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ii. 13. There are in Pergamos one Synagogue, one Greek church, and one Armenian church. The population of Pergamos is said to be about 15,000: riz. 1500 Greeks, 200 or 300 Armenians, 100 Jews, and the rest Turks. streets are wider and cleaner than any which we have before seen in Asia.
"Thyatira, Nov. 9.-At eight o'clock we reached Thyatira, now Akhisar. We read the address to the church in Thyatira, prayed to that GOD whom saints of old worshipped in this place, and then retired to rest; commending this city, once beloved, to the compassion of our Redeemer.
"Nov. 10.-The Turks have destroyed all remnants of the ancient church; and even the place where it stood is now unknown. At present, there are in the town 1000 houses, besides 200 or 300 small huts: there are about 350 Greek houses, and 25 or 30 belonging to the Armenians: the others are all Turkish. There are nine Mosques, one Greek church, and one Armenian church; four or five Greek Priests, and one Armenian. -Thyatira is situated near a small river, a branch of the Caicus, in the centre of an extensive plain. At the distance of three or four miles it is almost completely surrounded by mountains. The houses are low, many of them mud or earth. Excepting the Moslem's palace, there is scarcely a decent house in the place. The streets are narrow and dirty, and every thing indicates poverty and degradation.
"Saturday, Nov. 11.-Went to the Armenian church at morning prayers. About 30 were present.
"Sardis.-We reached Sardis, now called Sart, at half past six, in ten hours' travel from Thyatira.
"Nov. 12, Sunday.-After our morning devotions, we took some Tracts and a Testament, and went to a mill near us, where three or four Greeks live. Found one of them grinding grain: another soon came in: both were able to read. We read to them the Address to the church in Sardis, and then the account of the day of Judgment: Matt. xxv. Conversed with them about what we read, and then spoke of the LORD's Day, and endeavoured to explain its design, and gave them some tracts. We had our usual forenoon service in the upper part of the mill; and could not refrain from weeping, while we sung the 74th Psalm, and prayed, among the ruins of Sardis. Here were once a few names, which had not defiled their garments; and they are now walking with their REDEEMER in white. But, alas! the church as a body had only a name to live, while they were in reality dead;
and they did not hear the voice of merciful admonition, and did not strengthen the things which were ready to die. Wherefore the candlestick has been removed out of its place. In the afternoon we walked out, and enjoyed a season of social worship in the fields. This has been a solemn, and, we trust, a profitable Sabbath to us. Our own situation, and the scenery around us, have conspired to give a pensive, melancholy turn to our thoughts. Our eye has affected our hearts, while we saw around us the ruins of this once splendid city, with nothing now to be seen but a few mud huts, inhabited by ignorant Turks; and the only men, who bear the Christian name, at work all day in their mill. Every thing seems as if GOD had cursed the place, and left it to the dominion of SATAN. There is now in Sardis no Christian family!
"Philadelphia, Nov. 14.-We reached Philadelphia, now called Allah-Scheyr, i. e. the City of GOD.
"Nov. 15.-Early this morning, THEOLOGUS, a Greek, to whom we had a letter of recommendation, went with us to visit GABRIEL, the Archbishop of this diocese. He has held his present office six years, and is reputed a man of learning; but is now quite aged, perhaps 75. Formerly he had one Bishop under him; now none, and but about twenty priests. His diocese includes Sardis on the west, and Laodicea on the east; but he says that there are not above 600 or 700 Greek houses in it. There are five churches in this town, besides twenty which are either old or small, and not now used. The whole number of houses is said to be 3000, of which 250 are Greek, the rest Turkish. We gave the Archbishop some tracts and a Testament. The city is situated at the foot of Mount Tmolus, and is nearly in the form of a parallelogram, and surrounded by walls now in decay. We counted six minarets. Saw the church in which, they say, the Christians assembled, to whom ST. JOHN wrote: it is now a mosque. We went to see a wall about a mile west of the town, said to have been built of men's bones. The wall now remaining is about thirty rods long, and in some places eight feet thick and ten high. The tradition is, that there was a church near the place dedicated to ST. JOHN, and when a vast multitude were assembled to celebrate his festival, the enemy came upon them and slew them all. Their bodies were not buried, but piled up together in the form of a wall. The wall seems to be composed, principally, if not wholly, of bones. On breaking off pieces, we found some small bones almost entire."
SMUT IN WHEAT.-"The nature of smut," says SIR JOHN SINCLAIR, "is now well known. It is a small and delicate microscopic plant, which would soon be destroyed by the variations of the atmosphere, if wheat did not offer an asylum where it could propagate itself. While it is only attached externally to the grain, and before its seeds or germs have penetrated into the plant, its germination may be effectually prevented by any operation which will clear the grain of the smutty powder, or that destroys it by acrid, corrosive, or poisonous applications. If nothing effectual is done for that purpose, the smut penetrates into the plant of the wheat while it is still very young. There it produces globules, which increase with the car, and become perfect seeds when the wheat approaches maturity."
