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Salmon Portland Chase (1899); George C. Gorham, Life of Edwin M. Stanton (2 vols., 1899); Robert C. Winthrop, Jr., Memoir of Robert C. Winthrop (1897); Morgan Dix, Memoirs of John Adams Dix (2 vols., 1883); William Salter, Life of James W. Grimes (1876); James Russell Soley, Admiral Porter (1903); Thomas Sergeant Perry, Life and Letters of Francis Lieber (1882); Chauncey F. Black, Essays and Speeches of Jeremiah S. Black, with a Biographical Sketch (1885).

Of southerners, Frank H. Alfriend, Life of Jefferson Davis, (1868); Richard Malcolm Johnston and William Hand Browne, Life of Alexander H. Stephens, (1878), a very valuable book, inasmuch as it gives the views of the sanest and wisest of the southern men in political life regarding the events of these years; John Witherspoon Du Bose, Life and Times of William Lowndes Yancey (1896); Barton H. Wise, Life of Henry A. Wise (1899); Henry A. Wise, Seven Decades of the Union, a Memoir of John Tyler (1881), a work of moderate value; Lyon G. Tyler, Letters and Times of the Tylers (2 vols., 1885).


The John Brown episode has occasioned a voluminous literature, most of which is of northern origin and of extreme partisan character. The chief authorities are the report of the Mason Senate Committee (Senate Reports, 36 Cong., 1 Sess., No. 278); Frank B. Sanborn, Life and Letters of John Brown (1891); Richard J. Hinton, John Brown and his Men (1894); James Redpath, Public Life of Captain John Brown (1860); Hermann E. von Holst, John Brown (1888). These last four are excessively laudatory and treat the subject as one of martyrdom. F. B. Sanborn published in the Atlantic Monthly (XXXV., 1875) a series of articles which are practically embodied in his work just mentioned. Others bearing on the subject are: Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Gerrit Smith (1878); Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Theodore Parker (1864). Two offsets to the

extreme laudation of Brown are Eli Thayer, The Kansas Crusade (1889), and Charles Robinson, The Kansas Conflict (1892). Other less important works bearing upon the character of Brown are named in connection with the subject of Kansas in Theodore C. Smith, Parties and Slavery (Am. Nation, XVIII.), chap. xxi. Two small books, Osborne P. Anderson (one of Brown's party at Harper's Ferry), A Voice from Harper's Ferry (1861), and Theodore Parker, Letter of Francis Jackson reviewing John Brown's Expedition (1860), have some slight value as side-lights upon the episode.


The basic information is, of course, contained in the Census Reports of the United States. The general economic conditions of the South before the war are most excellently depicted in the very valuable works of Frederick Law Olmsted, Seaboard Slave States (1856, new ed. 1904), A Journey through Texas (1857), A Journey in the Back Country (1860, a new ed. 1907), and a condensation of these three published as The Cotton Kingdom (2 vols., 1861). These and James D. B. De Bow, The Industrial Resources of the Southern and Western States (3 vols., 1852-1853), and De Bow's Review, passim, contain information of great value upon southern life and conditions. J. C. Ballagh, Southern Economic History; Tariff and Public Lands (Am. Hist. Assoc., Report, 1898); and Samuel Davis, Some of the Consequences of the Louisiana Purchase (Ibid., 1897), are of value. Attention is called to additional lists of works upon the South in Albert Bushnell Hart, Slavery and Abolition (Am. Nation, XVI.), chaps. iv., xxii., and Theodore C. Smith, Parties and Slavery (Am. Nation, XVIII.), chap. xxi.


Besides the discussion in J. F. Rhodes, United States, James Schouler, United States, Nicolay and Hay, Abraham Lincoln, J. W. Draper, Civil War, and other good second

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ary books, there is a body of first-hand materials. Some of
the most significant are: William H. Russell (correspond-
ent of the London Times), My Diary North and South
(1863); Adam Gurowski (an on-looker in Washington),
Diary from March 4, 1861, to November 12, 1862 (1862); J. S.
Pike, First Blows of the Civil War (1879); Abner Double-
day, Reminiscences of Forts Sumter and Moultrie (1876),
and Samuel W. Crawford, Genesis of the Civil War (1887),
two books by participants; Thomas S. Goodwin, Natural
History of Slavery (1864), strongly anti-slavery; Richard
Grant White, New Gospel of Peace (1862 and later eds.), a
clever satire.

Southern views in William C. Fowler, Sectional Controversy (1865), strongly pro-slavery; and the controversial books of James Buchanan, Jefferson Davis, and Alexander H. Stephens.


The diplomacy of 1859-1860 affecting the questions involved in the on-coming war relates almost entirely to Mexico, Cuba, and Central America, which were regarded as fields for slavery extension. The desire and the attempt for a more intimate political relation with these regions, or for actual annexation, were a marked feature of the situation. Reference should be made to the list under this heading in Smith, Parties and Slavery (Am. Nation, XVIII.), chap. xxi. Particular mention, however, should be made of John H. Latané, The Diplomacy of the United States in regard to Cuba (Am. Hist. Assoc., Report, 1897); John H. Latané, Diplomatic Relations of the United States and Spanish America (1900); William Walker, "General Walker's Policy in Central America," in De Bow's Review, XXVIII. (February, 1860); William C. Scroggs, "Walker and the Steamship Company," in American Historical Review, X. (July, 1905); Howard L. Wilson, "Buchanan's Proposed Intervention in Mexico,” in American Historical Review, V. (July, 1900).

