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majority of the people of this country, and has not been impressed upon them. We have an Establishment, which has embodied in her liturgy and her articles of faith, generally speaking, a just interpretation of the Scriptures; we have a great body of Methodists and Dissenters, who, on all essential points, agree with that Establishment; yet far, very far, are we from a consummation which all ought most devoutly to wish, that these doctrines should be fixed in the minds of all our youth, and kept to the ear of all our adult poor, in every street and alley of our towns, and in every village of our empire. The reason therefore why the disease rages is most obvious, the remedy prescribed by heaven itself, and on which alone we have been commanded to depend, has not been applied. This incontrovertible fact, joined with the obvious and long-tried effects produced by the plain, faithful, and affectionate inculcation of the word of GOD "in truth," speaks in useful and impressive admonition to those in every rank, to whom a greater or a less share of influence has been assigned by Providence for promoting the morals and religion of the country; to our Rulers, as it points out to them those men, in the national church, whose promotion to its highest order may most secure the purposes for which that Establishment was instituted;-to our Prelates, as it indicates the description of clergy to whom the solemn trust of a nation's instruction ought to be confided;-to those who have patronage, and are bound at their peril, and as they must answer for it to the Great Shepherd at his appearing, to regard it as a talent committed to them, to be employed not merely for secular benefit, but for the higher purpose of the country's instruction in righteousness, to Ministers themselves, as it displays a field white to the harvest, into which all might by renewed effort extend their holy labours;-and to serious Christians of every name, who are called to "LIFT UP THEIR EYES," and behold, with due concern and sympathy, these fields thus ripe for hopeful labour, but for the reaping of which the number of labourers is far too few, that they may
be excited thereby more earnestly to "pray the LORD of the Harvest to send forth HIS labourers."
Moral and political evils are inseparably involved; and, on this account, nothing is more necessary to Statesmen and to Political Economists than a knowledge of the character, and real influence, of genuine Christianity. By a silent operation, and by methods. undignified by the technicality of science, it works out, and infallibly works out, wherever it prevails, all the ends of good government, and all the results of the science of political economy,-morals, industry, frugality, submission to the laws, character, cleanliness, health, and such like; and it does all this on principles which human laws can so little influence, that it may he said with the Apostle, "the law was not made for the righteous." In the effectual application of Christianity to the hearts and lives of men, government has in fact a deeper interest than in any thing else. The same may be said in reference to political economy. We do not mean to assert that this science is useless. It may direct efforts, where it cannot create the principle from which they must spring; it may place in the strong light of an injurious general effect, some practice which might otherwise be considered as an isolated evil, but which, even when thus exposed, it wants the power to restrain, if left to itself. Though this may be acknowledged, and though we think with DR. CHALMERS, that the usefulness of a Minister, and of other active religious philanthropists, may often be promoted by some acquaintance with the best-assured and leading principles of this science, yet it is mere intellectual play, without the operating and corrective influence of religion. Could the great principle of judicial astrology be demonstrated, still all its former calculations would be vitiated by the now known existence of planets in our system, the influence of which could not formerly be estimated, because they were not discovered. And whatever projects the Economist may indulge in, for bettering the condition of the poor, in like manner, they will be disturbed and vitiated, if he take not into the account
in the gospel vineyard, either to teach," or even so much as to understand, these lessons. Let him simply confine himself to his own strict and peculiar business,let him labour for immortality alone,let his single aim be to convert and to christianize, and, as the result of prayer and exertion, to succeed in depositing with some the faith of the New Testament, so as that they shall hold forth to the esteem and the imitation of many
the moral counteractions he must encounter, and do not resort to the only effectual means by which they are to be controlled. We send both the Statesman, and the Political Econo.. mist, to their New Testament; because neither class can dispense safely either with its light or power. Let us look at the great question of the Poor-Laws. They have been injurious in their operation by encouraging the spirit of dependance, improvidence, and pauperism. Perhaps the remedy of the Economist is, to abolish them; and all who have felt the pressure of this burden will echo the sentence, from the very principle of selfishness. What then would be the result? The truly distressed must starve, or be thrown upon the charity of those who are charitable on principle, to the injury, no doubt, of all those great moral charities which they now sustain by their benevolence, whilst the obdurate and the selfish would escape. The mere political Economist has no other remedy; except he would substitute a pinching regulation of the institution, for its entire subversion. But he who takes Christianity into account, as that agent of moral reform on which he can most depend, has the means of removing the evil. What is the spirit of pauperism? Dishonesty, idleness, improvidence, disregard of character, want of affection for children,-moral evils, which cannot submit to a scientific or a political cure, (any more than atrophy can be cured by a regimen proper for fever,) but must have a moral one. We mention the Poor-Laws only exempli gratia;-the same observations may be applied to every other part of this now fashionable study, which respects questions bound up with moral habits.
