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in concert with their enemies : whereas they ought, notwitstanding God did not grant them a lasting concord, in their present circumstances, to lay aside their enmities one against another, and to unite together against the Romans.* Accordingly Simon gave those that came from the temple leave, by proclamation, to go upon the wall. John also himself, though he could not believe that Simon was in earnest, gave them the same leave. So on both sides, they laid aside their batred, and their peculiar quarrels, and formed themselves into one body. They then ran round the walls : and having a vast number of torches with them, they threw them at the machines, and shot darts perpetually upon those that impelled those engines which battered the wall. Nay, the bolder sort leaped out by troops upon the hurdles that covered the machines, and pulled them to pieces, and fell upon those that belonged to them, and beat them: not so much by any skill they had, as, principally, by the boldness of their attacks. However, Titus himself still sent assistance to those that were the hardest set; and placed both borsemen and archers on the several sides of the engines, and thereby beat off those that brought the fire to them. He also thereby repelled those that shot stones or darts from the towers, and then set the engines to work in good earnest. Yet did not the wall yield to these blows; excepting where the battering ram of the fifteenth legion moved the corner of a tower; while the wall itself continued unhurt. For the wall was not presently in the same danger with the tower; which was extant far above it. Nor could the fall of that part of the tower easily break down any part of the wall itself together with it.

Aud now the Jews intermitted their sallies for a while. But when they observed the Romans dispersed all abroad at their works, and in their several camps; (for they thought the Jews had retired out of weariness and fear ;) these all at once made a sally, at the tower Hippicus, through an obscure gate ; and at the same time brought fire to bury the works; and went boldly up

* Their internal dissensions were as ruinous to them, or even more so, than the assaults of their foes from without. As neither policy nor interest could induce them to preserve or restrain harmony, this discordant spirit was evidently permitteil to reign among them for their destruction. B.

to the Romans, and to their very fortifications themselves : wbere, at the cry they made, those that were near came presently to their assistance; and those farther off came running after them : and here the boldness of the Jews was too hard for the good order of the Romans. And as they beat those whom they first met with, so they pressed upon those that were now gotten together. So this fight about the machines was very hot ; wbile the one side tried hard to set them on fire, and the other side to prevent it; on both sides there was a confused cry made, and many of those in the forefront of the battle were slain. However, the Jews were now too hard for the Romans, by the furious assaults they made, like madmen; and the fire caught hold of the works : and both all those works, and the engines themselves, had been in danger of being burnt, had not many of those select soldiers that came from Alexandria opposed themselves to prevent it : and had they not behaved with greater courage than they themselves supposed they could have done. For they outdid those in this fight that had greater reputation than themselves before. This was the state of things till Cæsar took the stoutest of his horsemen, and attacked the enemy. When he himself slew twelve of those that were in the forefront of the Jews. Which death of these men, when the rest of the multitude saw, they gave way, and he pursued them, and drove them all into the city, and saved the works from the fire. Now it happened at this fight, that a certain Jew was taken alive ; who by Titus's order was crucified before the wall : to see whether the rest of them would be affrighted, and abate of their obstinacy. But after the Jews were retired, John, who was commander of the Idumeans, and was talking to a certain soldier of his acquaintance before the wall, was wounded by a dart, shot at him by an Arabian, and died immediately : leaving the greatest lamentation to the Jews, and sorrow to the seditious. For he was a man of great eminence, both for his actions and his conduct.

CHAP. VII.

ONE OF THE TOWERS ERECTED BY THE ROMANS FALLS DOWN OF

ITS OWN ACCORD; AND THE ROMANS, AFTER GREAT SLAUGHTER, GET POSSESSION OF THE FIRST WALL.-TITUS MAKES HIS ASSAULTS UPON THE SECOND WALL.-ALSO CONCERNING LONGINUS THE ROMAN, AND CASTOR THE JEW.

NOW on the next night, a surprising disturbance happened among the Romans. For whereas Titus had given orders for the erection of three towers, of fifty cubits high ; that by setting men upon them at every bank he might from thence drive those away who were upon the wall; it happened, that one of these towers fell down about midnight. And as its fall made a very great noise, fear fell upon the army; and they, supposing that the enemy was coming to attack.them, ran all to their arms. Whereupon a disturbance and tumult arose among the legions. And as nobody could tell what had happened, they went on after a disconsolate manner; and seeing no eneiny appeared, they were afraid one of another : and every one demanded of his neighbour the watch-word, with great earnestness: as though the Jews had invaded their camp. And now were they like people under a panic fear, till Titus was informed of what had happened, and gave orders that all should be acquainted with it. And then, though with some difficulty, they got clear of the disturbance they had been under.