ELECTRO-MAGNETISM, &c.-Recent experiments, by MR. FARADAY and M. BоCKMAN, appear to have established a singular discovery, viz. that a needle may have four poles, or rather, that one line of steel may be two distinct magnets. In M. BOCKMAN'S experiment, which may be found in the Bibliotheque Universelle, the two extremities of a steel needle, under certain circumstances, became north poles; and the two south poles appeared in the middle of the needle. M. ARAGO, also, has announced to the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, that by winding a conducting wire round a bar of steel, he can produce as many poles, and consequently as many separate electrical magnets, as he pleases, in the same bar, either by common or voltaic electricity.
VISION. DR. BREWSTER, of Edinburgh, has published an important Paper entitled, "Observations on Vision through Coloured Glasses, and on their application to Telescopes, and to Microscopes of great magnitude." We can only state here one practical result of his interesting Experiments. He has ascertained. that vision through blue glass is painful and injurious to the eye, because it has the property of absorbing only the middle rays of a spectrum, viz. the green, yellow, and orange, and transmits the violet and the red. The spectrum, in such a case, consists of two separate images, the one red, the other blue; and the eye cannot see distinctly by means of rays of such different refrangibilities.-DR. B., after trying a great variety of coloured
glasses, found that a yellowish-green glass is best calculated to relieve tender vision. It almost entirely absorbs the extreme red rays, and extinguishes a large proportion of the blue. Hence it not only relieves the eye, by attenuating the light, but improves the image, by diminishing the error arising from its different refrangibility.
BRITISH MECHANICAL POWERS.-M. DUPIN, speaking of the immense mechanical force set in action by the steamengines of England, gives the following illustration of its amount:-The great pyramid of Egypt required for its erection the labour of above 100,000 men, for twenty years; but if it were required again to raise the stones from the quarries, and place them at their present height, the action of the steam-engines of England, which are managed at most by 36,000 men, would be sufficient to produce the effect in eighteen hours.-And M. DUPIN says, that if it were required to know how long a time they would take to cut the stones, and move them from the quarries to the pyramid, a very few days would be found sufficient.-The total number of the steam-engines in England represents a power of 320,000 horses.
INSTINCT OF THE Bird called, "THE HONEY-EATER."-CAPTAIN KOTzebue, whose Voyage of Discovery is lately published, mentions the following circumstance. "The Hottentots, who have a very quick sight, try to observe a bee flying home with its honey, and pursue it; but they often would not succeed in following the bee, were they not assisted by the honey-eater birds, which perceive the intention of the men. The bird now pursues the bee, and gives the Hottentots, who pursue both, a signal by a whistle where the honeycomb is; and when they have taken out the honey, they throw some to the bird, as a reward for its service.”—KOTZEBUE's Voyage of Discovery, vol. ii. p. 282.
EFFECTS OF MAGNETISM ON CHRONOMETERS.-When HARRISON's timekeeper was under trial at Richmond, it did not go as well as was expected. No one suspected the cause, till his late Majesty, GEORGE III., who interested himself much about the machine, suggested that it was affected by a magnet which was lying near it. The magnet was removed, and the time-keeper recovered its rate.
Relating principally to the FOREIGN MISSIONS carried on under the direction of the METHODIST Conference.
Extracts from MR. NEWSTEAD's Journal.
Nov. 11th, 1820. Columbo.- I hear from Negombo, that our Assistant Missionary has adopted a new method of doing good, by assembling, under the trees on the Fort Green, the numerous individuals who are continually coming down from Kandy, to purchase salt at the stores there, and preaching to those Gentiles the unsearchable riches of CHRIST. Many listen with much attention; and some may thus receive into their hearts, the Truth as it is in JESUS."
14th.-I applied for medical advice, as the change of air appears to produce no favourable effect on my health, as was expected, and as is generally the case in this Island. It is thus our duty to use every means, in humble dependance on the divine blessing, although I confess I have but little expectation from any thing which does not imply an entire restoration of constitution. Nothing is too hard for the LORD, and I have the fullest confidence in this, that every event, great or small, connected with His great work, will be over-ruled for good.
21st. I have received several affectionate letters from some of our dear Brethren, who, hearing of my indisposition, are kindly anxious to show me every attention, each believing that his station may afford a favourable change. 25th.-I have continued to be better and worse alternately; but still I humbly thank the LORD, I have the most pleasing assurances of the prosperity of our work on my station, and this very greatly alleviates the pain I should feel at so long a detention from it.
