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arouse to repentance every one who reads them. No Christian, we think, can say that he has fully performed bis duty towards his unawakened relatives, until he has done his best to persuade them to give an attentive perusal to this almost unequalled Book. And if a Preacher of the Gospel wish to study one of the best earthly models of the spirit and temper in which he should "deal with souls" in bis pulpit labours, let him often read, on the Saturday Evening or Sabbath Morning, the Introduction to the "Alarm," the Applicatory Paragraphs which are found at the close of most of the Chapters, the frequent bursts of devout supplication to ALMIGHTY GOD for a blessing on what the Author is writing, which occur throughout the Work, and the fine specimen of hortatory eloquence,
and of importunate and beseeching expostulation with perishing men, which constitutes the "Conclusion." He has not in him the soul of a true Minister of CHRIST, who can read these passages without catching from them, in au augmented degree, kindred emotions of benevolent zeal, and yearning pity for mankind. The studies of Preachers should be directed, not merely to the furniture of their understandings with theolo gical knowledge, but to the production and maintenance of suitable affections, both towards Gop, and towards their flocks and congregations. And whatever other books may do for their heads, we are of opinion that such Writers as ALLEIN will, by the divine blessing, be found pre-eminently useful to their hearts.
The Practical Works of RICHARD BAXTER. A New Edition. Vol. II. Containing the Christian Directory, or Sum of Practical Theology, and Cases of Conscience," &c.-8vo. pp. 600. 128. bds.
WHAT we have said, in the close of the last article, on the Writings of JOSEPH ALLEIN, as to their peculiar power of exciting, instrumentally, the best feelings of which a human heart can be the subject, applies also, in a very eminent degree, to those of RICHARD BAXTER. If the former were, in some respects, the FLETCHER of his day, the latter may, in reference to a still greater number of points of interesting resemblance, be justly termed the WESLEY of the times in which he lived; and his voluminous Works bear ample testimony at once to the extraordinary vigour and comprehension of his understanding, to his indefatigable diligence, to his multifarious learning, and to the strength and fervency of his pious feelings. He was one of those Divines of olden time, to whom, we believe, our late revered Sovereign, GEORGE III., (much to the credit both of his head and of his heart,) once applied that saying, "There were giants in those days." We are not, however, about to write, in this place, a panegyric of this distinguished theologian, or the character of his numerous productions. But we gladly announce the appearance of a new edition of his "Practical
Works," which has long been a desideratum in the religious literature of our country. The Volume now before us is the first which has been issued from the Press; though it is numbered as Vol. II. ;—Vol. I. being reserved for the close of the publication, in order to afford longer time for preparing the Author's Life, &c., which it is intended to contain.The "Christian Directory," with which this Edition, like the old one in four folio volumes, commences, is certainly a work of surprising comprehension and utility; without which no theological library can be deemed complete, and froin which Christiaus of all classes, and in almost all conceivable circumstances, may learn how they ought to walk and to please GOD." It consists of four Parts: viz. 1. Christian Ethics, or Private Duties: II. Christian Economics, or Family Duties: III. Christian Ecclesiastics, or Church Duties: IV. Christian Politics, or Duties to our Rulers and Neighbours. -TheVolume is handsomely printed; and we trust that the Religious Community at large will do that justice to the spirited Publisher which he so well deserves, by a prompt and liberal patronage of his highly laudable, but extensive undertaking.—In re
ference to literary enterprises of this class, where old and standard works of great magnitude are to be re-published, (such as the Christian Library, reviewed in the last article, the English Translation of the Works of ARMINIUS, lately announced, and this Edition of BAXTER,) early accessions to the List of Subscribers are peculiarly desirable; and such as really intend to sanction them will render that sanction doubly valuable by making known their intention at the
very commencement, instead of waiting for the completion of the work. We have full confidence, from the specimen now afforded, that those who order this Volume forthwith, will have every reason to be satisfied with the future progress and execution of this most seasonable and valuable re-publication. The succeeding Volumes we shall be happy to announce in our Select List, as they shall from time to time appear.
The Old Testament, arranged in Historical and Chronological Order, on the Basis of LIGHTFOor's Chronicle, in such manner, that the Books, Chapters, Psalms, Prophecies, &c., may be read as one connected History, in the words of the authorized Translation. By the REV. GEO. TOWNSEND, M.A.— 2 vols. large 8vo. pp. 2738, 17. 16s. boards.