Now these towers were very troublesome to the Jews, who otherwise opposed the Romans very courageously. For they shot at them out of their lighter engines from those towers; as they did also by those that threw darts, and the archers, and those that flung stones. For the Jews could not reach those that were over them, by reason of their height; and it was not practicable to take them, nor to overturn them, they were so heavy; nor to set them on fire, because they were covered with plates of iron. So they retired out of the reach of the darts, and did no longer endeavour to binder the impressions of their rams; which, by con

tinually beating upon the wall, did gradually prevail against it. So that the wall already gave way to the *Nico, for by that name did the Jews themselves call the greatest of their engines, because it conquered all things. And now they were for a long while grown weary of fighting, and of keeping guards; and were retired to lodge on the night times at a distance from the wall.— It was on other accounts also thought by them to be superfluous 10 guard the wall; there being besides that two other fortifications still remaining : and they being slothful, and their counsels having been ill concerted on all occasions. So a great many grew indolent and retired. Then the Romans mounted the breach, where Nico had made one ; and all the Jews left the guarding that wall, and retreated to the second : so those that had gotten over that wall opened the gates, and received all the army within. And thus did the Romans get possession of this first wall, on the fifteenth day of the siege: which was the seventh day of the month Artemisius, or Jyar, when they demolished a great part of it; as well as of the northern parts of the city, which had been demolished alsot by Cestius on a former occasion.

And now Titus pitched his camp within the city, at that place which was called the camp of the Assyrians: having seized upon all that lay as far as Cedron; but took care to be out of the reach of the Jews' darts : he then presently began his attacks : upon which the Jews divided themselves into several bodies, and courageously defended that wall. While John and his faction did it from the tower of Antonia, and from the northern cloister of the temple; and fought the Romans before the monument of kingAlexander : and Simon's army also took for their share the spot of ground that was near John's monument, and fortified it, as far as to that gate where water was brought into the tower Hippicus. However, the Jews made violent sallies, and that frequently, and in bodies together, out of the gates, and there fought the Romans. And when they were pursued all together to the wall, they were beaten in those fights, as wanting the skill of the Romans. But when they fought them from the walls, they were too hard for them : the Romans being encouraged by their power, joined to their skill: as were the Jews by their boldness, which was nourished by the fear they were in, and that bardiness which is natural to our nation under calamities. They were also encouraged still by the hope of deliverance; as were the Romans by their hopes of subduing them in a little time. Nor did either side grow weary. But attacks and fightings upon the wall, and perpetual sallies in bodies, were there all the day long. Nor were there any sort of warlike engagements that were not then put in use. And the night itself was scarcely sufficient to part them; when they began to fight in the morning. Nay, the night was passed without sleep on both sides, and was more uneasy than the day to them. While the one was afraid lest the wall should be taken ; and the other lest the Jews should make sallies upon their camps. Both sides also lay in their armour during the night time; and thereby were ready at the first appearance of light to go to the battle. Now among the Jews the ambition was who should undergo the first dangers, and thereby gratify their commanders. Above all they had a great veneration and dread of Simon; and to that degree was he regarded by every one of those that were under him, that at his command they were ready to kill themselves with their own hands. What made the Romans so courageous was their usual custom of conquering, and disuse of being defeated, their constant wars, and perpetual warlike exercises, and the grandeur of their dominion. And what was now their chief encouragement, Titus, who was present every where with them all. For it appeared a terrible thing to grow weary while Cæsar was there : and fought bravely as well as they did, and was bimself at once an eyewitness of such as behaved themselves valiantly, and he who was to reward them also. It was besides esteemed an advantage at present to have any one's valour known by Cæsar. On which account many of them appeared to have more alacrity than strength to answer it. And now as the Jews were about this time standing in array before the wall, and that in a strong body; and while both parties were throwing their darts at each other, Longinus, one of the equestrian order, leaped into the very midst of the army of the Jews. And as they dispersed

* The conqueror. + See Book II. chap. 19.

See the note on Chap. !

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