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the people. This man,' said the KHAN, being a descendant of the Prophet, must know the truth, and will tell it me. He shall find me those who can and will pay the money.' But the answer given by the honest SAIED being precisely the same with that of the innocent victims who had already perished, the tyrant's fury knew no bounds, and, rising from his seat, he ordered the holy man to be rent asunder in his presence, and then thrown over the rock, to increase the monument of his vengeance below.
"It was the tumult of this most dreadful execution which occasioned the noise that drove the affrighted narrator to the shelter of any hole, from the eye of merciless man. But the cruel scene did not end there. Even in the yet sensible ear of the SATED, expiring in agonies, his execrable murderer ordered that his wife and daughters should be given up to the soldiers; and that, in punishment of such universal rebellion in the town, the whole place should be razed to the ground. "But this last act of blood on a son of the Prophet, cost the perpetrator his life. For the soldiers themselves, and the Nobles who had been partizans of the Usurper, were so struck with horror at the sacrilegious murder, and appalled with the threatened guilt of offering insult to women of the sacred family, that they believed a curse must follow the abettors of such a man. The next step, in their minds, was to appease Heaven by the immolation of the offender; and in the course of that very night, a band of his servants cut the cords of his tent, which instantly falling in upon him, afforded them a secure opportunity of burying their poniards in his body. The first strokes were followed by thousands. So detested was the wretch, that in a few minutes his remains were hewn and torn to pieces. It does not become men to lift the veil which lies over the whole doom of a ruthless murderer; but there is something in the last mortal yell of a tyrant, whether it be a ROBESPIERRE or a NACKEE
KHAN, which sounds as if mingled with a dreadful echo from the eternal shore.
"While the above particulars were relating, it was a shuddering glance that looked down, from the open side of the Ketkhoda's saloon, on almost the very spot where the unhappy victims had breathed their last. It recalled to my remembrance a similar window, for similar purposes, at Erivan, where the Governor of that place used to dispose of his malefactors, the moment sentence was pronounced. And, while listening to the hideous details of a sort of punishment so common in the East, I could not but recall similar descriptions in ancient writers on these countries, which showed how old had been the practice of taking offenders to a height, and casting them headlong, sometimes from a rock, at others from high battlements, and often from a window which commanded a sufficient steep. We have a dreadful picture of this most tremendous mode of punishment, in the Second Book of Kings. It describes the death of JEZEBEL, when, by the command of JEHU, she was thrown from the palace-window of JEZREEL, during his triumphant entry, and her blood was sprinkled on the wall, and on the horses, and he trode her under their feet; and when he sent to bury her, no more was found of her than the scull, and the feet, and the palms of her hands. Nearer home, the classic reader has only to remember the various precipitations from the Tarpeian rock, to see what chastisements the Sages of antiquity, in almost every country, devised for the reformation of mankind. Blessed indeed are these latter times of the world, when such fierce punishments are neither necessary to appal vice, nor would their barbarous outrage of human sympathy be tolerated. The change has been wrought by the ameliorating effects of Christianity, and therefore, only in countries where the religion of mercy has not yet been received, do we find the dregs of heathenish cruelties, remain."
(From "LACON, or Many Things in few Words: By the REV. C. COLTON, M. A.") (Continued from page 236.)
We are ruined, not by what we really want, but by what we think we do. Therefore, never go abroad in search of your wants;-if they be real wants, they will come home in search of you; for he that buys what he does not want, will soon want what he cannot buy.
Some are so censorious as to advance, that those who have discovered a thorough knowledge of all the depravities of the human beart, must be themselves depraved ;-but this is about as wise as to affirm that every physician who understands a disease must be himself diseased.
Public charities, and benevolent associations, for the gratuitous relief of every species of distress, are peculiar to Christianity; no other system of civil or religious policy has originated them; they form its highest praise and characteristic feature; an order of benevolence so disinterested, and so exalted, looking before and after, could no more have preceded Revelation, than light the
Faith and works are as necessary to our spiritual life as Christians, as soul and body are to our natural life as men; for faith is the soul of religion, and works the body.
