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chase their wives. The simple bridal ceremony is performed by a priestess, who sacrifices an animal on the occasion. Manilla, the largest town of these islands, is principally occupied by the descendants of Spanish and Chinese settlers. They are extremely indolent; sleeping and smoking the whole day. Little children learn to smoke before they can run alone; and women are so fond of cigars, that they have them a foot long and thick in proportion. When they walk out to take the evening air, whole parties of them may be seen, elegantly dressed, with these great bales of tobacco burning in their mouths. They likewise injure their teeth by chewing betel.

The island of Loo Choo has been seldom visited by Europeans. Captain Hall gives a most delightful picture of the honesty, kindness, simplicity, and politeness of the inhabitants. All his efforts to obtain a sight of the women of this island were fruitless. The natives guarded them at every step, and always sent runners before them, to give indication of their approach. Once, at a sudden turning of the road, the English officers met two women; but they instantly threw the baskets from their heads, and ran into the woods, in the utmost terror. It appears, however, that they are not thus scrupulous about being seen by their own countrymen; for by the help of a telescope, captain Hall saw them coming from the country with baskets on their heads, beating rice in wooden mortars, playing with dogs in the midst of a crowd of people, and washing clothes in the river, after the East India fashion, by dipping them in the stream, and then beating them on stones. Infants are carried across the hip, as in India. The natives were unwilling to speak of their women, and seemed distressed when questions were asked. One of them said they were regarded as inferior beings, and not allowed the use of fans, which are considered a great luxury in Loo Choo. But their treatment of the English boatswain's wife seemed to contradict this statement; for it was not only kind and indulgent in the extreme, but was tinged with something of respectful gallantry. On one occasion, a Loo Choo lady visited the boatswain's wife, when all the men were out of the way. She wore loose floating robes, with a girdle tied at the side, and had sandals on her feet. She was rather fair, with small dark eyes, and shining black hair, fastened in a knot on one side of the head. She seemed to be exceedingly timid. When captain Hall insisted upon knowing why the natives were afraid to let them walk into the village, one of the chiefs answered, in broken language : “Loo Choo woman see Ingeree man, Loo Choo woman cry !”—meaning, “If a Loo Choo woman should see an Englishman, she would cry.”

The manners and customs in Japan, and the occupations of different classes, are similar to those of China. In economy of time and labor they rival even the Chinese; and unlike them they are scrupulously meat in their habits. There is no end to

their rules for the ceremonials of behavior. They have whole volumes written to teach people how to drink a glass of water, how to give or receive a present, how to salute a superior, or an equal, &c. &c. Children, being early accustomed to habits of thoughtful industry and punctilious civility, appear like little old men and women, while they are yet infants. In this respect they resemble their neighbors of China, among whom the boisterous mirth of childhood is a thing almost unknown; perhaps the whole Celestial Empire does not furnish a genuine specimen of a romping girl, or a madcap, roguish boy. Implicit obedience to parents and superiors prevails in Japan, to as great an extent as in China. The houses in these islands are of simple construction, made of bamboo, with apartments divided by movable partitions. The wealthy have a good deal of painting, gilding, and rich japaming, about their walls and furniture. Their soft floor mats serve both for seats and tables, and chop-sticks of ivory or wood are used instead of knives and forks. They have metal mirrors with handles, to be used at the toilet. The fashion of their dress is the same for both sexes, and for all classes, from the monarch to the poorest subject; and they say it has remained unchanged for two thousand five hundred years. They wear long full robes, like night-gowns, with sleeves so wide that they almost reach the ground. These garments are cut round at the neck, without a collar, leaving the throat and a small portion of the neck uncovered. The women wear these robes so long that they trail on the ground. The garments are fastened at the waist with a sash, which the married tie in front, and the unmarried behind. Ladies of rank often have them made of variegated silk, interwoven with flowers of silver or gold. They sometimes wear thirty or forty at once; but they are of such delicate texture, that the whole do not weigh more than three or four pounds. Their shoes are made of rice straw. The Japanese complexion is yellow ; but women of distinction, being sheltered from the sun, are nearly as white as Europeans. They appear in public when they please, either attended by a servant with an umbrella, or rolled along in a sort of ornamented wheelbarrow, with an awning over it. Whether in doors or out, they always have fans in their hands. They have very black hair, broad snubby noses, and small oblong eyes, which appear to be constantly winking. All ranks and ages are remarkable for industry, and it is said the women are generally characterized by an exemplary observance of the domestic virtues. The em- . peror has but one wife, who is styled empress, but he has several mistresses, who form a part of the . royal household, though subordinate to her in rank.

When a husband accuses his wife of infidelity, and she asserts that she is guiltless, her oath is taken in writing, and laid on water ; if it swims she is esteemed innocent. This crime, like most others in Japan, is punished with death.

The men of the Aleutian or Fox islands are glad in times of scarcity to barter away a wife for a fish, or a leather bottle full of train-oil. Sometimes one woman lives with two husbands; and often leaves a second or third to return to the first with all her children. These islanders frequently exchange wives with each other, and have not the slightest idea of any dishonor connected with the insamy of their women. Under these circumstances, it is not wonderful that the females are destitute of modesty.

The men of the Fox islands wear frocks neatly made of the skins of birds, which look beautifully when the variegated feathers glisten in the sunshine. The women wear the more homely covering of the ice-bear, with the hairy side outward. They decorate these unwieldy robes with strips of leather, covered with beads, shells, or sea-parrots' bills. The wing-bones of the sea-mew furnish them with needles, and seals' nerves are used for thread. Rude as these implements are, their workmanship is exceedingly curious and delicate. The women tattoo themselves in such a manner, that they look as if they had mustaches.

The Ainos, or native inhabitants of the Kurile islands, are modest even to bashfulness. The men are very shy about allowing strangers to hold any communication with their wives and daughters. Their tattooed hands, swarthy faces, jet black hair hanging over their foreheads, and lips stained blue,

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