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powers to avoid ; it is therefore to be hoped this public admonition may have its due effect.
N. Art. 39. Appeals relating to the Tax on Servants; with the
Opinion of che Judges thereon. 8vo. 3$Cadell, &c. 1781.
Published by permition of the commissioners of Excise; 'ande useful to all who wish to become acquainted with the manier in which the commissioners for bearing appeals against be dury on Seros vents, and the judges who afirm or reverse the determinations of tbefe commisioners, have interpreted the act of parliament relative to this fubject, in a great variety of cases on which appeals from the charges. made by the surveyors have been founded. The book would have been itill more generally useful, if the Editor had given a propers abitract of the act in its own words.
Critical Enquiry into the different Methods of administering Mer-
This, like the Writer's former work, is composed of Mreds and patches, from which the informed Reader will learn no more, than thic Mr. Clare approves of the method of curing the gonorrhea at once by a vitriolic injection. With respect to his Crirical Enquiry, is is a very concise one indeed. Some cases are men:ioned of the fura ther success of his method of rubbing in mercury on the inside of the mouth; but, unluckily, motives of delicacy bave prevented ibeir being properly authenticated.
SERMONS. 1. The Incurable Abomination! or, God's afferring that Popery never
did, nor ever will alter for the better ; considered in a Sermon on Rev. ix. 20, 21. With an Appendix respecting the Duty of the Civil Magiltrate in Matters of Religion. By Thomas Reader, 8vo. 6d. Buckland. 1781.
This curious gentleman hath already exhibited himself to the PubJic as a spiritual almanac-maker ;--deep-learned in times and seafous ; together with all their figns and fore-tokens! Old LiųY never funk deeper into the PROFOUND of occult sciences: and our modern Wings never foared with so bold a flight to reach che lunar bonje! How astonishingly various mult the powers of that man be, who (as Pope says) is, * now in the moon --now under ground!”
Mr. Reader bath fixed his DATES with more cunning (if not with more certainty) than some other adventurers in this track of calcularion. The ten horns will not make the whore naked, and eat ber flese, and burn her with fire, till the year 1942! Thus Mr. Reader hath wisely contrived to be out of the way at the time.
The Appendix is purposely written to prove the right of the magiftrate's jocerterence in matters of religion : and the proof of this right is chiefly founded in the directions given in the Old Testament to the Kings of Israel to punilh idolatry. His argument, however, is not Sufficiently guarded for bis own security ; for, by the Mofaic Law,
wizards and necromancers, and all false prophets, are to be put to
Being the Substance of a Discourse preached at Eydon in North-
An amiable spirit of unaffected piety breathes through this plain
The ftern and untoward bigotry of Mr. Thomas Reader is admi.
To close this subject, we will transcribe a passage from a Pori.
Now, with chis good Doctor, we are of opinion that we need not wander far so meet with this incurable abomination :-che wbore, the beast, horns and all !
To the MONTHLY REVIEWERS. GENTLEMEN, READING, in your Review for June, fome extra&s from letters
and papers published by a member of the Bath Society for the Encouragement of Agriculture, I found, among other useful and important speculations, an enquiry into the nature, cause, and method of preventing and curing the rot in sheep. And this appearing to me to be an object of great national importance, I have taken op the pen, nor from an idea that I am capable of explaining, in a clear and satisfactory manner, the nature, and pointing out to the Public a certain remedy for a disease, which appears to be fo fatal to thofe very useful animals: but to rectify a very palpable error which that ingenious writer appears to have been led into. He imagines (as the most probable cause of the rot) the eggs of insects to be depofited among the blades of grass, with which they are swallowed by the theep, and, from their stomach and intestines, absorbed by the lacteals, and passed, with the chyle, into the fanguiferous system, and meet with no obstruction, until they arrive at the capillary vef. fels of the liver ;' where the writer fupposes them to be coo large to pass with the blood in circulation. Anatomy teaches us, that it is very improbable that the lacteal vessels of the intestines, should receive any substances which are not fit to pafs through every blood vessel in the body. Even admitting, for argoment's fake, that the lacteal vessels of the intestines do admit fubftances into the fanguiferous system, which are too coarse to pass through the minute capila lary vefiels, those rubliances would be no more liable to be obtructed in the liver, than in any other glandular or extreme parts of the body; where the capillary vessels are always found to be of equal minuteness with those in the liver. Insects, of a great variety of geDera, are found to be innumerable in the animal and vegetable worlds. The human species, particularly the younger fort, are free quently troobled with worms of different kinds: and, though they lometimes occasion troublesome complaints, it is very rare, if ever, we find them prove fatal. It is, therefore, extremely improbable, that the ova of insects, received with the food into the bodies of theep, are ever the cause of the rot. If there are not the cause of this disease, let us enquire what it may most probably be. As the liver is always remarkably affected in that disorder, the firft thing to be here considered, is the use of that viscus: and that is the very same in a theep, as in the human body; viz. to separate the bile or gall from the mass of blood. Now this bile is one of the most renacious and most acrid of all she animal juices. The tenacity of it will dispose it to fagnate in the small biliary veffels in the liver. Its acrimony (which will increase by ftagnation) will necessarily be the cause of inflammation, fuppu: ration, gangrene, and, laitly, a mortification in the liver. This is what frequently happens in the human liver. What is the cause of the bile obftructing more 3t one time than another ? Those who are most subject to biliary obstructions are of hot plethoric confitutions, or, in other words, are poflefied of too much blood, and that