In naval architecture, the rudder is first fitted in, and then the ballast is put on board, and, last of all, the cargo and the sails. It is far otherwise in the fitting-up and forming of man; he is launched into life with the cargo of his faculties aboard, and all the sails of his passions set; but it is the long and painful work of his
life, to acquire the ballast of experience, and to form the rudder of reason; hence, it too often happens that his frail vessel is shipwrecked before he has laid in the necessary quantity of ballast, or that he has been so long in completing the rudder, that the vessel is become too crazy to benefit by its application.
Expense of thought is the rarest prodigality; and to dare to live alone, the rarest courage; since there are many who had rather meet their bitterest enemy in the field, than their own hearts in their closet. He that has no resources of mind, is more to be pitied than he who is in want of necessaries for the body; and to be obliged to beg our daily happiness from others, bespeaks a more lamentable poverty than that of him who begs his daily bread.
As there are some faults that have been termed faults on the right side, so there are some errors that might be denominated errors on the safe side. Thus we seldom regret having been too mild, too cautious, or too humble; but we often repent having been too violent, too precipitate, or too proud.
Accustom yourself to submit on all and every occasion, and in the most minute, no less than in the most important circumstances of life, to a small present evil, to obtain a greater distant good. This will give decision, tone, and energy to the mind, which, thus disciplined, will often reap victory from defeat, and honour from repulse.
To him that will often put eternity and the world before him, and who will dare to look steadfastly at both of them, the former will grow greater, and the latter less.
There are two things which ought to teach us to think but meanly of human glory ;-the very best have had their calumniators, the very worst their panegyrists.
This world cannot explain its own difficulties, without the assistance of another.
An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scrip tures. By THOMAS HARTWELL HORNE, M. A. &c. Second Edition, revised, corrected, and enlarged. Illustrated with numerous Fac-Similes of Biblicat Manuscripts. 4 vols. 8vo. pp. 3000. £3. 3s. bds.
(Concluded from page 381.)
MR. HORNE deserves great praise for the attention which he has paid to the workings of the spirit of error in the present day, and for having furnished the means of exposing the stratagems and subterfuges of the present race of infidels. With these views he has given, in the last Appendix to his First Volume, an excellent article on the writings usually called the Apocryphal Books of the New Testament, with a design to counteract the intention of the publishers of a work entitled "The Apocryphal New Testament," &c. Considering the quarter from which that work originated, the time at which it was published, and the wording of the title-page, we shall go farther than MR. HORNE, who is willing to admit the disclaimer of its having been published with sinister design. That it was intended to bolster up the cause of modern infidelity, and to mislead the simple, we have no doubt; but it is one of the most bungling contrivances of the apostate faction, and could never be expected to succeed but with the most ignorant, whom, however, it affords a diabolic gratification to them to deceive. With every rational man, the argument goes just the contrary way intended; and so it was felt by TOLAND, the precursor of the publishers of "The Apocryphal New Testament" in this unlucky species of warfare, which exposes the assailant to receive both his own blows and those of his adversary. TOLAND felt this when too late, and therefore got clear of the difficulty in which he had incautiously involved himself, by pretending that his object was to illustrate and confirm the Canon of the New Testament. He saw that he had undesignedly served the cause he meant to injure, and then put in a claim for the credit of a good intention! On one or two points, connected with this subject, we shall offer some remarks. For a more
copious examination of these books, we refer to MR. HORNE.
