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forth from the woods. The boats plish it. He then turned, went were presently lowered ; Captain round the stern, came up on the Raine taking one himself. On ap- other side, and weut away a-head proaching the shore it was found not about a quarter of a mile; and then, only dangerous, but utterly imprac- suddenly turning, came at the ship ticable, to land, of which circum- with tremendous velocity. The stance they were informed, in weak vessel was going at the rate of five and tremulous voices, by the almost knots; but such was the force when starved and nearly worn-out creatures the whale struck the ship, under the themselves, who could scarcely, cat-head, that the vessel had stern from the miserable plighit in which way, at the rate of several knots : they were, articulate a syllable. One the consequence was, that the sea poor fellow took courage to plunge rushed into the cabin-windows; every into the waves, and with great difli. man on deck was knocked down ; culty reached the boat. It appeared and, worse than all, the bows were that only one of the others could completely stove in, and in a very swim. After bringing in the boat as few minutes the vessel filled, and near the rocks as possible, amidst a went on her beam-ends. At this heavy surf, they succeeded in getting time, the Captain and Second Mate on board, much bruised and lacerated had their boats made fast to a whale; by repeated falls. Their safety was but on beholding the awful scene no sooner effected, than each devoutly which had taken place, they immeexpressed his gratitude to that benign diately cut from the fish, and made Being, who had so wonderfully pre- for the ship. served them from sharing in the de- By cutting away the masts, the struction to which their unhappy vessel righted; the upper deck was shipmates had fallen victims. then scuttled, and some water and

These men are now with Cap. bread were procured for the two TAIN RAINE : their pames are Tuomas boats, in wbich they were compelled CHAPPEL, WILLIAM WRIGHT, and to remain, as all thoughts of saving Seth Weeks. The following is the the ship were given up. In expect account which they gave of the dis- ation of falling in with some vessel, tressing circumstance. They sailed they remained three days by the from Nantucket, in the American wreck, making sails, &c.; but were ship Essex, of 260 tons, G. Pollard, compelled, at length, to abandon it, Master, on the 19th of August, 1819, and stood away to the southward, in on a whaling voyage. They ar- hopes of getting the variable winds, rived in the South Seas, where they and experiencing fine weather. But were pretty fortunate, having suc- the wind being constantly from the ceeded in procuring 750 barrels of east and east-south-east, they made oil, and were in the latitude of 47 much lee-way, and were prevented deg. south, and long. 118 west, from keeping to the southward ; in when the accident happened, on the consequence of which, on the 20th 13th of November, 1820. On that of December, they made the Island day they were among whales, and from which CAPTAIN RAINE took the three boats were lowered down. them, and which was supposed to be The Mate's boat got stove, and had Ducie's Island, at which place the returned to the ship to be repaired. boat remained one week; but the Shortly after, a wbale of the largest Island affording hardly any nourishclass struck the ship, and knocked ment, they resolved" on venturing off part of the false keel, just abreast for the coast, leaving behind them of the main channels. The animal the three men taken on board the then remained for some time along- Surrey, who were thus providentially side, endeavouring to clasp the ship rescued from perishing by starvation with his jaws, but could not accom. on a barren island.


The Christian and Civic Economy of Large Towns.--Nos. I. to VIII.

By Thomas CHALMERS, D.D., Minister of St. John's Church, Glasgow. 8vo. Pp. 358. 88. 6d. bds.

