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Genesis of the Civil War (1887); the book contains much concerning events at the end of 1860 and the beginning of 1861 found in no other single work. Two works supplementing Crawford's account are Alfred Roman, Military Operations of General Beauregard (2 vols., 1884); and Abner Doubleday (captain, later major-general), Reminiscences of Forts Sumter and Moultrie in 1860-1861 (1876).


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James D. Richardson, Messages and Papers of the Presidents (10 vols., 1896-1897); Albert Bushnell Hart, American History Told by Contemporaries (4 vols., 1897-1901), a valuable collection of papers and extracts; Thomas H. Benton, Thirty Years' View (2 vols., 1854-1856); Edward Stanwood, History of the Presidency (1898); Thomas Hudson McKee, National Conventions and Platforms of all Parties from 1789 to 1901 (4th ed., 1901). Frank Moore, Rebellion Record (1865), is divided into a "Diary of Events," made up from Runewspaper clippings, "Documents and Narratives, mors, Poetry," and "Incidents"; it is a "scrap book" of considerable value. Under this heading of documents may be placed also Appleton's Annual American Cyclopedia for 1861, a very valuable and accurate work; Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, R. U. Johnson and C. C. Buel, editors (4 vols., 1884-1887); Tribune Almanac (1859-1861), with much political information. Attention is called to the collection of Confederate MSS., generally known as the Pickett Papers, in the treasury department, Washington (tabulated in C. H. Van Tyne and W. G. Leland, Guide to the Archives of the Government of the United States in Washington), which include the correspondence of the Confederate government with its commissioners in Washington, March and April, 1861, and other important papers of the period.

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The views of the leaders of public opinion, and particularly of those of the South, are more fully expressed in the

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speeches in Congress than in any other documents. The Congressional Globe, expresses voluminously the sentiment of men in public life, and it was these who directed southern sentiment. It was different in the North, where the public men, in the main, followed in the rear of an anti-slavery sentiment nourished by societies, by a voluminous literature, and by the then potent lecture system. The House and Senate Journals, Executive Documents, Miscellaneous Documents, and Reports of Committees for 1859-1861, need to be referred to; these are best reached through Tables and Annotated Index to the Congressional Series of United States Public Documents (1902), prepared in the office of the superintendent of documents; and Ben Perley Poore, Descriptive Catalogue of the Government Publications of the United States, September 5, 1774-March 4, 1881 (1885).

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Of the official publications covering the months November, 1860-April, 1861, the most valuable are the extensive publications of the war department, entitled War of the Rebellion, Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (130 vols., 1880-1902), and of the navy department, Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion (20 vols., 1894-1905); Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861–1865 (Senate Documents, 58 Cong., 2 Sess., No. 234).


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Second only to the official publications are Niles' Register (1811-1849), a weekly of high order, published in Baltimore, without which the student of the history of the period would be distinctly poorer; and the National Intelligencer, a Washington daily. Both of these papers took more pains to print contemporary documents than the ordinary newspapers. De Bow's Review (New Orleans and Washington, a monthly established in 1846) gives the fullest expression of southern views in a literary form, notably in the crisis of 1859-1860; besides important political contributions, particularly upon the proposed reopening of the African slave

trade, it contains valuable data of southern agriculture, commerce, and conditions. Harper's Weekly, 1859-1861, contains a valuable summary of events; The North American Review, The Atlantic Monthly (then under the editorship of Lowell), and Harper's Magazine contain important articles on the subject of secession, scattered throughout the period from 1859 to the present, as does also The Century, established in 1881. The newspaper files of most libraries are very defective in those of the period treated; those in the Library of Congress are the most valuable and complete. The more powerful journals of 1859-1861 were the National Intelligencer; New York Tribune; New York Times; New York Evening Post; Boston Advertiser; Albany Evening Journal, of which Thurlow Weed was editor, and which was largely Seward's organ; Chicago Tribune; Philadelphia North American; Baltimore American (unionist); Richmond Enquirer (secessionist); Charleston Mercury (rabidly secessionist); Washington Union (Mr. Buchanan's organ, until it became so violently secessionist that he parted from it). A large number of the weekly papers of the South published in the country towns are of much value as giving truer views of popular opinion than the papers in the cities; the Edgefield (South Carolina) Advertiser may be mentioned as typical of the class.


