be of sky-blue, and the border of it, at the bottom, was adorned with pomegranates and gold bells intermixed equally, and at equal distances. The use and intent of these bells is evident from these words : And it shall be upon Aaron to minister, and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he cometh
out, that he die not. The sound of the numerous bells that covered the hem of his garment, gave notice to the assembled people that the most awful ceremony of their religion had commenced. When arrayed in this garb, he bore into the sanctuary the vessel of incense; it was the signal to prostrate themselves before the Deity, and to commence those fervent ejaculations which were to ascend with the column of that incense to the throne of heaven. “ One indispensable ceremony in the Indian Pooja is the ringing of a small bell by the officiating Brahmin. The women of the idol, or dancing girls of the pagoda, have little golden bells fastened to their feet, the soft harmonious tinkling of which vibrates in unison with the exquisite melody of their voices." (Maurice's Indian Antiquities, vol. v. p. 137.) “The ancient kings of Persia, wbo, in fact, united to their own persons the regal and sacerdotal office, were accustomed to have the fringes of their robes adorned with pomegranates and golden bells. The Arabian courtesans, like the Indian women, have little golden bells fastened round their legs, neck, and elbows, to the sound of which they dance before the king. The Arabian princesses wear golden rings on their fingers, to which little bells are suspended, as well as in the flowing tresses of their hair, that their superior rank may be known, and they themselves, in passing, receive the homage due to their exalted station." Calmet's Dictionary, article Bell.. B.