What impression did the publishers intend to produce? Was it that they had made a new discovery? This would appear from the title-page. Did they thus intend to entrap the ignorant into the belief that their researches had brought to light what the believers in revelation would have gladly kept back? Nothing was better known than these apocryphal productions, and they had only to go for them to the collections made to their hands by Christian Divines of modern times themselves. Did they intend to insinuate that the fact, that spurious books have been written in their names, tends to discredit the writers of the New Testament? But how many eminent writers have had works ascribed to them which they never wrote; and which only prove their just and well-established fame,-for otherwise there would have been no encouragement for forgery. These books, say they, were "not included in the New Testament by its compilers." The insinuation is that there was as much reason to include them in the New Testament, as the books which actually compose it. But how greatly must they have calculated upon the implicit credulity of their readers, if they did not anticipate that they would ask, “ Why were they not so included?" Å reason there must have been; and it is obvious enough to any rational man, who makes the comparison between the genuine and the spurious books. In regard to the internal evidence, every one must see that they who wrote the books of the New Testament were incapable of writing the superstitious folly, and the wretched composition, of many of the apocryphal books. But the argument goes farther the fact of their exclusion proves, that not every writing, which pretended to inspired authorship, was greedily sought after
by the compilers of the New Testament; that there were deliberation, examination, and selection; or rather, that the canonical books had de scended from the earliest time with a stamp and seal of genuineness and authenticity upon them, to which the apocryphal books had not the least pretence. This is further strengthened by the very important, and, indeed, decisive consideration, that the apocryphal books favour, in many parts, the errors and superstitions which, in early times, began to make inroads into the Church; and yet those writings only were retained in the Canon which are most reproving to ecclesiastical vices, and which may to this day be appealed to, as being silent respecting corrupt additions to the christian system, or as bearing testimony against them. Can any thing be stronger as to the honesty with which the sacred Canon was compiled, and as to the questionless authentication of the genuine writings of the Evangelists and Apostles?
But what was the object of inserting in the title-page of this collection of some, not 66 all," of the apocryphal Gospels, Epistles, &c., that they were "attributed in the first four centuries, to JESUS Christ, his Apostles, and their companions?" The object clearly was, to insinuate a falsehood, namely, that they were so attributed by the christian church of the first four centuries. By means so dishonourable does infidelity seek to gain for itself some support among the unlearned, and so grossly does it minister to the credulity of those whom it has perverted; knowing that, with all unbelievers, every thing is easy of belief but truth itself. As to the epistles of the apostolical Fathers, ignorantly or insidiously classed with the apocryphal books, these are out of the question; they are not apocryphal, but genuine, though not canonical. For the rest, so far from having been attributed to the New Testament Writers "in the first four centuries,"-by which the publishers would have it understood during that period, they were unknown in the first century. They were forged in the second and third, and, when noticed by the leading
christian writers, are expressly marked as spurious and heretical. For the proof of this we may refer to LARDNER, JONES, and others, from whom MR. HORNE has chiefly compiled the article on the subject. By their authors they were attributed to CHRIST and his Apostles; and also by a few ignorant persons, the adherents of the various heresies which then sprung up;-but never by the body of Christians, their Ministers, or their Writers.
By saying that those books were attributed to CHRIST and his Apostles "in the first FOUR centuries," it was also intended to insinuate that their being so attributed at any period within that time, was good evidence of their being written by their assumed authors! Now, the strength of the historical part of the argument in favour of the genuine Gospels, is, that they were written so early after the facts they contain took place, that had they not been true, they might have been contradicted by living witnesses. This does not satisfy an infidel; but he is less fastidious in the cause of unbelief; then it is as good evidence with him, as to the authority of a book, that it should be written three or four hundred years after the facts related took place, as when the witnesses were in existence. Such are the absurdities which the disciples of these wretched errors admit without hesitation! "Lo! they have forsaken the word of the LORD, and what wisdom is there in them?"-Of cunning and unfairness much; of wisdom none.