the virtues of the New Testament,-and
he does more for the civil and economical well-being of his neighbourhood, than he ever could do by the influence of all Let his desire secular demonstration. wards the life that is to come; and withand his devotedness be exclusively to-. out borrowing one argument from the interest of the life that now is, will he do more to bless and to adorn its condition, than can be done by all the other efforts of patriotism and philosophy put together. It were worse than ridiculous, and it most assuredly is not requisite, for him to become the champion of any economic theory, with the principles of which he should constantly be infusing either his pulpit or his parochial minis
The effect of true Christianity, when applied by a faithful Christian Labourer, to bring out the results contemplated by the Economist, and that by its natural process, is stated by DR. CHALMERS with great force and eloquence:
"It would save a world of misconception, were it distinctly kept in mind, that, for the purpose of giving effect to the lessons of the economist, it is not necessary for him who labours
trations. His office may be upheld in the entire aspect of its sacredness, and the main desire and prayer of his heart towards GOD, in behalf of his brethren, may be that they should be saved,-and the engrossment of his mind with the one thing needful may be as complete as was that of the Apostle, who deter know nothing among his mined to hearers, save JESUS CHRIST, and him of the blessing of the gospel with which crucified, and yet, such is the fulness he is fraught, that while he renders the best possible service to the converts whom, under the SPIRIT of GOD, he has gained to its cause, he also, in the person of these converts, renders the best possible contribution to the temporal good of society. It is enough, that they have been rescued from the dominion of become the disciples of that book, which sensuality;-it is enough that they have while it teaches them to be fervent in spirit, teaches them also to be not slothful in business;-it is enough, that the christian faith has been formed with such power in their hearts, as to bring out the christian morals into visible exemplification upon their history ;it is enough, that the principle within them, if it do not propagate its own likeness in others, can at least, like the salt to which they have been compared, season a whole vicinity with many of its kindred and secondary attributes. There is not a more familiar exhibition in human life, than that alliance, in virtue
of which a christian family is almost always sure to be a well-conditioned family. And yet its members are utterly unversant either in the maxims or in the
speculations of political science. They occupy the right place in a rightly constituted and well-going mechanism; but the mechanism itself is what they never hear of, and could not comprehend. Their christian adviser never reads them a lesson from the writings of any economist; and yet the moral habit, to which the former has been the instrument of conducting them, is that which brings them into a state of practical conformity with the soundest and most valuable
lessons which the latter can devise. And now that habit, and character, and education, among the poor, have become the mighty elements of all that is recent in political theory, as well may the inventor of a philosophical apparatus disown the aid of those artizans, who, in utter ignorance of its use, only know how to prepare and put together its materials, as may the most sound and ingenious speculator in the walks of civil economy disown the aid of those christian labourers, who, in utter ignorance of the new doctrine of population, only know how to officiate in that path of exertion, by which the members of our actual population may be made pure, and prudent, and pious." pp. 12-15.
DR. CHALMERS instances "the solid, regular, and well-doing peasantry of Scotland," who act upon the best principles of this science, without any knowledge of its philosophic principles, or lengthened reasonings; and we might instance thousands of the families of the poor in our own country, among whom, by the sole effect of christian teaching, darkness has been turned to light, confusion to order, shamelessness to character, squalidness to decency, improvidence to frugality, imprudence to foresight, and sloth to industry.