(Continued from page 46.) The division of the country into in the other, they were huddled toparishes was one of the wise pro- gether in the seclusion of lanes and visions of our ancestors to secure the alleys, and crowded dwellings, one religious instruction of the whole element of ignorance and depravity, people ; and if, in every parish, there acting upon another, and all out of were a minister sufficiently devoted the range of the operation of good to his work, and adequately qualitied example and hallowing precept. for it, we know not that any thing The practical conclusions to which more could be desired. In parisbes our Author would, therefore, conof moderate size, at least, there duct us, are these, and they rest not could then be no complaint of igno- so much upon reasoning, as upon rance or neglect; Christianity would experience :--Assimilate the city 10 then, to use Dr. CHALMERS's expres- the village, by dividing it into secsion, "perrade” the whole mass; tions ;-let every section of the city the children would be catechized, be as fully pervaded by religious inthe negligent and vicious reproved, struction as the village ;-in parishes the poor consoled, the sick visited, too extensive to be cultivated by the and to all would the Gospel be personal labours of their ministers, preached. Some of those happily let a division be made, and the numcircumstanced Village-Parishes in ber of churches multiplied, and subEngland and Scotland, where most ordinate agents, of character and religious influence has been exerted piety, be also appointed for the inby an enlightened and laborious struction of the ignorant poor, by ministry, appear to have been in the Sabbath-schools, and friendly advice; author's recollection, when forming and Jest the effect should be lost, by that contrast between them and the dissipating itself over too wide a surscene of his present labours, which face, let both Churches, Districthas given birth to the work under schools, and Sabbath-schools, be consideration. If they were the re- provided according to the demands verse of each other in their moral of the population, and let the agents condition, the difference in the moral attempt no more than they are able advantages, enjoyed by the inhabite effectually to perform. The last is, ants of such villages, and those af- that great principle of " locality, forded to a City Parish, stretched be- which the Author so forcibly inculyond the bounds contemplated at its cates. formation, was not less obvious and It is time, however, that Dr. C. impressive. In the one, the Minister should become the exponent of his was seen in familiar and pastoral in- own views. The inefficiency of all tercourse with his flock; in the other, the means already in operation, how... the great majority of the parishioners ever numerous and praise-woriky were strangers to their spiritual in- fully to reach the case of the ignostructor. In one, the village-school rant and vicious poor in large towns, dispensed a sufficient share of learn- is thus stated :ing to all; in the other, such insti. tutions were too limited to benefit, doings, in behalf of Christianity. And

“ This is an age of many ostensible perhaps, a twentieth part. In one, it looks a paradox to the general eye, the people were constantly in the that, with this feature of it standing out presence of the sanctifying truth so conspicuously, there should also be aud high moral standard of religion; an undoubted increase of crimes, and Vol. I. Third Series. FEBRUARY, 1822.


commitments, and executions, all mark- of no expedient, by which this woful ing an augmented depravity among our degeneracy can be arrested and recalled, population. A very slight degree of but an actual search and entry upon the arithmetic, we are persuaded, can ex- territory of wickedness. A mere signal plain the paradox. Let it simply be con- of invitation is not enough. In reference sidered, in the case of any christian in- to the great majority, and in reference stitution, whether its chief office be to to the most needful, this were as powerattract or to pervade. Should it only be less as was the bidding to the marriagethe former, we have no doubt, that a feast of the parable. We must have great visible exhibition may be drawn recourse, at last, to the final expedient around it; and that stationary pulpits that was adopted on that occasion; or, and general Sabbath-schools, and open in other words, go out to the streets and places of repair for instruction indiscri- the highways, and, by every fair meaminately to all who will, must give rise sure of moral, and personal, and friendly to a great absolute amount of attend- application, compel the multitude to ance. And whether we look at the come in. We must do with the near, streets, when all in a fervour with what we are doing with the distant world. church-going, -or witness the full assem- We do not expect to christianise the blage of children, who come from all latter, by messages of entreaty, from quarters, with their weekly preparations, the regions of paganism. But we send to a pious and intelligent teacher,-or our messages to them. Neither do we compute the overflowing auditory, that, give a roving commission to the bearers, Sabbath after Sabbath, some free, even- but assign to each of them their respecing sermon is sure to bring out from tive stations in that field, which is the among the closely peopled mass,--or, world. And we most assuredly need not finally, read of the thousands which find expect to christianise any city of nomia place in the enumerations of some nal Christendom, by waiting the demand great philanthropic society,—we are apt, of its various districts for religious infrom all this, to think that a good and a struction, and acting upon the demands, religious influence is in full and busy as they arrive. There must just be as agcirculation on every side of us. And gressive a movement in the one case as in yet, there is not a second-rate town in the other. There is not the same physical our empire, which does not afford ma- distance, but there is nearly the same terials enough, both for all this stir and moral distance, to be described with both; appearance, on the one hand, and for and they who traverse this distance, rapid increase, in the quantum of moral though without one mile of locomotion deterioration, on the other. The doings to the place of their labour, do, in to which we have adverted, may bear, effect, maintain the character, and fulfil with a kind of magnetic inflaence, on all the duty of missionaries.” pp. 65–67. that is kindred in character to their own design and their own principle. They The manner in which Dr. CAALmay communicate a movement to the

MERS would organize this “ aggresminority who will, but leave still and sive movement,” is thus described :motionless the majority who will not. Whole streets and whole departments

