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us of the Homeric battles. The qualities de manded of a military chieftain were just such as the Iliad celebrates in its heroes---personal strength, activity, and courage, skill in all athletic exercises, and ability to endure the hardships and brave the perils of a soldier's life, were deemed even more essential than that strategic skill which now constitutes the great and almost sole excellence of a commander. When we come to speak of the personal history of Charlemagne, we shall find abundant proofs of his possession of these qualities in an extraordinary degree.

The following statistical table, extracted from Guizot's History of Civilization in France, will give an idea of the number and frequency of his campaigns :

TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL EXPEDITIONS OF

CHARLEMAGNE.

No. Date.

Enemies.

Observations.

1 2 3

5 .6 7 8

769 Against the Aquitani He goes to the Dordogne. 772

the Saxons He goes beyond the Weser,
773
the Lombards He goes to Pavia and

Verona.
774
Idem

He takes Payia and visits

Rome. 774

the Saxons 775

Idem 776

the Lombards He goes to Treviso. 776 the Saxons He goes to the sources of

the Lippe. 778

the Arabs in | He goes to Saragossa.

Spain
778

the Saxons
779
Idem

He goes to Osnabruck.
780
Idem

He goes to the Elbe.
782
Idem

He goes to the confluence

of the Weser and Aller.

9

10 11 12 13

EXPEDITIONS OF CHARLEMAGNE (continued.)

No. Date.

Enemies.

Observations.

23

783 Against the Saxons He goes to the Elbe. 15 78+ Idem

He goes to the Saal and

the Elbe. 16 785 Idem

He goes to the Elbe. 17 785

the Thurin

gians 18 786

the Bretons 19 787

the Lombards He goes to Capua. 20 787

the Bavarians He goes to Augsburg. 21 788

the Huns or He goes to Ratisbon.

Avars 22 789

the Sclaves He goes between the Elbe 791 the Huns

and the Oder. He goes to the confluence

of the Danube and the 24 794 the Saxons

Raab. 25 795

Idem 26 796

Idem 27 796 the Huns

Under the orders of his

son Louis. 28 796 the Arabs Under the orders of his

son Pepin. 29 797 the Saxons He goes to the Weser and

Elbe. 30 797

the Arabs By his son Louis. 31 798

the Saxons He goes beyond the Elbe. 32 801 the Lombards By his son Pepin to

Chieti. 33 801

the Arabs of By his son Louis to BarSpain

celona. 34 802 the Saxons By his sons beyond the

Elbe. 35 804 Idem

He goes beyond the Elbe. 36 805

the Sclayes By his son Charles. 37 806 Idem

By his son Charles. 38 806

the Saracens By his son Pepin.

of Corsica 39 806

the Arabs of By his son Louis.

Spain 10 807

the Saracens By his generals.

of Corsica 41 807

the Arabs of Idem.

Spain 12 808

the Danes and

Northmen

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An analysis of this list gives the following results :

31

Against the barbarous tribes settled in central Europe,

including Saxons, Huns, Avars, Sclaves, and Danes Against the Mohammedans of Spain, Italy, and the

Mediterranean.
Against the Lombards
Against the Bretons and Aquitani
Against the Greeks

12 5 3

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From this list are omitted various unimportant expeditions incidentally alluded to, but of which no distinct record remains; and those numerous intestine strifes among the Franks themselves, when the monarch had to repress anarchy, to punish disobedience, or to crush insurrection ; * Guizot's Lectures on the History of Civilization in

France. Twentieth Lecture.

yet we must bear these in mind if we would adequately estimate the ceaseless activity and indomitable energy of Charlemagne.

The characteristic peculiarities of the wars of Charlemagne become evident as we thus present the record in a tabulated form. They were not mere feuds, carried on by tribe against tribe, as the contests of his predecessors had been ; nor were they waged by nation against nation from motives of personal ambition and aggrandizement. They were, for the most part, directed against those hordes who had effected a settlement in the heart of Europe, who still continued as barbarous as their ancestors, and who, like them, were ready at any moment to pour down upon the more settled and peaceful districts, and in a moment undo all that had been done toward the establishment of civilization and order. They were virtually defensive wars, waged for the protection of the inseparably associated interests of civilization and Christianity, against the inroads of Mohammedan fanaticism on the one hand, and pagan barbarism on the other.

This fact, together with the small advances in civilization which even the conquerors had made, form the best apology which can be offered for the long and bloody campaigns in which Charlemagne was incessantly engaged.

Whilst the Christian historian cannot but abhor the spirit and condeinn the practice of war, yet candour compels us to confess that in manifold instances this terrible evil has been

made to work out good results. God has made even the wrath of man to praise him, and the remainder of that wrath he has restrained. Thus the wars of Charlemagne, though bloody in their course, and disastrous in their immediate influence, did yet, under God's overruling providence, work out the following beneficial results for Europe.

1. They at once and permanently prevented any further barbarian inroad. Up to the time of Charlemagne, on the outskirts of the old Roman empire, and even within its boundaries, were vast wandering hordes of barbarians, only waiting some opportunity to follow in the path marked out by their ancestors, and precipitate themselves like an avalanche on the peaceful and settled provinces. Charlemagne, by his victories, erected a barrier against any future inroads. He compelled the Arabs, the Saxons, the Huns, and the Lombards, to remain within their own limits, and attempt no more expeditions into the territories of their peaceful neighbours. He thus gave to the nations of Europe those two grand requisites to all progresspeace and security.

2. The victories of Charlemagne compelled the conquered barbarians themselves to cultivate the arts of peace. They had previously held all industrial pursuits in contempt. They lived solely for war and the chase. But when forced to abandon their predatory habits, and remain quietly within their own boundaries, they began to devote themselves to the pursuits

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