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laws of God, and only think of offering compensation for their crimes instead of renouncing them. What is their language ?-let us indulge our desiresmlet us enrich ourselves with the plunder of our neighbour-let us not fear to stain our hands with blood and murder. When all is done we shall find easy expiation in the favour of the church.
“ Madmen ! can they think to obtain remission of their lies, their impurities, their adulteries, their murders, their treacheries, by a litany to the Queen of Heaven? Is she to be the protectress of all evildoers ? Be deceived no longer, people of error! The God of justice disdains to be moved by words which, in the very utterance, the heart disowns. The Eternal Sovereign of truth and mercy forgives no man his trespasses who does not forgive the trespasses against himself. You worship the saints. Did those sons of God, at whose feet you who fling yourself, enter into heaven by relying on the merits of others ? No; it was by walking in the path of the law of God, by fulfilling the will of the Most High, by facing death rather than deny their Lord and Saviour.
• What is the honour that you ought to pay those saints? Imitate the holiness of their lives-walk in their footsteps-suffer yourselves to be turned aside by neither seduction nor terrors.
“ But in the day of trouble put your trust in none but God, who created the heaven and earth with a word. At the coming of death, invoke no name but that of Christ Jesus, who bought you with his blood, and who is the ONE and ONLY MEDIATOR between God and man !”
This discourse struck at all the pillars of popery at once. Absolution for money-pilgrimages the wor. ship of the Virgin--and the intercession of the saints. It was listened to in mingled astonishment, wrath, and admiration. Its effect upon the multitude was to inflame, in some instances, the jealousy which no prum dence of the pastor could have stifled ; of the monks, some were indignant, yet many heard in it only the
doctrines that had been the subject of long meditation among themselves. In some instances the conviction was immediate and complete, and pilgrims, who had brought offerings to the shrine, now refused to join in what they had learned to be an act of impiety, and took their offerings home. The great majority were awakened to a sense of their condition, and, from that hour, were prepared to abjure the crimes and superstitions of Rome.
But, like the light that fell on St. Paul in his journey, the fullest illumination descended on the preacher himself.
Others heard and acknowledged the voice of heaven; but it was to the preacher that the words of God came with living power.
From that day forth, he was no longer the same man. His energy, intrepidity, and defiance of the common obstacles of Christianity, in the popular prejudices and the tyranny of the popedom, raised him to the highest rank of the champions of the gospel.
The mind of this great man, deeply imbued with scriptural knowledge by his ten years' residence in his pastorship of Glaris, and further matured by his three years' enjoyment of the literature of the intelligent members of Einsiedlen, was now prepared for the sterner duties of a leader of the reformation. Through the advice of Myconius, a Greek professor in the school of Zurich, whom he had known in the convent, Zuinglius was chosen preacher in the cathedral of Zurich, Dec. 4th, 1518.
The tenets of Luther, which were now spreading abroad in Germany, encouraged Zuinglius to oppose the sale of indulgences in Zurich, where he was seconded by the public authorities and the people. In 1527, some districts of Bern, the most powerful of the cantons, petitioned its senate for the introduction of the system established at Zurich, and for the suppression of the mass. The senate was divided, but the proposal was finally referred to a council of the clergy of Bern and the her states of the league. So of the cantons objected to the meeting, but it was at length held, and
attended by names still memorable in the history of protestantism :-Ecolampadius, Pellican, Collinus, Bullinger, Capito, and Bucer. On Zuinglius's arrival, the sittings commenced. The protestant doctrines were proposed in the shape of ten-theses, and they were so powerfully sustained by the learning and talent of the reformers, that, after eighteen debates, the great majority of the Bernese clergy signed their adherence to them, as the true doctrines of the gospel.
