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came to pass, that John did both receive and inflict great da. mage and that easily, as he was fought against on both sides ; and the same advantage that Eleazar and his party had over him, since he was beneath them, the same advantage had he, by his higher situation, over Simon. On which account he easily repelled the attacks that were made from beneath, by the weapons thrown from their hands only ; but was obliged to repel those that threw their darts from the temple above him, by his engines of war ; for he had such engines as threw darts, and javelins, and stones, and that in no small number, by wbich he did not only defend himself from such as fought against him, but slew moreover many of the priests as they were about their sacred ministrations. For potwithstanding these men were mad with all sorts of impiety, yet did they still admit those that desired to offer their sacritices, although they took care to search the people of their own country beforehand, and both suspected and watched them; while they were not so much afraid of strangers, who, although they had gotten leave of them, how cruel soever they were, to come into that court, were yet often destroyed by this sedition ; for those darts that were thrown by the engines, came with that force that they went over all the buildings, and reached as far as the altar, and the temple itself, and fell upon the priests, and those* that were about the sacred offices; insomuch that many persons who came thither with great zeal from the ends of the earth to offer sacrifices at this celebrated place, which was esteemed holy by all mankind, fell down before their own sacrifices themselves, and sprinkled that altar which was venerable among, all men, both Greeks and Barbarians, with their own blood ; till the dead bodies of strangers were mingled together with those of their own country, and those of profane persons with those of the priests, and the blood of all sorts of dead carcasses stood in lakes in the holy courts themselves. And now, “O most wretched city, what misery so great as this didst thou suffer from the Romans, wben they came to purify thee from thy intestine hatred ? For thou couldst be no longer a place fit for God, nor couldst thou long continue in being, after thou hadst been a sepulchre for the bodies of thy own people, and hadst made the holy house itself a burying place in this civil war of thine. Yet mayst thou

* The Levites.

* This is an excellent reflection of Josephus, including his hopes of the restoration of the Jews upon their repentance. See Antiq. B.iv. ch. Vill. 146, vol. i. which is the grand Hope of Israel, as Manasseh ben Israel, the famous Jewish Rabbi, styles it, in his small, but remarkable treatise

again grow better, if perchance thou wilt hereafter appease the anger of that God who is the author of thy destruction.” But I must restrain myself from these passions by the rules of history, since this is not a proper time for domestical lamentations, but for historical narrations ; I therefore return to the operations that follow in this sedition.

4. And now there were three treacherous factions in the city, the one parted from the other. Eleazar and his party, that kept the sacred first-fruits, came against John in their cups. Those that were with John, plundered the populace, and went out with zeal against Simon. This Simon had his supply of provisions from the city in opposition to the seditious. When, therefore, John was assaulted on both sides, he made his men turn about, throwing his darts upon those citizens that came up against him from the cloisters he had in his possession, while he opposed those that attacked him from the temple, by his engines of war. And if at any time he was freed from those that were above him, which happened frequently, from their being drunk and tired, he sallied out with a great number upon Simon and his party; and this he did always in such parts of the city, as he could come at, till he set on fire those houses that were full of corn, * and of all other provisions. The same thing was done by Simon, when, upon the other's 'retreat, he attacked the city also ; as if they had on purpose done it to serve the Romans, by destroying what the city had laid up against the siege, and by thus cutting off the nerves of their own power. Accordingly, it so came to pass, that all the places that were about the temple were burnt down, and were become au intermediate desert space, ready for fighting on both sides of it; and that almost all that corn was burnt which would have been sufficient for a siege of many years. So they were taken by the means of the samine, which it was impossible they should have been, unless they had thus prepared the way for it by this procedure.

5. And now, as the city was engaged in a war on all sides, from these treacherous crowds of wicked men, the people of

on that subject, of which the Jewish prophets are every where full. See the principal of those prophecies collected together at the end of the essay on the Revelation, page 122, &c.

* This destruction of such a vast quantity of cord, and other provisions, as was sufficient for many years, was the direct occasion of that terrible famine, which consumed incredible numbers of Jews in Jerusalem during its siege. Nor probably could the Romans have taken this city, after all, had not these seditious Jews been so infatuated, as thus madly to destroy, what Josephus here justly etyles, " The nerves of their power."