What follows from all this? Let us no longer despise the philosophy, the deep and divine philosophy, of Religion. Instead of looking so much to human laws and science, let us act as though we believed "the GOSPEL to be the POWER OF GOD unto salvation," bringing vitality to our plans, and efficiency to our regulations. Let us, instead of useless laments over the obstinacy of the disease, free ourselves from the guilt of not assisting in the healing pro
cess;-let religious instruction be en-
Some of the great truths at which we have glanced in the foregoing observations, are enforced by DR. CHALMERS, with an energy of style, and a felicity of illustration, to which we have no pretence; and because
of their importance, we think it an exceedingly happy circumstance that they have been brought under the public consideration by an Author of so great a reputation, who cannot be read without commanding attention. The work before us is, however, of a practical character, and shows, not only what duty to our country demands of us as patriots and as Christians; (itself of no inconsiderable importance;) nor only that it is within the compass of practicability to perform it; but in what manner the more effectual and extensive ap
plication of Christianity to remove the existing evils of society may be effected. DR. C. exhibits what has been done under his own eye, by way of experiment; and he shows that notwithstanding every allowance which may be demanded for local circumstances, the same method, at least in its principle, is of universal adaptation. It is the practical and stirring nature of this volume, which renders it one of the most important works which has, for many years, issued from the press. (To be continued.)
SELECT LIST OF BOOKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED, CHIEFLY RELIGIOUS,
With occasional Characteristic Notices.
[N.B. The insertion of any article in this List is not considered as pledging us to the approbation of its contents, unless it be accompanied by some express notice of our favourable opinion. Nor is the omission of any such notice to be regarded as indicating a contrary opinion; as our limits, and other reasons, impose on us the necessity of selection and brevity.]
An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. By THOMAS HARTWELL HORNE, M.A. Second Edition, Revised, Corrected, and Enlarged. Illustrated with numerous facsimiles of Biblical Manuscripts. 4 vols. 8vo. pp. 3000. £3. 38.
The first edition of this work was sold so rapidly, that many who wished to possess it were unable to procure a copy. We congratulate the theological world on the appearance of a second cdition, so eagerly expected. It is much improved, and includes a large quantity of new matter. We purpose, as soon as possible, to give some account in our Review of this very important and valuable publication. But it would be a neglect of duty, not to embrace the carliest opportunity of announcing it to Ministers, and others who are engaged in the "critical study" of the Scriptures, and of recommending to them an immediate purchase. A very thick volume, containing much of the new matter, is published separately, as a Supplement to the first Edition, price 18s.
Illustrations of Biblical Literature, exhibiting the History of the Sacred Writings, from the earliest period to the present Century. By the REV. JAMES TOWNLEY. 3 vols. 8vo. pp. 1620. £2. 2s.
To this work also, which appears to us to be very creditable to the Author's learning and industry, we shall feel it right to call the attention of our Biblical
readers, in a future Review ;—as well as to the following article, viz.
The Old Testament arranged in Historical and Chronological Order, on the basis of Lightfoot's Chronicle, in such manner, that the Books, Chapters, Psalms, Prophecies, &c., may be read as one connected History, in the words of the authorized Translation. By the REV. GEO. TOWNSEND, M.A. 2 vols. Royal 8vo. pp. 2738.
Mental Discipline: or, Hints on the Cultivation of Intellectual Habits. Addressed particularly to Students in Theology, and Young Preachers. By HENRY FORSTER BURDER, M.A. Royal 8vo. pp. 94. 4s. 6d.
A short article, recommendatory of this judicious and useful Manual for Students, was intended for our Review in this number; but its insertion is unavoidably postponed.
Time's Telescope for 1822; or, a Complete Guide to the Almanack: containing an Explanation of Saints' Days and Holidays; Sketches of Comparative Chronology and Contemporary Biography; Astronomical Occurrences in every Month; and the Naturalist's Diary, explaining the various Appearances in the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms; with outlines of Conchology, and a coloured Plate of Shells. 12mo. pp. 384. 9s.