too thick and rich ; and agreeable to this (if I am right), we find only far sheep are subject to the rot'. From shese, and many other concurring circumftances, it appears to me highly probable, that the rot is a disorder of the liver ; and that the principal cause of it is obItructed and inspiffated bile; and not insects conveyed thither by the food. It may therefore be called the deep's jaundice. As there are very few branches of useful knowledge with which I am. Jess acquainted than that of farming, breeding, and preferving sheep, I enforce this doctrine only, as i find it analogous to what actually takes place in the human body. As another proof that a superabundance of thick and rich blood is the remote cause of the rot in theep,, the above mentioned writer observes, that 'No ewe ever rots while She has a lamb by her side ;' the same writer here requefts the gentlemen of the faculty to determine, whether it is not probable that the impregnated ovuin paffes into the milk, and never arises at the liver, As the whole chyle, formed in the stomach and bowels, is conveyed into the venal system, and from thence to the heart, to circulate, with the blood, in common through all parts of the body: there can be no power in the animal system, that can convey those fupposed ova into the udders of the sheep, rather than into their lungs, kid. neys, or any other part of their bodies. I come now to confider a circumitance, which, I think, will explain that phenomenon on rae tional principles. It is simply this : When a ewe fuckies a lamb, the thereby consumes daily a considerable quantity of her blood (all that circulates in the arterial and venal fyllems may bear that name); she reft is thinner and poorer than at other times; consequently forms lefs and thinner bile; which, with the blood, readily passes through the liver. The Writer then submits two questions to the confideration of the gentlemen of the faculty. First, Why is the rot fatal to sheep, hares, and rabbits, and sometimes to calves, when cattle of greater bulk, which probably take the same food, e!cape uninjured? Besides your remark upon this question, it may be observed that the former have very little exercise, and drink little or no water to attenuate their blood: while the latter, though they feed upon herbage, drink a confiderable quantity of that attenuating wholefome Huid, and are subject to severe exercise. The second question propofed by the above mentioned writer, is the digestive matter in the ftomach of these, different from that of the others, and such as will turn the ova into a state of corruption; or rather, are not che fecretory ducts in the liver large enough to let them pass through, and be carried on in the usual current of the blood? This question I have, in effect, already answered. The writer farther observes, that it feems to be an acknowledged fact, that falt marshes never rot. Salt is pernicious to most insects ; common falt and water is a powerful expellent of worms bred in the human body. We are also presented with an instance of a “farmer having cured his whole lock of the
• This is a considerable mistaken lean Meep are equally subject to this distemper, and what is Ingular, if the saint be discovered in time, they may even be made far enough for the butcher before che diforder gets to any great height,
sot, by giving each Meep a handful of Spanish falt for five or fix mornings luccessively.' Common salt, however powerful in expelling worms from the stomach and bowels, bas, I believe, little effect on those fi.uared in the fubitance of the liver; therefore I cannot help hazarding an opinion, that sa't doth not become a remedy for the jot in theep. becaose it is pernicious to insects, but because it purges the sheep, and aitenuates their blood and juices, and thereby prevents obftruction in the vefie's of the liver, and disperses that which may be there already formed. That the rot in Theep is an hepatic dirorder, occafioned by obitructed, tenacious, acrid bile, I think farther appears from the observations which ynu have made on che liver of a rotten theep; viz. that when boiled it dissolves and forms a fedi. ment at the bottom of the vessel, resembling mud; this, in my opinion, clearly proves that the liver must be reduced, previous to the boiling, to a high degree of putrefaction. Therefore it seems highly probable, that any article, capable of opening bilious obstructivos in the liver, and tirely used, will prove effettual in curing the rot ia Meep. Whether a portion of soap, aloes, and pearl-athes, may not be given to advantage in this disorder, I leave to the confideration of thole who have better opportunity of examining the nature of that disease, which is so very fatal to those animals, who, in a great degree supply us with food and raiment.
If you, Gentlemen, think these curfory remarks worthy of a place at the end of your Review. I shall be glad to see them in ferred.
I am, GENTLEMEN,
Your moft obedient Servant, Grafton Street, Soho.
JOHN ROBERTS. A principal objection to the theory of this diftemper, which this ingenious Writer lays down, is, that the rot will be contracted in a night's time.
That the sor is a putrid disease, is very probable, and the remedies Mr. R. propofes, might in the early itages of the disorder be aitended with dearable effects.
The Reviewer, who has detained the foregoing important letter so long from the publick eye, offers only the truth by way of apology :- He was on a tour into the northern parts of the kingdom, where Mr. R.'s favour was transmitted to him ; and fince then it has been for some time misaid.
+++ A Correspondent, who figns himself “ Nimrod," informs us, that we were mistaken in our conjecture respeating the Author of • Thoughts on Hunting :" See Review for September last. Nimrod aflures us, that the Public are indebied for that performance to Peter Beckford, E.q; of Stapleton, Dorset shire, son of the late Julinis Beck. ford, Esg; and, he believes, the gentleman to whom Mr. Brydone addi essies his Letters. - wrong.-recomes po at the End
Two Letters have been received from “ A Cooltaat Reader and General Admirer of the M. Review,” which will be further astended to in our next.