27th. I went a few miles with Brother CLOUGH, to the opening of a new School, and witnessed a most cheering scene; which, had I not been too ill to enjoy any thing, would have raised my spirits much; the place was quite filled with Native faces, young and old, who attended patiently to a long service in the Native language.
29th. I received a very interesting letter from our interpreter, concerning the deplorable state of the Roman Ca
VOL. 1. Third Series. FEBRUARY,
tholics in a village where we are now erecting a new School, and beginning to preach the Gospel. However, the more these poor injured people are oppressed by their spiritual guides, the more, I should hope, it will render them disposed to receive instruction.
30th.-1 received a strong proof of the truly commendable industry of my young colleague, in a Copy of his first sermon in Singhalese; which is declared, by the most competent judges here, to be very far beyond all that could have been expected from him yet, having been in our work less than a year, and on the island less than three. But he writes me word, in an animated letter, that he hopes soon to take the country places without an interpreter.
December 4th.-I have been a little better several days, and hope to return home immediately. We heard the sermon before the Supreme Court, and had a favourable opportunity, afterwards, of approaching the table of the LORD.
5th. The printing of the Liturgy being now finished, and the first sheet of the Psalms approved by the Bible Society's Committee, I intend to embrace the earliest possible time to return to Negombo; hoping to be strengthened enough to go up to Kornegalle, and begin our work there, and then come back and finish the Psalms, if my health should demand more quietness.
6th. I set out on my journey. I read, by the way, the Review in our Magazines of the Life of the devoted HENRY MARTYN, and felt ready, many times, to exclaim, " LORD, let my last end be like his, and my life as devoted! as useful it never can be,-but as holy, as zealous, as active." I trust, although I feel quite unworthy even to walk in his footsteps, that yet I could say, in a humble degree with him, "Let the last drop of this base blood be shed, if one of India's children may be benefited thereby." Yea, though deeply unworthy, I humbly repeat,
"My life, my blood, I here present, If for thy cause they may be spent." 1822. R
And spent I feel as if they soon would be; for I am at a loss for words to describe the extreme degree of weakness I frequently feel, from a few, very few years' labour in this relaxing clime.
8th.-Negombo.-I am more than ever delighted to observe the growing stability of our cause here, and now feel fully assured that the LORD himself deigns to bless and prosper the work of our hands. Our little congregation stand firm, and attend punctually the more retired ordinances of our worship. They pour out the affectionate feelings of their hearts in a most affecting way, concerning my health; praising the LORD for my present return, being assured that it is in answer to their united prayers. Little companies have
been here at intervals to show their unfeigned respect and regard, and have cost my heart many keen feelings, and my eyes many tears. How delightful are the fruits of the Gospel! The station owes much of late to our dear and valuable young friend and colleague. Thus the LORD has in mercy provided for the falling down of one by the raising up of another. I heard our young friend preach in Portuguese with delight and thankfulness, and am glad indeed that he has favour among the people, who respect him much, and do not "despise his youth."
17th.- Kornegalle.-After breakfast this morning, the Lieutenant-Governor walked out with the Commandant to view the places most eligible for the erection of certain public works, and has very obligingly given me leave to build our Mission-Residence wherever I may consider best, under the direction of the Resident, to whom, of course, I referred it. That Gentleman having lent me every assistance in fitting up with seats, &c., the place of public worship, we proceeded to it with joy; for I felt better than for any preceding day some time past. MR. WRIGHT seemed much pleased with the prospect of a public Christian Service, where one had never been held, and warmly congratulated us upon our attempt first to introduce the Gospel into the Seven Korles, (i.e. these Provinces of the Kaudian country) where, as he justly observed, "It had never been heard since it was a land." I humbly rejoiced before GOD that it was so, and felt my heart to bound with the delightful hope that it was the dawn of a glorious Gospel-day to those who so einphatically "sit in darkness and the shadow of death."
His words forcibly brought to my
mind the beautiful lines of the poet, so very appropriate here ;
The sound of the church-going bell,
This morning, thanks be to God, the scene was changed,-for many did repair with us to the House of Prayer, though only a temporary one, and we had a gracious season in worshipping at the feet of our LORD. With some assistance, I went through the service, and preached from 1 TIMOTHY i. 15; reading for our two selected lessons, the 60th of Isaiah, and the 17th of Acts: both of them are applicable, in no small degree, to the circumstances of this place. My. heart felt unutterable things, that strength was vouchsafed me to declare in these regions the "unscarchable riches of CHRIST."
The work of preaching is inerpresssibly dear to me still, and I am the more sensible of it, by my present inability; this being only the third time I have preached in as many months!
I have humble hope in GOD, that from this very favourable opening of our work, many "sinners" among these huge rocks and mountains will prove by experience the truth of this "faithful saying," and magnify the Name, the adorable Name of our LORD JESUS.