the city between them were like a great body torn in pieces. The aged men and the women, were in such distress by their internal calamities, that they wished for the Romans, and earnestly hoped for an external war, in order to their delivery from their domestical miseries. The citizens themselves were under a terrible consternation and fear ; nor had they any opportunity of taking counsel, and of changing their conduct ; nor were there any hopes of coming to an agreement with their enemies ; nor could such as had a mind flee away; for guards were set at all places, and the heads of the robbers, although they were seditious one against another in other respects, yet did they agree in killing those that were for peace with the Romans, or were suspected of an inclination to desert to them, as their common enemies. They agreed in nothing but this, to kill those that were ipnocent. The noise also of those that were fighting was incessant both by day and by night; but the lamentation of those that mourned exceeded the other; nor was there ever any occasion for them to leave off their lamentations, because their calamities came perpetually, one upon another, although the deep consternation they were in, prevented their outward wailing; but being constrained by their fear to conceal their inward passions, they were inwardly tormented, without daring to open their lips in groans. Nor was any regard paid to those that were still alive by their relations ; nor was there any care taken of burial for those that were dead : the occasion of both which was this, that every one despaired of himself: for those that were not among the se. ditious had no great desires of any thing, as expecting for certain that they should very soon be destroyed ; but for the seditious themselves, they fought against each other while they trode upon the dead bodies as they lay heaped one upon another, and, taking up a mad rage from those dead bodies that were under their feet, became the fiercer thereupon. They moreover, were still inventing somewhat or other, that was pernicions against themselves ; and when they had resolved upon any thing, they executed it without mercy, and omitted no method of torment or of barbarity. Nay, John abused the sacred materials, * and employed them in the construction of his engines of war; for the people and the priests had formerly determined to support the temple, and raise the holy house twenty cubits higher ; for King

* This timber, we see, was designed for the rebuilding those twenty additional cubits of the holy house above the hundred which had fallen down some years before. . See the note on Antiq. B. XV. Ch. 1X. Som vol. iii.

Agrippa had, at a very great expense, and with very great pains, brought thitber such materials as were proper for that purpose, being pieces of timber very well worth seeing, both for their straightness and their largeness ; but the war coming on, and interrupting the work, Jobn had them cut, and prepared for the building him towers, he finding them long enough to oppose from them those his adversaries that fought him from the temple that was above him. \. He also had them brought and erected behind the inner court, over against the west end of the cloisters, where alone * he could erect them; whereas the other side of the court had so many steps, as would not let them come nigh enough to the cloisters.

6. Thus did John hope to be too hard for his enemies by these engines, constructed by his impiety ; but God himself demonstrated, that his pains would prove of no use to him, by bringing the Romans upon him before he had reared any of his towers ; for Titus, when he had gotten together part of his forces about him, and had ordered the rest to meet him at Jerusalem, marched out of Cæsarea. He had with him those three legions, that had accompanied his father when he laid Judea waste, together with that twelfth legion which had been formerly beaten with Cestius ; which legion, as it was otherwise remarkable for its valour, so did it march on now with greater alacrity to avenge themselves on the Jews, as remembering what they had formerly suffered from them. Of these legions he ordered the fifth to meet him, by going through Emmaus, and the tenth to go up by Jericho: he also moved himself together with the rest : besides which, marched those auxiliaries that came from the kings, being now more in number than before, together with a considerable number that came to his assistance from Syria. Those also that had been selected out of these four legions, and sent with Mucianus to Italy, had their places filled up out of those soldiers' that came out of Egypt with Titus ; which were two thousand men, chosen out of the armies at Alexandria. There followed him also, three thousand drawn from those that guarded the river Euphrates ; as also there came Tibe. rius Alexander, who was a friend of his, most raluable both for his good will to him, and for his prudence. He had for

* There being no gate on the west, and only on the west side of the court of the priests, and so no-steps there, this was the only side that the seditious, under this John of Gischala, could bring their engines close to the cloisters of that court eätú ways, though upon the floor of the court of Israel. See the scheme of that temple in the description of the temples hereto belonging.

merly been governor of Alexandria, but was now thought worthy to be general of the army [under Titus.] The reason of this was, that he had been the first, who encouraged Vespasian very lately to accept this his new dominion, and joined himself to him with great fidelity, when things were uncertain, and fortune had not yet declared for him. He also followed Titus as a counsellor, very useful to him in this war both by his age, and skill in such affairs.

CHAP. II. . How Titus marched to Jerusalem, and how he was in danger

as he was taking a view of the city. Of the places also where he pitched his camp.

8 1. Now, as Titus was upon his march into the enemies' country, the auxiliaries, that were sent by the kings, marched first, having all the other auxiliaries with them : after wbom followed those that were to prepare the roads and measure out the camp ; then came the commander's baggage, and after that the other soldiers, who were completely armed to support them; then came Titus himself, having with him another select body, and then came the pikemen, after wbom came the horse belonging to that legion. All these came before the engines ; and after these engines, came the tribunes and the leaders of the cohorts, with their select bodies ; after these came the ensigns with the eagle ; and before those ensigns came the trumpeters belonging to them; next these, came the main body of the army in their ranks, every rank being six deep; the servants belonging to every legion came after these ; and before these last their baggage ; the mercenaries came last, and those that guarded them brought up the rear. Now Titus, according to the Roman usage, went into the front of the army, after a decent manner, and marched through Samaria to Gophna, a city that had been formerly taken by his father, and was then garrisoned by the Roman soldiers : and, when he had lodged there one night, he marched on in the morning ; and, when he bad gone as far as a day's march, he pitched his camp at that valley which the Jews in their own tongue, call the valley of Thorns, near a certain village called Gabaothsaul, which signifies the Hill of Saul, being distant from Jerusalem about thirty furlongs. There it was that he chose out six hundred select horsemen, and went to take a view of the city, to observe what strength it was of, and how courageous the Jews were ; whether, when they saw him, and before they came to a

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