When so many attempts are made to corrupt the minds of the rising generation, through the medium of elementary books of instruction, it affords us plea
sure to be able to recommend an attractive work, which is entirely free from the taint of bad principles. Time's Telescope is an agreeable miscellany, worthy of the attention of all classes of readers, but particularly of intelligent young persons, to whom it will convey much useful and entertaining information, on the various subjects mentioned in its title. The whole is interspersed with numerous anecdotes, antiquarian references, historical facts, and poetical selections; admirably calculated to excite a taste for knowledge, and to render its acquisition easy and agreeable. We have looked through the volume, and are happy to find that in a literary melange of so much extent and variety, there is so little to which persons of serious religion can object, and so much which they will cordially applaud. We noticed, with much satisfaction, one instance, in particular, of very proper caution, in a work which young persons will read with eagerness. We allude to the omission, in a beautiful poem, of some lines, which might have been thought to sanction an irreligious feeling, had the whole been inserted.
Forest Musings: or, Delineations of Christian Experience, in verse: with the Author's early Life, Portrait, &c. By JOSHUA MARSDEN. Designed for Young Persons. 12mo. 4s. 6d.
An Abridgment of the Youth's Spelling and Pronouncing Theological Dictionary of the New Testament; containing Explanations of the Words, &c. &c. By E. Dowson. For the use of National and other Schools. 18mo. 3s. bound.
The Ancient Principles of the true and sacred Philosophy, as explained by JOHN HUTCHINSON, Esq. Translated from the Latin of CALCOTT, with Notes and a Preliminary Dissertation, by ALEXANDER MAXWELL, Author of Plurality of Worlds." 8vo. 9s. bds.
The Journal of Samuel Plummer, a Private in the 22d Regiment of Foot; containing an account of his Voyage by Sea, and his Journeys on Land; embracing a period of 20 years, spent chiefly in the East Indies. Abridged and corrected by the REV. JOHN RILES. 12mo. pp. 84. 2s. bds.
This is an interesting work, and combines entertainment with edification. The view which it presents of the proceedings of a religious society, formed in the Army, in India, to which Mr. Plummer belonged, will afford much pleasure to those who have observed in how many cases, of late, pious Soldiers have been employed, by Divine Providence, to "prepare the way of the LORD" in heathen countries. Many curious illus
trations of pagan superstitions are incidentally introduced. The Volume includes six engravings, which represent Hindoo Swinging; the Car of Juggernaut; a Tiger surprising a Sentry: an Idol Temple at Benares; a Temple at Delhi; and a Volcanic Eruption in Bourbon.-Religious persons connected with the army, or who have relations in it, will be particularly pleased with this publication. To Soldiers it would be an acceptable, and we hope, a useful present, from their pious friends.
An Account of the Captivity and Escape of Captain Robert Knox; who was treacherously detained, nearly 20 years, in Kandy, the interior of Ceylon, by Rajah Singha, the Native Sovereign. Published by himself, in 1681; and now republished, with a Preface and Notes, by W. M. HARVARD, late Missionary in Ceylon. 12mo. pp. 168. 3s. 6d.
This little volume, includes that part of Captain Knox's "Historical Relation" which contains what we may term his " Personal Narrative," of which it has been said by a former Editor, that it combines the accurate details of a real transaction with the glowing interest of a romance. Harvard's Preface is judicious and ap propriate. We willingly recommend the work, and adopt for that purpose the words of Mr. Hooke, in his Preface to the original edition: "Read the book itself, and you will find yourself taken captive, indeed; but used more kindly by the author than he himself was by the natives."
A Parental Portraiture of THOMAS H. TREFFRY, with an Appendix, containing his Sketches of Sermons, Essays, Fragments, &c. By RICHARD TREFFRY. 2d Edition, 12mo. pp. 296. 4s. 6d.
This Portraiture is highly honourable to the youth whom it depicts, and to the head and heart of the mourning parent by whom it is drawn. It is one of the most touching publications which have of late met our notice; and forcibly reminded us, in that respect, of the venerable Mr. GILPIN'S" Monument of Affection to a dear and only Son." The talents discovered in the Appendix, and in other documents, written by the deceased, which are inserted in the course of the narrative, were certainly of a superior order. Parents may read this work with much advantage. To them, many things, incidentally introduced, will be found highly exemplary. And to young persons, religiously educated, we trust it will prove an extensive blessing. This hopeful youth died at the early age of eighteen.