THE increasing attention which is now given to the study of the Word of God, and the multiplication of helps for the right apprehension of its sacred truths, may justly be regarded among the most favourable signs of the present times. "Every sentence of the Bible is from GoD, and every man is interested in the meaning of it." The miscellaneous form, indeed, in which the Sacred Books are placed, has often been considered by pious and learned men, as one principal cause of those difficulties which have given rise to so many commentaries. The great majority of the readers of Scripture are either unable, or unwilling, to undergo the labour (profitable as it would unquestionably be found) of arranging the scattered events in their unbroken and historical order. The Bible is too generally perused in detached portions only, and is too frequently considered as a collection of unconnected narratives, promises, warnings, predictions, and miscellaneous remarks on important and interesting topics. Hence much error has arisen; the most opposite doctrines have been taught, and the most inconsistent inferences and conclusions have been deduced; and, not seldom, we are in danger of losing sight of that beautiful harmony, which subsists between all parts of Scripture, and attests its divine authority and original.
In reading the Holy Scriptures with a view to private and personal application, it is, unquestionably, the
best mode to select some appropriate lessons from the most useful parts, without being particularly solicitous concerning the exact connexion, or other critical niceties that may occur, (though at other times, as ability and opportunity offer, these are highly proper objects of inquiry,) but simply considering them in a devotional or practical view. In other points of view, however, it is not only desirable, but highly necessary, especially to Ministers of the Gospel,-that the Bible should be studied according to the historical order of time, in order that we may fully comprehend the design of the several dispensations given by GOD to mankind. This mode of perusing the Scriptures will aid both the memory and the judgment; and it will also discover to us the intimate connexion which will be found to subsist between every part of the Sacred Volume. From time immemorial, the different books of the Old Testament have been disposed into the three classes of Historical, Poetical, and Prophetical Books. By this mode of arrangement, not only many chapters, but also entire books, are out of their proper place, according to the order of time; which, if arranged in chronological order, in the course of our reading, would reflect not a little light upon each other. We will illustrate these remarks by a very concise view of the Old Testament.
In the Book of Genesis, with which the Bible commences, we have a continued history, from the creation of the world to the death of the pa
triarch JOSEPH. Next in order of time, lies the narrative contained in the book of JOB, (if, indeed, it be not the first written book,) in which we meet with several vestiges of the patriarchal theology as recorded in Genesis, but with no references to any of the succeeding parts of the Sacred History. Then comes the book of Exodus, which gives an account of the deliverance of the Jews from their Egyptian bondage, and the erection of the Tabernacle for the service of JEHOVAH; from which tabernacle He gave those ordinances which are related in the book of Leviticus. After these ordinances had been issued, the Israelites performed those journeyings, of which we have an account, together with the incidents that befell them in each, in the book of Numbers. When their wanderings in the Desert of Arabia were drawing to a close, MOSES, shortly before his departure, recapitulated and explained to them the preceding laws and ordinances, as recorded in the book of Deuteronomy. The settlement of the Israelites in the land of Canaan, and the coincident circumstances, under the command of JOSHUA, the successor of MOSES, are narrated in the book which bears his name; and of their succeeding history we have an account in the book of Judges. But the history, contained in the two books of SAMUEL, of the Kings, and of the Chronicles, is so interwoven, that it requires very considerable attention to develope it: and, unless the different synchronisms, or concurrences of events happening at the same time, be carefully attended to, and the several Psalms and Prophecies, previously to the Babylonish Captivity, be also interwoven, it will be extremely difficult critically to understand the Sacred History. After the captivity, the affairs of the Jews are continued in the books of EZRA, ESTHER, and NEHEMIAH, in which the predictions of HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, and MALACHI, (by whom the canon of Scripture was closed,) ought in like manner to be interwoven, together with such of the Psalms as manifestly appear, from internal evidences, to have been composed subsequently to the captivity."