“ In most of the Sabbath-school somay be nearly untouched by them. cieties with which we are acquainted, this There is the firm and the obstinate principle is disregarded. The teachers growth of a sedentary corruption, which are indiscriminately stationed in all parts will require to be more actively assailed. of the city, and the pupils are as indisIt is certainly cheering to count the criminately drawn from all parts of the positive numbers on the side of Chris- city. Now, what we affirm, is, that the eftianity. But, beyond the ken of ordi- fectiveness of each individual teacher is nary notice, there is an outnumbering greatly augmented, if a definite locality both on the side of week-day profligacy, be given to him ; and that a number of and of Sabbath-profanation. There is teachers spread over any given neighroom enough for apparent Christianity, bourhood on this principle, is armed, in and real corruption, to be gaining ground consequence of it, with a much higher together, each in their respective terri- moral power over the habits and opitories; and the delusion is, that, while nions of the rising generation. many are rejoicing in the symptoms of “ Let a small portion of the town, our country's reformation, the country with its geographical limits, be assigned itself may be ripening for some awful to such a teacher. Let his place of incrisis, by which to mark, in characters struction be within this locality, or as of vengeance, the consummation of its near as possible to its confines. Let him guilt.

restrain his attentions to the children of “In these circumstances, do we know its families, sending forth no invitations to those who are without, and encou- power of assimilation, too, is all the raging, as far as it is proper, the attend- while adding to its own magnitude. And ance of all who are within. Under such thus it is both a possible thing that an arrangement, he will attain a comfort schools may multiply, under a general and an efficiency in his work, which, system, and that out of the resources of with the common arrangement, is utterly a mighty population, an overflowing atunattainable. And, we farther conceive, tendance may be afforded to each of that, if this local assignation of teachers them, while an humble fraction of the vere to become general, it would lead to whole is all that is overtaken ; and far more precious and lasting conse- below the goodly superficies of a great quences of good to society." p.

54. apparent stir and activity, may an un“ Under a local system, the teachers seen structure of baser materials deepen move towards the people. Under a and accumulate underneath, so as to general system, such of the people as furnish a solution of the fact, that, with are disposed to Christianity, move to- an increase of christianexertion amongst wards them. To estimate the compara- us, there should, at one and the same tive effect of these two, take the actual time, be an increase of heathenism. state of every mixed and crowded popu- “ It is the pervading operation of the lation, where there must be many among local system, which gives it such a supewhom this

disposition is utterly extin- rior value and effect in onr estimation. guished. The question is, how shall the It is its thorough diffusion through that influence of a Sabbath-school be brought portion of the mass in which it operates. most readily and abundantly into contact It is that movement, by which it traverses with their families ? Which of the two the whole population, and by which, inparties, the teacher or those to be taught, stead of only holding forth its signals to should make the first advances to such those of them who are awake, it knocks an approximation ? To meet this ques. at the doors of those who are most protion, let it ever be remembered, that foundly asleep, and, with a force far there is a wide and a mighty difference more effective than if it were physical, between the wants of our physical, and drags them out to a willing attendance those of our moral and spiritual nature. upon its ministrations. In this way, or In proportion to our want of food, is indeed in any way, may it still be imour desire for food; but it is not so with possible to reach the parents of our preour want of knowledge, or virtue, or sent generation. But the important religion. The more destitnte we are of practical fact is, that, averse as they these last, the more dead we are as to may be to Christianity on their own acany inclination for them. A general count, and negligent as they often are, system of Sabbath-schooling may attract in their own persons, of the Christianity towards it all the predisposition that of their children, still, there is a pride there is for christian instruction, and and a satisfaction felt in their attendance yet leave the majority as untouched and upon the Sabbath-schools, and their proas unawakened as it found them. In ficiency at the Sabbath-schools. Let the moving through the lanes and the re- system be as impotent as it may in its efcesses of a long-neglected population, ficiency upon the old, still, it comes into it will be found of the fearful multitude, extensive contact with the ductile and that not only is their acquaintance with susceptible young; and, from the way the gospel extinguished, but their wish in which it is fitted to muster them nearly to obtain an acquaintance with it is also all into its presence, it is fitted, in extinguished. They not only have no proper hands, to wield a high and a righteousness ; but they have no hunger- presiding influence over the destinies of ing nor thirsting after it. A general a future age.” pp. 61–63. teacher may draw some kindred particles out of this assemblage. He may bring