The “ Grand Council of Bern then proceeded to act upon the decision. It declared the bishops of Lausanne, Basil, Sion, and Constance to be divested of all rights in its territory ; ordered the priests to teach nothing contradictory to the theses, permitted priests to marry, and monks and nuns to leave their convents, and appropriated the religious revenues to lawful purposes. Within four months, protestantism was the religion of the whole canton ; but this triumph was finally purchased by the death of the great leader and light of Switzerland. The accession of so powerful a state as Bern threw the Catholic cantons into general alarm. A league, prohibiting the preaching of the reformation, was made between the five cantons of Lucerne, Uri, Schweitz, Underwalden, and Zug. Protestant ministers were persecuted, and in some instances put to death, and all alliances were formed with the German princes hostile to protestantism. Their persecutions awakened the resentment and fears of the reformed cantons, and to enforce the treaty by which they were to be protected, the cantons of Zurich and Bern determined to blockade the five cantons. The blockade was contrary to the advice of Zuinglius, who deprecated it as involving the innocent with the guilty. At length the five cantons collected their troops, and advanced towards Cappel, a point where they might prevent the junction of the Zurichers and Bernese. Zurich was thrown into consternation; and when four thousand men were ordered to march, seven hundred only were equipped in a state to meet the enemy. News came that the division already posted at Cappel was attacked by a superior force The offi
cer in command of the Zurichers instantly marched to sustain the post. It was the custom of the Swiss, that their clergy should follow their troops to the field, to administer the last consolations to the dying. Zuinglius attended this detachment, but with a full consciousness of the hazard. “ Our cause is good,” said he to the friends who crowded anxiously round him, as the troops marched out, “ but it is ill defended. It will cost my life, and that of a number of excellent men who would wish to restore religion to its primitive simplicity. No matter; God will not abandon his servants; he will come to their assistance when you think all lost. My confidence rests on him alone, and not upon men. I submit myself to his will.”
Cappel is three leagues from Zurich. On the road the roaring of the cannon, attacking the position of the Zurichers, was heard. Thé march of the troops was slow, from the height of Mount Albis and the weight of their armour. Zuinglius, agitated for the fate of the post, urged the officers to push forward at speed. 66 Hasten," he cried, " or we shall be too late. As for me, I will go and join my brethren. I will help to save them, or we will die together.” The little army, animated by his exhortation, rushed forward, and at three in the afternoon came in sight of the battle. The troops of the five cantons were eight thousand ; an overwhelming superiority. After some discharges of cannon, they advanced to surround the Zurichers, who amounted to but fifteen hundred. The enemy were boldly repulsed for a while, but their numbers enabled them to outflank the protestants, and all was flight or slaughter.
Zuinglius fell by almost the first fire. He had advanced in front of his countrymen, and was exhorting them to fight for the cause of freedom and holiness, when a ball struck him. He sunk on the ground more tally wounded, and in the charge of the enemy was trampled over without being distinguished. When the tumult of the battle was passed, his senses returned, and raising himself from the ground, he crossed his
arms upon his breast, and remained with his eyes fixed on heaven. Some of the enemy, who had lingered behind, came up, and asked whether he would have a confessor. His speech was gone, but he shook his head in refusal. They then exhorted him to commend his soul to the Virgin. He refused again. They were enraged by his repeated determination.
“ Die, then, obstinate heretic !" exclaimed one of them, and drove his sword throŭgh his bosom.
His body was recognised by the Catholics the next day, who held a mock trial over it, burned it, and scattered the ashes to the winds. He fell at the age of fortyseven; but he had gone through his course well; for he had sowed the seeds of virtue in a land barren before ; he had let in light on a land of darkness, and his immortal legacy to his country was strength, wisdom, freedom, and religion !
54. JESUITS. JEsuits, or the Society of Jesus, are a religious order of the Romish church, founded in the sixteenth century, by Ignatius Loyola, a Spanish knight. The plan which this fanatic formed of its constitution and laws was suggested, as he gave out, by the immediate inspiration of heaven.
Loyola proposed that besides the three vows of poverty, chastity, and of monastic obedience (which are common to all orders of regulars), the members of this society should take a fourth vow of obedience to the pope, binding themselves to go whithersoever he should command them, and without requiring aid from the holy see for their support.
At this time the pápal authority received such a shock from the progress of the Reformation, and the revolt of nations from the Romish church, that the acquisition of a body of men thus devoted to that church was of much consequence.* Pope Paul therefore confirmed
* The following are the words of Damianus, a Jesuit historian : “In the same year (1521) that Luther, with consummate wicked