Into many important subjects comprehended in the succeeding volumes we should gladly have entered, both for the purpose of exhibiting the clear and copious, and, often, masterly manner in which MR. HORNE has treated them, and for the sake of offering such remarks on a few of them as were suggested by the perusal; but we are restrained by our limits. The Second Volume especially is a work of surprising industry. It pours before the student the richest treasures of sacred criticism; and whilst it opens the path to his further and deeper inquiries, lays a strong claim upon his gratitude, in
sure to prepose the thanks of this Meeting to the Noble President of the Society, for the assiduous care with which he has cherished its interests. His LORDSHIP has presided over the Society eighteen years. Under his direction, it has grown from small beginnings. At first, counteracted by jealousy and suspicion, not countenanced by all the good, and opposed by many of the evil, in the country, it has advanced till it may be said almost to fill the world. My Noble Friend has called your attention to the ample field of the Society's labours. In fact, its proceedings can scarcely be understood without a map of the world; and, indeed, its operations are so widely diffused, that I doubt whether any member of this Society possesses a collection of maps sufficiently numerous to trace them. Its proceedings, ramified in every direction, fill the mind. You have heard, in the Report read to you, that in every quarter of the world, ignorance and superstition are giving way before the Gospel, that idolatry is renouncing the symbols of its worship, and casting its idols into the fire or the sea; and that those who by the trammels of superstition were prohibited the use of the Scriptures, are now receiving them with gratitude and delight. Amidst the congratulation so justly due to those who have managed this Society, we ought not to forget that the eighteen years which have elasped, constitute a large portion of the life of an individual; and that to the Giver of all good we are indebted, that its venerable President has been preserved so long. This time, however, is a mere point in the history of the Christian Church, in which the establishment of the Bible Society will form so distinguished an epoch. Much has been done; but greater triumphs remain behind, till the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the LORD, till every part to which the Society's operations have not yet reached, and the labours of Missionaries have not extended, shall resound with hymns of praise to the REDEEMER. Among the triumphs of the day, there is one circumstance to which I cannot but call your attention. It is with pain and regret that we do not, this day, hear the voice of one distinguished individual, to whom we have so often listened with delight, one of the chief ornaments of our Society, and one, I may add, whose health has been impaired in its service. But we ought to remember, that, if his health, or that of others, has suffered in the exertions called forth by this cause, they cannot suffer in a nobler cause, or one that will, hereafter, secure them a more glorious reward. Let us, from the exer
tions of the Secretaries of this Society, and from the example of LEANDER VAN Ess, learn to overlook all selfish feelings in the great cause in which we are engaged. Let us reflect whether we cannot yet do more than we have done. I certainly feel for myself, that I can and ought to do more. Let them take to themselves the warning, who have not done all they might; let them recollect, that our whole heart is required in the cause, and that the utmost efforts of our hands should be exerted in its support. Every hand, I am persuaded, will be raised, and every heart be united, in support of the Motion I have proposed." The Lord Bishop of SALISBURY:My LORD, I rise to second this motion; but, aware that I need not occupy the time of this Meeting, I will merely second it, since there is not an individual present who is not fully sensible of the pre-eminent services of our Noble President."
VOL. I. Third Series. JULY, 1822,
Lord TEIGNMOUTH:-"Gentlemen, "The happy effects of that impulse which the British and Foreign Bible Society has imparted to the christian world, become every year more and more ap parent. We see it operating through all the gradations of society; it is felt in palaces and cottages, it extends from nation to nation, and has passed from the old to the new world, exciting, every where, an ardent zeal and unremitting exertions for the universal dissemination of the Holy Scriptures.
"Such effects, so astonishing by their magnitude, so important in their bearings and consequences, could never have proceeded from any cause or agency merely human; and they must be referred to a higher source, to the benevo lence of a gracious God, who has made our Institution his instrument for commending his Holy Word, and has disposed the hearts of men to unite in one grand undertaking for the distribution of it, with a view to his glory and the happiness of his creatures.
"In history, which has been defined, and not altogether unjustly, I fear, the record of human crimes and calamities, we read of confederacies and alliances formed for executing or opposing the projects of ambition. It is only in modern times, that we see extensive associations for the general benefit of mankind; and of these, our own country has produced many, founded on love to GOD and man, and acting under the influence of this evangelical principle. Among these, the British and Foreign Bible Society stands pre-eminent; and it has this characteristic distinction, that it combines Christians of all deno