The following extract shows the around him such families as are of a hoo plan in operation, in the method purmogeneous quality with himself. Those sued by the Saltmarket Sabbathpurer ingredients of the mass, which school Society, Glasgow :retain so much of the ethereal character “ The field of its operations takes in as to have an ethereal tendency, may both sides of the street, with the deep, move towards a place of central and and narrow, and numerous lanes which congenial attraction, though at a con- branch off from them. It bears a popusiderable distance from them; and, even lation of 3624; and to cultivate this though, in so doing, they have to come extent, there were only four individuals, separately out from that overwhelming at the outset of the undertaking, who, admixture with which they are encom- instead of spreading themselves over the passed. But the bulky sediment remains whole, appropriated each a small locality, untouched and stationary; and, by, its and waited for more agents, ere they proceeded to lay out the remainder. and Sabbath-schools, the truths of And, such is the impulse that lies in a our holy religion may be more genefield of exertion, with its boundaries rally diffused, and made to bear dilying visibly

before you, such is the ex rectly upon the hearts and lives of citement given to human power, when linked to a task that may be surmounted, it will be observed throughout the

the whole population of the country, instead of being left to expatiate at random, orer an obscure and fathomless whole, that so far is he from supposunknown,-such is the superior charm of ing that efficient and moral effects a statistical over an extended territory, can result from the mere communiand such the more intense sympathy of cation of the elements of human a devoted few, in the prosecution of learning, separate from the direct their common and defined object, than inculcation of religious doctrines and that of the scattered many, who have motives, that he scarcely glances at spread beyond the limits either of mutual

an opinion which, on this side of the inspection or of general control,—that, Tweed, has had so many abettors, in a few months, did this little association and which has insensibly enfeebled both complete its numbers, and thoroughly allocate and pervade the whole many school-institutions among us, ground of its projeeted operations. It which have set out, and been indeed has now opened fourteen schools, and carried on, under other professions, provided them with teachers. The num- His District-schools, to meet the ber of scholars is 420, amounting to wants of the youth of large towns, more than a ninth of the whole popula- are supposed to be conducted upon tion. This is a very full proportion in- the old and tried plan of his country ; deed; for, on pretty extensive surveys, bis Sabbath-schools are to be carit is found, that the whole number of ried on by pious agents, who are children, from the age of six to fifteen, comes to about one-tifth of the popula: supposed to exert themselves to bring tion. Certain it is, that all the general the minds of their charge under resocieties, in prerious operation, had ligious influence, and to form in them brought out but a very slender fraction the habit of keeping holy the Sabindeed of the number brought out by bath-day," and of attending the this local and pervading society ;- that services of the house of God; and many a crowded haunt of this district, the whole is further supposed to be was as completely untouched by the an- under the natural and proper supertecedent methods, as are the families in intendence of the Ministers of God's the wilds of Tartary ;-that hundreds of word, to direct, encourage, control, young, never in church, and without and to attach to their congregations, one religious observation to mark and to separate their Sabbath from the other and the Church of Curist, the childays of the week, have thus been brought dren thus instructed, as they may within an atmosphere, which they now actually benefit by a ministry for breathe for the first time in their exist- which they are prepared, and to which ence ;--that, with a small collection of they are accustomed to attend. It is books attached to each humble seminary, the merit of Dr. C.'s work, to adopt there is a reading of the purest and most nothing new as to principles ; but to impressive character, in full circulation bring out those which the authority amongst both the parents and the chil- of Christianity has sanctioned, and dren who belong to it;-and, what is not which experience has confirmed, in the least important effect of all, that, by the fulness of their proof, and the amthe frequent recurrence of week-day visitations, there is both a christian and plitude of their application; and thus a civilizing influence sent forth upon a

to set the heart and the hand to work, whole neighbourhood, and a thousand rather than engage the understandnameless cordialities are constantly is- ing to compose and measure the suing out of the patriarchal relationship, pillars upon which he would call which has thus been formed between a the energies of the wise and good, of man of worth, and so many outcast and all ranks, to erect the superstructure neglected families." pp. 77, 78.

of a national reformation. The soil Whilst Dr. CHALMERS so ably on which he composed these elopoints out the means by which, quent and powerful discussions gave through the multiplication of him, in this respect, no small adChurches, the division of Parishes, vantage. In Scotland, education, and the establishment of District intimately and inseparably connected

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