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ABOLITIONISTS, basis of success,

55; apogee, 56; and other
isms, 56; publications ex-
cluded from mail, 57; wel-
come secession, 165.
Adams, C. F., in Congress, 90;
and compromise, 178, 179.
Adams, H. A., and Fort Pick-

ens, 319.

Adams, J. H., conference on

secession, 136; South Caro-
lina commissioner, 205; de-
mand for the forts, 213-215;
Buchanan's reply, 210-218;
rejoinder, 218.
Agriculture, southern small
farms, 27; low value of slave
labor, 27.
Alabama, preparation for seces-
sion, 144; growing Unionism,
144; Yancey's attitude, 145;
convention, 145; secession,

Alston, Charles, and surrender
of Sumter, 339.
Amendments, Buchanan's sug-
gestions, 163; Crittenden
proposed, 170; proposed, to
guarantee slavery in states,
173, 178-180, 286.
Anderson, Robert, commands
Charleston forts, 192; fit-
ness, 194; urges reinforce-
ment and occupation of
Pinckney and Sumter, 194-
196; and state enrolment of
fort laborers, 197; instruc-

VOL. XIX.-23

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tions to, 198-200; prepará-
tions for removal to Sumter,
206; removal accomplished,
206-210; refuses to return,
210; Black on, 217; Buchan-
an on, 218; northern aproval,
220; and Star of the West,
226-229, 233; despatches to
Washington, 234; promised
support, 234; unfortunate
statement of confidence, 234,
290; and demand for surren-
der (Jan.), 239; truce, 239,
240; and Confederate prep-
arations, 261; defensive in-
structions repeated, 281; re-
ports scarcity of provisions,
290; recognizes his respon-
sibility for conditions, 290;
belief in success of seces-
sion, 291; and Fox's plan,
304, 325; and Lamon's un-
authorized statements, 305;
and Beauregard, 321; fears
he has been abandoned, 323,
324; informed of Fox expe-
dition, 324; isolated, 324:
on the expected attack, 326;
refuses to evacuate, 330; re-
mark on being starved out,
330; offer on evacuation
refused, 331; bombardment,
334-338; surrenders, 338-340.
Appropriations, Confederate
constitution on, 257.
Arkansas, Unionists control
convention, 268.

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Arms seized by secessionists, | Biographies of period 1859-

1861, 348–350.


Army, condition before Civil
War, 164; first call for
militia, 340.
Arsenals seized by secessionists,

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convention, 113.
Beauregard, P. G. T., Confed-
erate command at Charles-
ton, 260; urges policy of
delay, 261; and pledge from
Anderson, 321; reports readi-
ness to attack, 324; consulta-
tion with Pickens, 327; and
order to attack, 329; de-
mands evacuation, 330; and

Black, J. S., and secession, 151;
and reinforcement of forts,
153, 154; opinion on collect-
ing revenue and defending
Federal property, 159, 160;
on coercion and enforcement
of laws, 160; and removal to
Sumter, 213, 217; and reply
to commissioners, 215-217;
advises relief of Sumter, 217;
memorandum on relief, 235,
236; Scott's reply, 237; bib-
liography, 350.

Blair, F. P., Sr., and relief of
Sumter, 295.

Blair, Montgomery, selected for
postmaster-general, 281; and
relief of Sumter, 293-295, 306.
Blockade, importance, 188.
Border states, conflicting senti-
ments, 4, 274; decrease of
slavery, 22; slave-trade, 35;
importance of attitude, 265;
conventions, 267, 268. See
also states by name.
Boteler, A. R., committee of
thirty-three, 166.

Brown, 82.

Anderson's offer, 331; bom-Botts, Lawson, defends John
bardment, 334-338; terms of
surrender, 339.
Beckham, Fontaine, killed in
John Brown's raid, 80.
Bell, John, nominated for presi-
dent, 114; offers to with-
draw, 128; popular and elec-
toral vote for, 132.
Benjamin, J. P., in Senate, 90;
and Lincoln (1860), 121;
manifesto of southern con-
gressmen, 242; Confederate
attorney-general, 256.
Bibliographies of period 1859-

Bragg, Braxton, and Pensacola
expedition, 318.
Breckinridge, J. C., nominated
for president, 116; offers to
withdraw, 128; popular and
electoral vote for, 132; ex-
pected election by House,
134; on South and com-
promise, 175.
Brooklyn, and relief of Sumter,

217, 223-225, 231-233; sent
to Pensacola, 249, 250, 319.
Brown, A. G., on desire for more

slave territory, 167; mani-
festo of southern congress-
men, 242.

Brown, Harvey, Pensacola ex-
pedition, 317-319.

1861, 343:
Bingham, K. S., and Peace Con-
vention, 273.
Binney, Horace, on Calhoun's
social ideals, 41.

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