18th.-Finding there were two Budhist Temples in this immediate neighbourhood, I went this morning to see them. The first I reached with much difficulty, it being situated on the very summit of one of the immense rocks, which half encircle this place. path, for a long way, lay on the edge of the rock, through a path tolerably worn by the numerous devotees who frequent this Temple. The sublime view from this height, surpasses all description. The principal object of adoration in the first building we came to, appeared to be the Print of Budhu's foot, as there was no large image of the whole figure here, as is usual. This was kept in an adjoining temple. The print of the foot was, of course, of colossal dimensions, deeply indented in the floor of the place, or rather, of the rock; here, however, was a table covered with fresh flowers, &c., as if the whole image had been present; and here we saw the Priest sanctify his breakfast prostrate before the print of the foot! -where he reverently placed the rice,. &c., just brought to him by some early devotees. A whole family were winding round the rugged paths, and looked
at ns with astonishment.
The place around us was admirably neat; and vast rocks and mighty trees rose as far above us, as we stood elevated above the plain below, so high that we could scarcely distinguish objects. The Priest we found a talkative, friendly old man, venerable with age, and very obsequious. I held some conversation with him which I have not time to transcribe. He gave me candid answers, and said, they believed, though they did not confess it, that the world was made by the GREAT GOD; but as to the Name of JESUS or His great salvation, of course he knew nothing! There is something peculiarly touching to the heart of a Christian, in the dead apathy, or the vacant wonder, with which these poor creatures answer, "No," when you inquire of them if they ever heard, or have any idea of that Name, which includes in it every thing dear to the soul of man! And there is then something more than ordinarily delightful and glorious in the boundless views of Divine Prophecy. Standing in an Idol Temple, throned on the tops of the rocks of Kandy, which seem to claim the name of the everlasting hills, and surrounded only by the Priests and Votaries of a superstition, the growth of ages, and which is intermingled with their every pursuit,-how divinely refreshing was it to remember there, when every thing seemed to contradict it, that" HIS NAME shall endure for ever; HIS NAME shall be continued as long as the sun and men shall be blessed in HIM, and ALL nations shall call HIM blessed."
The Priest, however, allowed me to leave a copy of the Acts of the Apostles, which he immediately began to read with apparent pleasure. I promised to send him also a copy of St. Luke's Gospel, and departed with many thanks from him for having visited their airy abodes. Descending, I wound round the base of the rock for about a mile, and came to the other Temple, where the Priest was still more communicative and obliging; and, to my equal surprise and delight, while I stood with him, before all his idols, he entreated to be instructed in English and the Christian religion, eagerly inquiring, as soon as he knew who I was, if I was come to live at Kornegalle, and would give them instruction, and allow them to visit me? I was not displeased to hear that. Since the Priests have lost the patronage and support of the Kandian Kings, their Temples have fallen much into decay. They are, therefore, much more willing to conciliate their
present rulers, by learning our language, and, at least, by not opposing our religion. I made the best use I could of a protracted conversation, on this so favourable opening; and proposed immediately the commencement of a Native School in the Priest's House, which was gladly acceded to, himself desiring to be one of the first scholars! I have, therefore, sent the usual books, &c., with an English master, whom I have with me. In the course of an hour or two, I had left the Christian Scriptures in the Temple at the top of the rock, and arranged for the establishment of a Christian School in that at the bottom, with the eager acquiescence of more than a dozen persons round me, both old and young.
19th. I had resolved on going to Kandy, and received a very kind invitation from MR. LAMBRICK, our respected friend of the Church Mission, but have given it up, believing that it is rather my duty to return to Negombo, as soon as I can put things here in a suitable train. I walked towards evening to the Priest's cottage, the walls of which, I was amused to see now covered with large English sheet-alphabets, reading lessons, &c. The Priest and a lad present repeated to me every letter of the alphabet correctly, and yesterday morning they had never seen them! I spoke with the convalescent patients in the hospital on my way, gave them some Testaments, and a little advice, and returned, very weak and unwell.
20th.-Vast numbers of the Kandian peasantry are employed around us, cutting new roads, &c. They are a noble race of people in appearance, far more so than their brethren on the coast of the Island; they all wear turbans, which preclude theuse of that effeminate article the comb, so universally worn on the borders of the Island. The females here also dress much more neatly, and are less seen; some of the children are beautiful. All their houses are built very high from the ground, on mounds of earth artificially raised. The general face of the country, because here there are very few cocoa-nut-trees, is much like the most romantic and mountainous parts of our own Island. The country is covered
with fine timber.
21st. At length, I rejoice to say, "We have found out a place for the LORD, an habitation for the mighty GoD of JACOB,"-even in Kornegalle; and have cleared and fenced a sacred spot on which to erect a house of prayer to His holy name. The Resident has been with me, and fixed on the spot and its boundaries, in one of the most lovely