The want of an arrangement like
this has long been felt. Nearly one hundred and eighty years since, the eminently learned and pious Dr. LIGHTFOOT made the first attempt towards such an undertaking. Of all the theologians of his time, this celebrated divine, whose opinion was consulted by every scholar of note, both British and Foreign, of that age, is supposed to have been the most deeply versed in the knowledge of the Scriptures. It was his custom, for many years, to note down, as opportunity presented, in the course of his talmudical and rabbinical studies, the order and time of the several passages of Scripture as they came under his consideration. By pursuing this method, he gradually formed his very valuable "Chronicle of the times and order of the Texts of the Old Testament, wherein the books, chapters, psalms, stories, prophecies, &c., are reduced into their proper order, and taken up in the proper places, in which the natural method and general series of the Chronology requireth them to be taken in." In this work, Dr. LIGHTFOOT has briefly stated the substance of the historical parts of the Old Testament, and has indicated the order, in which he conceives that the several chapters, psalms, and prophecies, should be placed: and in the margin he has given the years of the world, and of the judges or sovereigns under whose administration the several events took place. LIGHTFOOT's Chronicle, being published during the height of the civil wars, does not appear to have obtained much celebrity, or to have attracted that attention to which its merits so justly entitle it. Later times, however, have rendered more justice to his labours; and, notwithstanding the differences in opinion entertained by the learned concerning the chronology of some particular events, the general excellence of the method pursued in this Chronicle has caused it to be held in the highest estimation by all who are competent duly to appreciate its merits. A similar neglect attended the ingenious "Designe about disposing the Bible into an Harmony," addressed to the English Parliament in 1647, by MR. SAMUEL TORSHEL, who was one of the preceptors of King CHARLES I.'s chil2 M
VOL. I. Third Series. May, 1822.
dren, under the Earl of Northumberland. He proposed
"To lay the whole story together in a continued connexion, the books or parts of books and all the severall parcels disposed and placed in their proper order, as the continuance and chronicall method of the Scripture History requires; so that no sentence nor word in the whole Bible be omitted, nor any thing repeated, or any word inserted but what is necessary for transition. So as some whole chapters or pieces be put into other places, yea great parts of some books, and some whole books, to be woven into the body of another book." (TORSHEL'S Designe, p. 10.)
In the prosecution of this undertaking, besides reducing all the historical books of the Old Testament to a continued series, the book of Psalms and the Discourses of the Prophets were to be inserted in their proper places, and the writings of SOLOMON incorporated into those periods of his reign, when they are supposed to have been written. And those parts of the book of Proverbs, “which the men of Hezekiah copied out," were to be disposed in the body of the books of Chronicles, towards the close of that King's reign. In harmonising the Gospel, TORSHEL proposed to follow the plan then recently adopted in the Latin Barmony, commenced by CHEMNITZ, continued by LYSER, and finished by GERHARD: the Apostolic Epistles were to be distributed in the Acts of the Apostles, according to the order of time when they were written; and the remaining writings of ST. JOHN were to close the proposed undertaking.
The design, thus ably sketched by TORSHEL, has been executed for the Old Testament by MR. TOWNSEND, who does not appear to have seen the very rare tract of which we have just given an account. In his arrangement, though MR. T. has taken LIGHTFOOT'S Chronicle for his basis, he has judiciously departed from it, where the subsequent researches of Biblical Critics, or the consideration of the internal evidence, the context, the circumstances, and the primary object of a passage, a psalm, or a prophecy, authorised him in following a different order. In one respect, however, he has made a very material alteration for the better, in the
manner in which LIGHTFOOT disposed his Chronicle. According to his plan, the Old Testament would have been read as one unbroken history, without any division into chapters, or any of those breaks, the omission of which causes not a little weariness to the reader. In order to obviate this difficulty, and also with the laudable view of rendering the Scripture Histories more attractive, MR. TOWNSEND has divided his arrangement into eight suitable periods, which are further subdivided into chapters and sections; and throughout his volumes he has interspersed numerous apposite philological notes, drawn from works which are not accessible to every student, and which reflect much light upon obscure or difficult passages. These notes, together with the various divisions and subdivisions, not only render the work more useful and interesting to the unlearned reader, as well as to those who, from various circumstances, cannot devote much uninterrupted time to the perusal of books, but will also enable them to take up and lay down the Old Testament at leisure, as they would any other bistory or narrative.
PERIOD I. comprises the history of the world and of the church of GOD from the creation to the deluge, and includes the first nine chapters of the Book of Genesis. In consequence of the brevity of this period, the transpositions are few and as the object of MOSES, in writing the Pentateuch, was, to preserve the Israelites from the contagion of the surrounding idolatry, the notes in this part of the work judiciously point out the several reasons of many of those peculiar phrases, which are supposed to be directed against the prevailing superstitions of his day.