Daniel Webster, Works (6 vols., 1851); Abraham Lincoln, Complete Works (edited by John G. Nicolay and John Hay, 2 vols., 1904); Lincoln-Douglas Debates (reissued 1899); and William H. Seward, Works (edited by G. E. Baker, 5 vols., 1853-1884), cover more fully than anything else, or than all else, the northern view of the constitutional questions involved in the great divergence of the sections. The three notable contributions of southerners to the constitutional aspect of the question are John C. Calhoun, Works (edited by Richard K. Crallé, 6 vols., 1851-1855); Alexander H. Stephens, War between the States

(2 vols., 1867); and Jefferson Davis, Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (2 vols., 1881). The work of Stephens is the ablest exposition of the southern view yet made, and is fair and temperate in tone. The small book of J. L. M. Curry, The Southern States considered in their Relations to the Constitution of the United States and to the Resulting Union (1894), is the work of one who took a prominent part in the secession movement and was later in the diplomatic service of the United States; it deals with the subject with fairness and ability. James H. Hammond, Letters and Speeches (1866), and Thomas L. Clingman, Writings and Speeches (1877), are important from the southern side.

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James Buchanan, Mr. Buchanan's Administration on the Eve of the Rebellion (1866) and Autobiography of William H. Seward (edited by Frederick W. Seward, 1877), both of value; Gideon Welles (secretary of the navy), Lincoln and Seward, Remarks upon Memorial Address of Charles Francis Adams upon William H. Seward, of historical importance, as are Welles's articles, "The Election and Administration of Abraham Lincoln," in the Galaxy magazine (XXII., XXIII., 1877); Winfield Scott, Autobiography of LieutenantGeneral Scott (2 vols., 1864), a work of little value through omissions and inaccuracies; John Sherman, Recollections of Forty Years (2 vols., 1895); Thurlow Weed, Autobiography (edited by his daughter, Harriet A. Weed, 1884); George W. Julian, Political Recollections (1884); James G. Blaine, Twenty Years in Congress (2 vols., 1884), the first half of the first volume of which gives a fair and readable review of events leading to secession; A. K. McClure, Lincoln and Men of War Times (2d ed., 1892), a book of personal recollections of considerable value; A. G. Riddle, Recollections of War Times (1895), by a member of Congress; Donn Piatt, Memories of Men who Saved the Union (1887), by a journalist; John W. Forney, Anecdotes of Public Men (1873), by a journalist.

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From the side of the southerners there are Reuben Davis, Recollections of Mississippi and Mississippians (1900), a straightforward, honest book; (Bishop) Richard W. Wilmer, The Recent Past from a Southern Standpoint (1900); (Mrs.) Victoria V. Clayton, White and Black under the Old Régime (1899), an excellent little book, describing the life and events of the period with great fairness and frankness; (Mrs.) Roger A. Pryor, Reminiscences of Peace and War (1904); Moncure D. Conway, Autobiography (2 vols., 1904), interesting as giving the views of the one prominent Virginian allied with the New England transcendentalists.


John G. Nicolay and John Hay, Abraham Lincoln, a History (10 vols., 1890), a work of highest value in connection with the Civil War, through the intimate knowledge which came to the authors as Lincoln's private secretaries; John G. Nicolay, Abraham Lincoln (1902), a condensation of the preceding work and an inspiring volume; Ward H. Lamon, Life of Abraham Lincoln (1872), of value as being by a former law partner. For the many other lives of Lincoln, see G. T. Ritchie, Lincolniana, cited above. George Ticknor Curtis, James Buchanan (2 vols., 1883); this and Buchanan's Administration, admirable in many ways as they are, are the works of lawyers and have the defect of dealing with the great events of the eve of secession and with secession itself from the strictly legal stand-point, rocognizing in too slight a degree the overpowering psychical causes; they are really apologiae for a great failure to measure the men and movements of the time. Frederick Bancroft, Life of William H. Seward (2 vols., 1900); Frederick W. Seward, Seward at Washington. (2 vols., 1891); (Mrs.) Chapman Coleman, Life of John J. Crittenden (2 vols., 1871), a valuable book, but far from being as complete as it should be; Thurlow Weed Barnes, Life of Thurlow Weed (1884), being the second volume of a work of which the first is the Autobiography already quoted; Albert Bushnell Hart,

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