PERIOD II. contains the sacred history from the confusion of languages, and the consequent dispersion of mankind, to the birth of MOSES; and includes the remainder of the book of Genesis, the entire book of JOB, and the first chapter of EXODUS. The transpositions, here also, are comparatively few after the example of DR. HALES, and other distinguished critics, MR. TOWNSEND has, very properly, inserted the life of Jon before that of the patriarch
ABRAHAM. The critical reasons, for which this transposition is made, are stated in a long and closely printed note, for the whole of which we have not room: but the following, which principally influenced MR. TOWNSEND to the adoption of this arrangement, is too important to be omitted.
"Idolatry, as we read in the preceding chapter of this Period, had occasioned the dispersion from Babel. It was gradually encroaching still further on every. family, which had not yet lost the knowledge of the true God. Whoever has studied the conduct of Providence, will have observed, that God has never left himself without witnesses in the world, to the truth of his religion. To the old world, NOAH was a preacher, and a witness; to the latter times of patriarchism, ABRAHAM and his descendants; to the ages of the Levitical law, MOSES, DAVID, and the Prophets; and to the first ages of Christianity, the Apostles and the Martyrs were severally
witnesses of the truth of GOD. But we have no account whatever, unless JOB be the man, that any faithful confessor of the one true GOD, arose between the dispersion from Babel, and the call of ABRAHAM. If it be said, that the family of Shem was the visible church of that age; it will be answered, that it is doubtful whether even this family were not also idolaters: for JOSHUA tells the Israelites, (Josh. xxiv. 2,) that the ancestors of ABRAHAM were worshippers of images.
"JOB, therefore, in this age of error, may be considered as the faithful witness, in his day, to the hope of the MESSIAH: he professed the true religion, and his belief in the following important truths; the creation of the world by one Supreme Being; the government of that world by the Providence of God; the corruption of man, by nature; the necessity of sacrifices, to propitiate the DEITY; and the certainty of a future resurrection. These were the doctrines of the patriarchal age, as well as of the Jewish and Christian covenants. They are the fundamental truths of that one system of religion, which is alone acceptable to GOD, by whatever name it may be distinguished in the several ages of the world." (Vol. i. p. 29.)
PERIOD III. extends from the birth to the death of MoSES, and comprises the remainder of the Book of Exodus to the end of the Pentateuch.
PERIOD IV. comprehends the events from the entrance of the Israelites
into the Land of Promise until the death of DAVID. It includes the books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel, the first book of Chronicles, (with the exception of the first nine chapters, which, containing only genealogies, are very properly disposed at the end of the work,) and the first two chapters of the first book of Kings. This division also contains those Psalms, which were probably written by DAVID, and which are inserted in their supposed places, according to the events to which they are believed to refer. The transpositions in this period are more numerous than in the two preceding; but they appear to be judiciously made: and, in order to enable the reader to understand the history of the Israelites under the adininistration of the Judges, the sections belonging to that part are divided according to the several governments of those magistrates. In the arrangement of the Psalms, MR. TOWNSEND has chiefly followed the authorities of CALMET, DR. GRAY, and MR. HORNE'S "Introduction to the Critical Study. of the Scriptures:" from this last mentioned work MR. T. has made liberal quotations in different parts of his Volumes. The valuable helps furnished by DR. CHANDLER'S Life of DAVID, and DR. ADAM CLARKE'S Preface to his Commentary on the Psalms, do not appear to have been known to him. The conduct of the Israelites in the conquest of Canaan, which has so often been the subject of cavil with the enemies of the Bible, is satisfactorily vindicated in an elaborate note, from which we transcribe the following passages:
"The question," MR. TOWNSEND ob"which has been proposed by many on reading this part of the narrative is worthy of attention: By what right did the Israelites invade the land of Palestine ?
"GOD, the great Governor, who possesses all power over his creatures, and may justly punish those who violate his laws, in that manner which to his wisdom may seem most impressive and useful, commanded the Israelites to exterminate the Canaanites, as the just
retribution for their crimes and idolatries. GOD might have destroyed them by famine, by earthquake, by pestilence: He might have drowned by a local de